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Sokhti hujayravii pahnaki barg

Tavassuti mikroskop shinosoi ba sokhti dokhilii pahnaki barg imkoniyat medihad, ki mavqe va ahamiyati onhoro dar hayoti rastanihoi sabz muayyan kunem.

Mushohidaho nishon medihand, ki pahnaki barg az hujayrahoi shaklu andozaashon gunogun iborat buda, sokhti hujayravi dorad .

hujaRuy va poyoni barg bo pusti tunuku shaffof pushida shudaast, ki hujayrahoi onho dar yakjoyagi bargro az khushkshavi va osebbini muhofizat mekunand. Pust yake az namudhoi boftai ruypushi rastaniho ba hisob meravad.

Dar bayni hujayrahoi berangu shaffofi pust hujayrahoi juft-juft joygirshuda hastand, ki dar sitoplazma- ashon plasgidhoi sabz khloroplastho mavjud ast. Ba tufayli in plastidho (iigmengi khlorofill dorand) hujay- rahoi barg va inchunin khudi barg rangi sabz dorad M. Dar bayni hujayrahoi juft-juft joygirshuda surokhy yo rog dida meshavad, ki onro javfi baynikhujayravi menomaad. Bo vositai rogi baynihujayravy ba barg havo dokhil meshavadva inchunin ravandi obbukhorkuni amali megardad. In roghoro bo ibo- rai digar masoma niz menomand.

Dar aksariyati rastaniho masoma faqat dar pusti poyonii pahnaki barg dida meshavad. Dar baze rastaniho, masalan, karam gar pusti rui bargash niz masoma mavjud ast yo dar baze rastanikhoi galladonagi, ki barghoi mutavozi joygirshuda dorand, masomakho dar har du tarafi barg dida meshavand. Dar rastanihoe, ki bargashon dar sathi rui ob qaror dorad (masalan, nilufar) masoia faqat dar rui bargashon vomekhurad. Dar rastanihoi dar dokhili ob zindagikunanda umuman masoma dida nameshavad. Adadi masoma dar barg khele ziyod ast. Masalan, 1 mm2-i bargi oftobparast 220 masoma va 1 mm2-i bargi fark boshad 550 masoma dorad.

Dar zeri pust magzi barg joygir buda, on az boftai asosi iborat ast. Magzi barg odatan az yakchand qabati hujayraho iborat ast. Du-se qabati hujayrahoi on bevosita ba pusti rui barg payvast ast. Hujayrahoi ba yakdigar zich joygirshudai on taqriban andozai yakkhela doshta, shaklashon darozruyai sutunmonand meboshad. Dar hujayrahoi in qabatho mikdori khloroplastho ziyod ast. Boftai asosii chunin shakldoshtaro boftai sutunmonand meguyand.

Hujayrahoi khele darozruya joygiriftai devorashon gafs – lifkho ba barg mustahkami yo ustuvori mebakhshand. Tavassuti ragkho ob va moddahoi madanii dar on halshuda harakat mekunand. Naychahoi elakshakl baraksi ragho az hujayrahoi darozi zinda iboratand (hosil shudaand). Devori kundalangi bayni in hujayrahoi ba ham payvast puri juyakchahoi khurd-khurd buda, misli elak metoband. Bo naychahoi elakshakl az barg mahluli moddahoi organiki (ki dar ravandi fotosintez hosil shudaast) jori meshavad.

Dar zeri boftai sutunmonand hujayrahoi beshtar girda (mudavar) yo shaklashon nomuayyani nisbat ba yakdigar zich joynagirifta mavjudand. Miqdori khloroplasthoyashon nisbatan kam ast. In hujayraho dar sarjami boftai is fanjshaklro hosil mekunand. Fazoi bayni hujayrahoi boftai isfanj shaklro javfi baynihujayravi me nomand. Javfi baynihujayravi az havo pur ast.

Agar pahnaki bargro ba tavri kundalangi burida (mikropreparat tayyor karda) dar zeri mikroskop gu zorem, dar on bandchahoi guzaronandai barg 51 — ragbandihoro mebinem,

Pusti barg az chi khel hujayraho iborat ast va onho chi ahamiyat dorand?

  1. Rogi baynihujayravi yo masoma chy tavr hosil meshavad va on kadom vazifaro dar barg ijro mekunad?
  2. Masomaho dar bargi rastanihoi gunogun chi tavr joy giriftaand?
  3. Magzi barg az chi khel hujayraho iborat ast?
  4. Javfi baynihujayravi chist?
  5. Bandchahoi guzaronandai barg chi khel ragbandiho dorand?
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