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Sokhti hujayrai rastani

Tamomi organizmhoi zinda, az on jumla rastaniho, az hujayrahoi andozaashon khele khurd, ki bo chashmi oddi dida nameshavand, iboratand. Hujayra va sokhti hujayragii organizmhoro didan faqat bo tufayli takmilu sayqal yoftani sanati shishasozi imkonpazir gardid.

Baroi ba sokhti hujayrai rastani shinos shudan preparati pardai tunuku nafisi magzi piyozro tayyor kuned. Baroi in pusti khushki piyozro az magzash dur karda, bo tegi tez yak porcha pust yo pardai tunuku shaffofero, ki magzi safedi piyozro pushonidaast, judo namoed.

Bo qatrarez yo qalamchai shishagin ba rui shishai ashyoguzor yak-du qatra obi sof chakkonda, pardai az piyoz chudokardaatonro ba on guzored. Baroi on ki pardai piyoz nagz pahn shavad, onro dar qatrai ob bo nugi suzan ehtiyotkorona hamvor kardan lozim ast. Ba ob yak qatra mahluli yod hamrokh karda, pardai piyozro bo shishai tunuki ruypush pushoned. CHunin preparati tayyor, yane pardai piyozro ba mizchai ashyoguzori mikroskop nihoda, didan mumkin ast 14 .

Tarzi tayyor kardani mikroprepa- rat (ashyo)-i pardai piyozDar zeri mikroskop hujayrahoi pardai piyoz darozruya menamoyand va ba hamdigar jafs joy giriftaand . Har kadom hujayra az berun bo lifofai (jildi) shaffof pushonida shudaast va dar jo-joi on surokhihoi bagoyat khurdmasomaho ba nazar merasand. Hujayrai rastaniho ba pufakhoe monandand, ki kholigiash bo moddai zindai hayotan zaruru berangi chaspak (galiz) — sitoplazma pur shudaast. Sitoplazma tamomi khosiyathoi organizmi zindaro doro buda, qobili gizogiri, rasish, nafaskashi, harakat va afzoish meboshad. Sitoplazma ohista bomarom harakat mekunad. Vay hangomi sakht garm kardan yo yakh bastan vayron shuda khujayraash nobud meshavad.

Sokhti hujayrai pardai piyoz

Dar sitoplazma jismchai tarkibash khele gafsu galiz (zich) – yadro joy giriftaast. Dar yadro yadrocharo didan mumkin ast. Bo yorii mikroskopi elektroni muqarrar kardaand, ki sokhti yadroi hujayra nihoyat murakkab meboshad.

Qarib dar hamai hujayrahoi rastani, khususan, dar hujayrahoi nisbatan pir kovoki yo kholigi — vakuolaho mavjudand. Onho az shirai hujayra pur meboshand. SHirai hujayra mahlulest, ki dar on qand va digar moddahoi organikiyu gayriorganiki hal shudaand.

Dar shirai baze hujayraho moddahoi gunoguni rangdeh niz budanashon mumkin ast, ki ba gulbarg va digar uzvhoi rastaii rangi kabud, bunafsh va gulobi mebakhshand. Bazan miqdori shirai hujayra dar vakuola chunon bisyor meshavad, ki sitoplazmaro ba devori lifofa jafs gardonda, guyo tamomi hujayraro yak vakuolai kalon ishgol mekunad. Hujayrahoi mevai pukhta va uzvhoi serobu sermagzi rastani sershira meshavand. Hangomi buridan yo jarohat yofta- ni mevai pukhta yo yagon uzvi digari serobi rastani lifofai hujayra oseb meyobad va az vakuolai on shira jori megardad.

Dar sitoplazmai khujayrai rastani jismchahoi digar – plastid- Ho mavjudand. Miqdori plastidi hujayrai uzvhoi gunoguni rastani harkhela buda, onho dar zeri asbobhoi kalonkunanda nagz namudor meshavand.

Dar rastanihoi guldor plastidhoi rangashon sabz, zard yo norinji va berang dida meshavand. Plastidhoi hujayrai piyoz berangand. Rangi in yo on uzvi rastani ba rangi plastidho va moddahoi rangdehi shirai hujayra vobasta ast. Plastidhoi sabzro khloroplastho menomand va rangi sabzi bargi rastaniho odatan ba mavjudiyati onho vobasta ast.

Rang, shakl va andozai hujayrahoi uzvhoi harkhelai rastani khele gunogun meshavand.

  1. Preparati pardai piyozro chi tavr tayyor mekunand?
  2. Sokhti hujayra chi guna ast?
  3. Rangi kadom uzvhoi rastani ba moddahoi rangdehi plastidho vobasta ast?
  4. Plastidho az rui rangashon chi khel meshavand?
  5. SHirai hujayra dar kujo joygir shudaast va on chiho dorad?
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