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Skeleti odam

Payvastshavii ustukhonho. Dar badani odam ziyoda az 220 ustukhon mavjud ast. Hamai onho bayni khud payvastand. Payvastshavii ustukhonho gunogunand. Bazeashon ba vositai dandonaho beharakat payvast meshavand (ustukhonhoi kosai sar), digar ustukhonho bo yakdigar ba tavri mutaharrik yo nimmutaharrik payvast meshavand. Payvastshavii mutaharriki ustukhonho, masalan, ustukhonhoi ron, zonu, orinjro band menomand.

Ustukhonhoi bugum ba poyho khele mustahkam payvast shudaand. Boloi bugumro gilofi bugum pushonidaast. Vay doroi moei bugum ast, ki ba magzchai bugum yori rasonida, soishkhuriro kam mekunad. Payvastagihoi nimmutaharriki ustukhonro, ki doroi qabati tagoyakiand, nimbugumho menomand. Ustukhoni (skeleti) sar. Kosakhonai sar az kholigii kosai sar va qismi abruy iborat buda, ziyoda az 20 ustukhonro dar bar megirad.

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Holigii kosai sar az panj ustukhoni suftai bayni ham beharakat payvastshuda iborat buda, juyakhoi makhsusro hosil mekunand. Ba inho ustukhoni peshoni – chakka (yak juft), farqi sar va aqibi sar (rasmi 22) dokhil meshavand.
Dar ustukhoni chakka surokhii berunii gush joygir shudaast. Dar sathi poyoni ustukhoni aqibi sar surokhii kalone mavjud ast, Ki ba vositai on kholigii kosakhonai sar ba kanali sutunmuhra payvast meshavad.

Ustukhonhoi asosii kosakhonai sar bisyor surokhihoi khurd dorand va tavassuti onho asabhoi kosakhonayu magz, inchunin raghoi khungard meguzarand. Qismi abruy az 15 ustukhon iborat ast.
Kalontarin ustukhoni in qism – ustukhonhoi jog meboshand. Ustukhoni jogi poyon yagona ustukhoni harakatkunandai kosakhonai sar ba hisob meravad. Dar har du jog dandonho ba tariqi raddavi joygirand.

Ustukhoni badan. Asosi ustukhoni badanro ustukhoni sutunmuhra tashkil medihad, ki az 33-34 muhra iborat buda, ba 5 qism taqsim meshavad:

1) muhrahoi gardan (7);
2) qafasi sina (12); 3) miyon (5);

Har yak muhra az tana va chand shokha iborat ast. Muhraho boloi ham joygir shuda, ba tagoyakho be harakat ba ham payvastand (rasmi 23). Dar kholigii kanali sutunmuhra harommagz joygir ast.
Ustukhoni skeleti qafasi sina az 12 juft qaburga va ustukhoni sari sina (tush) iborat ast. Ba har kadom muhrai sina 1 juft qaburga payvast meshavad. In payvastshavi imkon medihad, ki onho mavqeashonro tagyir dihand: dar vaqti nafaskashi boloyu hangomi nafasbarori poyon meshavand. Skeleti dastho. Qulfaku shona skeleti chanbari kitfro tashkil medihand. Ba on skeleti kholisi dastho ba tavri mutaharrik payvast ast. Vay az ustukhonhoi bozu, orinj, soid (bandi dast), peshkafi dast, kafi dast va panjaho iborat ast.

Ustukhonhoi dastu poy ba tavri mutaharrik payvandand. Dastu poy az yak joy ba joi digar harakat kardani odamro tamin namuda, chun sistemai murakkabi fishangho amal mekunand.
Skeleti poyho. Ustukhonhoi pahni kos az aqib bo ustukhoni chorband va az pesh bo hamdigar payvast shuda, kholigii kosro tashkil medihand. Az du tarafi qismi poyoni ustukhoni kos
chuqurihoe mavjudand, ki baroi payvastshavii ustukhoni ron khizmat mekunand. Skeleti poy az ustukhoni daroztarin – ustukhoni ron, soq, poshnai poy, kafi poy va panjahoi poy iborat ast.
Hususiyati skeleti odam ba rostgardi va faoliyati mehnatii u vobasta ast. Az sababi on ki odam bo qomati rost roh megardad, binobar hamin sutunmuhraash nagz inkishof yoftaast. Hususan in dar sutunmuhrai odamoni miyonsol va kalonsol baralo ayon ast.

Dar on khamihoe mavjudand, ki dar vaqti harakathoi boshiddatu tez in khamiho takonkhurii badanro prujinavor narm mesozand. Sutunmuhrai hayvonho az sababi ba tavri gorizontali (bo chorpoy) roh gashtan in guna khamihoro nadorand. Digargunshavii qafasi sinai odam nazar ba hayvonho khubtar mushohida meshavand. YAne, qafasi sinai odam ba du taraf vase meshavad. Dar hayvonho qafasi sina, baraks, az du taraf fishurda meboshad.
YAke az muhimtarin nishonahoi khosi skeleti odam sokhti ustukhoni dasti u meboshad, ki uzvi mehnat gardidaast. Ustukhoni angushtho mutaharrik va serharakatand, khususan angushti kaloni odam tamomi amaliyothoi murakkabro ijro karda metavonad.

Vobasta ba holati vertikali (amudii) badani odam chanbari poy khele vase va gird meboshad. In vasei baroi uzvhoi tanosul va kholigii shikam hamchun takyagoh khizmat mekunad. Vobasta az jins vaseii kholigii kos gunogun meshavad. Masalan, kosi mardon hajman khurd va daroz ast. Kosi zanho baraks, vase va kutoh meshavad. Ustukhoni kaloni poyi odam az ustukhoni dastash gafstaru baquvvattar ast, chunki tamomi vazninii badanro onho mebardorand. Poshnai poyi odam hangomi rohgardi, davidanu jahidan takonro narm mekunad.

Dar skeleti sari odam qismi kosakhonai sar az abruy kalontar meboshad, zero dar on magzi sar joygir ast. Dar hayvonho, khususan maymunhoi odamshakl kholigii kosakhonai sar nazar ba abruy khurdtar meboshad, chunki magzi sari onho on qadar kalon nest.

Savolho

1. Kadom tarzi payvastshavii ustukhonhoro medoned?
2. Skeleti odam az kadom qismhoi asosi iborat ast?
3. Sutunmuhra dar qafasi sina chi ahamiyat dorad va sokhtash chi guna ast?
4. Skeleti dastu poyho az kadom qismho va ustukhonho iborat ast?
5. Kosakhonai sar az kadom qismho iborat ast?
6. Skeleti odam az skeleti hayvonhoi shirkhur chi farq dorad?
7. CHandirii kashishkhurii sutunmuhra chi ahamiyat dorad?

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