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Siyosati mustamlikadorii Rusiya dar Osiyoi Markazi

Siyosati mustamlikadorii Rusiya dar Osiyoi Markazi du marhalaro dar bar megirad. Marhalai avval az ibtidoi istiloi Osiyoi Markazi to anjomi on, yane az solhoi 50-um to solhoi 90-umi asri XIX va marhalai duyum az solhoi 90-umi asri XIX to soli 1917 (minbad Osiyoi Markazi dar hayati davlati digar bud, ki on IJSHS nom dosht). Dar marhalai avval sarmoyai Rusiya hanuz dar in jo faolona amal namekard. Faoliyati iqtisodii indavrainai Rusiya asosan bo amaliyoti tijorati mahdud shuda bud. Dar marhalai duyum dar Osiyoi Markazi dakholati faolonai sarmoyai Rusiya surat megirad.

Dar solhoi 70-um va 80-umi asri XIX dar Osiyoi Markazi ba joi navhoi mahallii pakhta parvarishi navhoi nisbatan sermahsulu qimatbahoi on ogoz meyobad. Osiyoi Markazi baroi sanoati Rusiya va pesh az hama, baroi sanoati bofandagii on ba manbai ashyoi khom va bozori furushi molhoi sanoati tabdil meyobad. Molhoi kosiboni mahalli digar bo molhoi sanoatii az Rusiya voridshuda raqobat karda nametavonistand.

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Rusiya be rohhoi ohan nametavonist, ki ahamiyati Osiyoi Markaziro baroi iqtisodiyoti khud baland bardorad, baroi hamin solhoi 70-um sokhtmoni rohi ohani in joro ba Rusiya mepayvastagi ba miyon omad. Soli 1885 az sohili Bahri Kaspiy – Krasnovodsk to Ashqobod, soli 1888 to ba Samarqand va soli 1898 to Toshkent rohi ohan sokhta ba istifodadoda shud. Valetamini ehtiyojoti Rusiya dar Osiyoi Markazi tanho bo sokhta shudani rohi ohan ijro namegardid. In rohi ohani ba istifoda dodashuda Osiyoi Markaziro ba nohiyahoi markazii Rusiya namepayvast. Ba vositai in rohi ohan chandin marotiba farovardanu bor kardani musofironu bor noqulay bud. Az in ru, dar ibtidoi asri XX sokhtmoni rohi navi ohan cap shud, ki on boyad Osiyoi Markaziro az Toshkent bo Orenburg mepayvast. In roh zud sokhta meshud. Soli 1905 allakay khati rohi ohani Kaspiy ba khati rohi ohani Orenburg payvasta shud. Sokhtmoni in rohi ohan imkoniyat dod, ki dar bayni Rusiya va Osiyoi Markazi mubodilai mol beshtar az 10 marotiba afzoyad.

Az solhoi 70-um cap karla hukumati Rusiya ba khotiri ba vujud ovardani takyagohi ijtimoi dar joyhoi gunoguni Osiyoi Markazi ba miqyosi vase muhojironi rusro sokin kunond.

Dar kishvari Turkiston tasis namudani sistemai mamurii “Idorai harbii khalqi” ba maqsadi mustamlikadoroni hukumati podshohii Rusiya khizmat mekard. Kishvari Turkiston ba panj viloyat taqsim karda shuda bud: Sirdaryo, Fargona, Samarqand, Haftrud (Semireche) va Zakaspiy. Har yak viloyati nomburdaro ba istisnoi Zakaspiy, ki dar on jo sardori viloyat hukm merond, gubernatori harbi idora mekard. Viloyatho ba uezdho, uezdho ba volostho va volostho ba pristavho taqsim karda shuda budand.

Badi ba Rusiya hamroh karda shudani Osiyoi Markazi be- rahmona gorat kardani boygarii millii khalqhoi in jo ogoz yoft. Baroi in kor mustamlikadoron korkhonahoi ziyode sokhtand. Konhoi angishti Sulukga, Qizilkiik, SHurob, Andijon, konhoi nafti Sanyu va CHimiyon dar vodii Fargona va koni nafti jazirai CHalakoni az qabili hamin korkhonahoyand. Hukumati Rusiya ba parvarishi pakhta va korkardi avvaliyai on diqqati makhsus medod. Behuda nest, ki dar Turkiston dar avvalhoi asri XX 230 korkhonai pakhtatozakuni kor mekard, ki bisyorii onho dar vodii Fargona budand. Dar iqtisodi Osiyoi Markazi zavodhoi charmgari va madankorkuni ham maqomi makhsus doshtand. Onho asosan az shirkati nemisii “Dyurshmidt” budand.

Dar aksariyati shahrhoi Osiyoi Markazi shubahoi bankhoi Rusiya kushoda meshavand, az on jumla dar Toshkent, Samarqand, Andijon, Quqand, Bukhoroi Nav (Kogon) va shahrhoi digar. “Bonki rusii tijorati khoriji” ba savdoi pusti qaroquli mablagguzori mekard. “Bonki Rusu Azov” sokhtmoni rohi ohani Bukhororo az pul tamin menamud. “Bonki Azovu Don”, ki az sohiboni sanoati bofandagii Peterburg bud, tamomi kharid va korkardi avvaliyai pakhtaro ba dast darovard. “Bonki hisobiyu qarzdihii Moskva” niz dar in mustamlikai durdasti Rusiya faoliyat mekard. Kam ham boshad, ba iqtisodiyoti Osiyoi Markazi sarmoyai Angliya, Amerika, Germaniya va Belgiya niz vorid meshavad.

Siyosati mustamlikadorii Rusiya dar kishvari Turkiston ahvoli khalqi mahalliro ruz to ruz vaznin mekard. Mardumi in jo norozigii khudro tavassuti shurishho izhor mekardand. Kalontarini onho solhoi 1885 – 1886 dar YAkhsu, soli 1885 bo sardorii Vose dar Baljuvon va Kulob, soli 1887 dar Romit va dakhho shurishhoi digar budand.

SHurishhoi khalqiro mamuriyati mahalli va mustamlikavii Rusiya berahmona pakhsh mekardand. Dar baze shurishhoi mardumi mahalli ruhiyai istiqloliyatkhohi niz mushohida karda meshud.

Hamin tariq, khonihoi Quqand va Heva ba mustamlikai imperiyai Rusiya tabdil doda shudand. Harchand Amorati Bukhoro rasman ba hayati imperiyai Rusiya nadaromada boshad ham, purra tobei on bud.

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