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Siyosat iqtisodii Angliya dar Hinduston

Siyosati iqtisodii Britaniyai Kabir dar Hindustoni nimai duyumi asri XIX – avvali asri XX ba nafi imperializmi anglis nigaronida shuda bud. In siyosat ham kishovarzi, ham sanoat, ham naqliyot va ham aloqaro dar bar megirift.

Anglisho dar Hinduston zakhirai zaminro az nav ba hisob girifta, pardokhti andoz az zamin va huquqi zamin doshtanro ba nizom darovardand. Mustamlikadoron doir ba zamin baroi muzofoti Bangola, muzofothoi SHimolu Garbi, Panjob va muzofothoi markazi qonunho qabul kardand. In chora zohiri ham boshad, az garafn zamimdoron (feodalho) istismor karda shudani kishovarzonro mahdud mekard.

Qonunhoi marbut ba zamin qabulshudai anglisi dar Hinduston kharidu furushi zaminro ba vujud ovardand. Zaminhoi ziyod ba ikhtiyori sudkhuron meguzashtand. In ravand dar Maharashtra va Panjob beshtar mushohida karda meshud.

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Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX inhisorhoi mustamlikaviyu ashrofoni feodalii mahalli aksariyati zaminhoi Hindustonro az khud kardand. Kishovarzoni Hinduston aknun se bori garonro bar dushi khud girifta budand: andozho, rentai zamin (renta – daromad az zamin) va qarzi sudkhuri.

Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX ba manbai ashyoi khomi agrari tabdil yoftani Hinduston ba okhir merasad. In sababi khudro dosht. Dar in davra Angliya maqomi “ustokhonai jahon”-ro az dast dod. Istilogarihoi Germaniya va Faronsa dar Afrika, Osiyoi Janubu SHarqi za Okeaniya mavqei Angliyaro hamchun imperiyai buzurgtarini mustamlikavi susttar kardand. In holat ahamiyati Hindustonro baroi iqtisodiyotn Angliya baland bardosht. Taraqqiyoti tijorat dar bayni Hinduston va Angliya rafti minbadai taqsimoti mehnatro dar bayni sanoati korkardi avvaliyai Angliya va kishovarziyu sanoati kuhkanii Hinduston va dar bayni shahrhoi Angliya az yak taraf va dekhoti Hindustonro az tarafi digar inikos mekard.

Moli asosii sodiroti hindi pakhta, pashm, chut, nakhi nakhli birinj, gandum, indigo, giyohhoi shifobakhsh va afyun ba hisob meraftand. Moli asosii sodirot pakhta bud. 80 foizi on ba Angliya firistoda meshud. Arzishi umumii molhoi sodiroti Hinduston dar nimai duyumi asri XIX se barobar afzud; Hinduston dar in davra besh az pesh ba bozori molfurushii Angliya tabdil meyoft. Ba Hinduston vorid kardani molhoi anglisi 5 barobar afzud. Az Angliya ba in jo asosan gazvor zarfhoi filizi, mavodi zebu zinat va molhoi digari istemoli ovarda furukhta meshudand. Angliya az Hinduston tavassuti andoz ham daromadi kalon megirift. Mablagi daromadi metropoliya az in manba bemaylon ziyod meshud. Soli 1859 on 361 mln rupiya va soli 1890 qarib 851 mln rupiyaro tashkil namudaast.

Dar davrai imperalizmi Britaniyai Kabir usulhoi istismori Hinduston tagyir yoft. On asosan joi mablagguzorii sarmoyadoroni anglis shud. Sohai kalontarini mablagguzori dar  Hinduston rohhoi ohan budand. In soha ba mustamlikadoron daromadi az had ziyod medod. Afzoishi darozii rohhoi ohani Hinduston bo hamin sabab ba amal meomad. Dar Hinduston solhoi 60-um 1300 km va to solhoi 90-um 25600 km rohhoi ohan sokhta shudand. Dar Hinduston sohai digari serdaromadi mablagguzorii anglisho inshoothoi obyorikuni budand. Onho dar joyhoe bunyod megardidand, ki ziroathoi sodiroti parvarish karda meshudand. Makhsusan, dar Sind va Panjob – muzofothoe, ki baroi parvarishi pakhta makhsus gardonida shuda budand.

Sarmoyai anglisi ba sokhtani korkhonahoi sanoati niz guzoshta meshud. To okhirhoi solhoi 90-um dar Hinduston 177 fabrikai bofandagi va 33 fabrikai chut ba kor daromadand. Az on jumla, dar Kalkutta fabrikahoi chut va kombinati metallurge va dar Kanpur fabrikahoi kaloni bofandagi sokhta shudand.

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