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Siyosati iqtisodii Hollandiya dar Indoneziya

Solhoi 50 va 60-umi asri XIX dar Indoneziya munosibathoi sarmoyadori ba vujud omadand. Bo sharofati hamin dar zarfi solhoi 1850 – 1880 daromadi Hollandiya az Indoneziya khele afzuda, seyaki bujai mamlakatro tashkil kard. Dar in solho Hollandiya az Indoneziya ziyoda az 850 mln gulden daromadi kholis giriftaast.

Burjuaziyai sanoati ohista-ohista purquvvat shuda, bar ziddi burjuaziyai tijoratiyu moliyavi ba muboriza barkhost va az hukumati Hollandiya talab kard, ki moneahoi ba u khalal rasonanda az bayn bardoshta shavand. Oqibat in guruhi burjuaziyai Hollandiya ba maqsad rasid. Soli 1864 parlament mamlakat “Qonun dar borai hisobot”-ro qabul kard, ki muvofiqi on idorai Indoneziya az zeri hokimiyati yakkayu tanhoi shoh barovarda shud. Aknun bujai shirkati Ost-Indro parlamenti Hollandiya tasdiq mekard.

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Baroi faoliyati ozodonai burjuaziyai sanoati va moliyavii Hollandiya dar Indoneziya sistemam “ziroathoi majburi” khalal merasonnd. “Qonuni qand’’-i soli 1870-i Hollandiya ba dast kashidan az “ziroathoi majburi” ibtido guzosht. Soli 1891 in qonun bo purragi ba kor daromad. Soli 1870 “Qonuni zamin” ham qabul karda shud. Muvofiqi in qonun davlat, yane Hollandiya sohibi olii hamai zaminhoi Indoneziya muqarrar gardid va“zaminhoi khususi”, ki hukumat ba ashkhosi alohida tuhfa karda va yo furukhtaast, istisno budand. Avval in qonun asosan ba zaminhoi YAva va Madura dakhl dosht. Badtar – soli 1875 on nisbat ba mulkhoi boqimonda ham tatbiq karda shud.

Baroi hollandiho molikiyati khususi elon karda shudani zamin oqibat ba on ovarda merasonid, ki dar in sarzamin khoh nokhoh davlathoi digari imperialisti ham sohibi zamin shuda, hukmronii Niderlandiyaro dar Indoneziya ba zeri khatar meguzoshtand. Baroi hamin soli 1875 hukumat furukhtani zaminro ba shahrvandoni davlathoi khoriji qatiyan man kard.

Hamin tariq, solhoi 70 asri XIX dar Indoneziya inhisori davlati bar zamin bekor karda shud. Badi in sarmoyai khususi ba Indoneziya ba tavri vase vorid gardid. Aknun joi inhisorhoi tosarmoyadorii Ost-Indiya va davlatiyu krepostnoyii shohi Niderlandiyaro inhisorhoi moliyavi giriftand. Dar solhoi 70-um va 80-umi asri XIX baroi ba korchallonhoi khususi qarz dodani bankho Bahri istifodai samaranoki boygarii tabiii Indoneziya dar in jo shirkathoi rohi ohan, tramvay, kishtigardi, sakhhomi va gayra tashkil karda shudand.

Agar sistemai “ziroathoi majburi”-i dar soli 1830 jorigardida faoliyati sarmoyadoron va sohibkoronro mahdud karda boshad, pas islohoti solhoi 70-um baroi sarmoyaguzori va korchalloniyu tijorati sharoiti musoid faroham ovard. In islohot, pesh az hama, ba mustamlikadoroni Niderlandiya nafovar bud.

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Tekhnika dar nimai duyumi asri XIX — avvali asri XX

Dar IMA solhoi 60-70-um dar korkardi gusht, ordkunii galla va madanistehsolkuni konveyer istifoda burda shud. …