Home / Ilm / SarshavI va jarayoni shurish 1916

SarshavI va jarayoni shurish 1916

khujand-660x330Oshubhoi avvalin dar shahri Hujand sar shudand. Az rui taqsimot muvofiqi viloyat va uezdhoi kishvari Turkiston uezdi Hujand boyad 9 hazor mardikor medod. Ba mardikorgiri 4(17) iyuli soli 1916 boyad shuru mekardand. Oprichniki podshohi, gubernatori harbii Samarqand N.S.Likoshin (misli hamvazifahoi khudash dar viloyathoi digar) ruyrost tahdid mekard, ki dar surati sarkashi kardan mardikoron ba vositai quvvahoi musallah safarbar karda khohand shud. Hashmu gazabi omma uezdi Hujandro faro megirad.

Dar borai voqeahoi minbadai shahr raporti sardori garnizoni mahalli polkovnik I.B.Rubakh malumoti mufassal medihad. In polkovnik az oshubi mardum sari kalobai khudro gum karda va hatto tartibi ba kiho raport dodanro ham az yod barovarda, raportro rost ba nomi podshoh firistodaast: «Ba SHumo alohazrat imperatori azam bo taqsiru kamiyati tamom arz mekunam, ki 4 iyul, ruzona, dar shahri Hujand, mardumi shahr izdihom karda, ba idorai pristavi politsiya omadand va talab kardand, ki ruykhati mardikorone, ki muvofiqi farmoishoti SHumo alohazrati imperatori azam az sanai 25 iyuni hamin sol boyad ba korhoi aqibgohi armiya firistoda meshudand, bekor kunem. hukumatdoroni politsiya khele iltimosu zoriyu tavallo kardand, ki mardum khona ba khona ravand, vale kase ba gapi onho gush nakarda va hama barobar gavgovu magal bardoshtand. Vaqte politsayho mardumro tela doda, dur kardani shudand, aholii mahalli muqobilat kardand va politsayhoro doshta zadand.

Az posbongohe, ki dar nazdiki voqe bud, panj nafar askari qatorii dastai qaravuloni Hujand, ki baroi rafi betartibiho omoda meistodand, ba sari gavgo davida omadand, vale izdihom onhoro ham filhol pechonida girift va dar in mobayn yake az shahriyon miltiqi askarro kashida giriftani shud, digaron boshad, askaronro sangboron kardand.

Dar hamin lahza az bayni izdihom kase tir kushoda bud, ki in askaroni qatori va sharikoni onho, ki dar boloi devori qala meistodand, ba tarafi izdihom 16 marotiba tir kushodand, dar natija du kas kushta va yak kas majruh shud – har se aholii mahalli meboshand. Izdihom favran parokanda shud».[1]

Voqeahoi Hujand ba shuru oshubhoi ommavii sarosari kishvari Turkiston yak nav sarakhbor shudand. SHurish shahri asosii kishvar Toshkand va pas az on tamomi digar viloyathoro faro girift. Mo tamomi juziyoti shurishro mufassal bayon namekunem, zero dar borai on tadqiqothoi makhsus chop shudaand.[2] Mo faqat dida mebaroem, ki in shurish dar nohiyahoi tojiknishin chi guna zohir shud va ba zuhuroti on chi guna baho dodaand.

Mo dar bolo az rui raporti «bo taqsiru kamtarini» polkovnik Rubakh didem, ki shurish az nuqtai nazari harbiyonu politsayho chi guna guzashtaast. Albatta, in raport bisyor tafsiloti voqeahoi 4 iyuli soli 1916-umi Hujandro bayon namekunad. hol on ki boyad makhsus takid kard, ki dar shurish nafaqat aholii shahr ishtirok doshtand. Mardumi dehahoi atrof hama az jon ser shuda, ba gazab omada budand va sadho nafar dehqonon hamon ruz ba Hujand omadand. Vaqte pristavi politsiya Ustimovich farmud, ki begohii 3 iyul dar sahni masjidi SHaykh Muslihiddin bo «kalonshavandahoi» mardum muloqot mekunad, ba on jo ponzdah-bist «kalonshavanda» ne, balki yakchand hazor odam jam shud.

hoziron qatiyan talab kardand, ki tayyori yo khud safarbarii mardikoron bekor shavad, yo mavquf guzoshta shavad. Ustimovich majbur shud, ki majlisro qat kunad, aniqtarash, dumro khoda karda gurezad. Ruzi digar dar shahr yak nav namoishe shud. Mardu zan, piru kampir, khurdu kalon, bachchavu kachcha hama ba suyi guzari Okhun raftand, ki dar on jo idorai oqsaqqol voqe bud. Oqsaqqol Mirzo Muinov va pristav Ustimovich in qadar odamro dida, zud vada dodand, ki digar ruykhat tartib doda nameshavad. Badi in mardumi otashinu purgazab, ki shumoraashon ba 6–7 hazor rasida bud, ba tarafi «shahri nav» ravon shudand.

Peshopeshi in namoish Jura Zokirov, Dodoboy Masharifov barin odamon meraftand, ki badho dar rohi galabai hokimiyati khalq dar Tojikiston muborizoni mashhur shudaand. Qozi Buzrukkhuja va Komiljon Olimjonov nom boyhoi shahr peshi rohi izdihomro girifta az roh gardondani va parokanda kardani shudand, vale mardum onhoro ham gurezondandu idorai pristavro pechonida giriftand va talab kardand, ki ruykhati mardikoron favran nobud karda shavad. Politsayho az gazabi mardum tarsida, andaruni bino pinhon shudand.

Ana dar hamin lahza askaron paydo shudand, dastai posbononi Hujand pesh baromadand va yakjoya bo politsayho tir kushodand. Az tirhoi onho piramardi hashtodsola shaykh Oqil Nematshaykhov, javoni bistusesola Muhammadkhon Mirobidov halok shuda, Mirzojon Mirfozilov majruh gardid. Ammo askar kam bud. hanuz 7 iyul Likoshin ba ijrokunandai vazifai sardori shtabi Okrugi harbii Turkiston N.N.Sivers murojiat karda, bo isror iltijo karda bud, ki ba viloyat teztar soldatu kazakhoro firistad. Gayr az in Likoshin navishta bud, ki sardori uezdi Hujand ham talab karda istodaast, ki ba shahrhoi Hujand va Uroteppa favran yaktogi pulemyot va yagon panjohnafari kazakhoro firistodan darkor.[3]

Ammo askarfiristoni hej natija nadod va in kori hukumatdoroni podshohi barabas raft. Ba in khudi Likoshin ham bovari hosil kard. Baroi taftishi vaziyat vay 12 iyul ba safari viloyat baromad. Vay badtar (17 dekabri soli 1916) ba general-gubernatori Turkiston navishta bud, ki dar vokzali Hujand «ba vay izdihomi buzurge matal budaand, ki az dehahoi Qistakuzu Isfisor omadaand, man bozistodam, ki bo onho gap zanam. Guftam, ki har kasi dar joyash rost istodagi shinad, khudam rost istoda ba hoziron ahamiyati farmoishoti alohazrat imperatorro dar borai mardikorgiri va tartibi mardikorgiriro fahmonda dodam. hama gap nazada, gush mekardand, vale rui hama tiravu qavoqho ovezon budu az sukuti onho kasro vohima zer mekard».[4]

Dar omadi gap, gubernator sonitar meguyad, ki «na hama dar sukut budand». Isfisorie baromada guft, ki Kaufman dar vaqtash vada doda budaast, ki dar muddati 50-sol yagon kasro az in jo ba askari namegirand. Pas az in Likoshin boz gapashro davom doda menavisad:

«Man ba on isfisoriyu ba izdihom guftam, ki in gap afsona astu mano nadorad va zohiran guyo ki gaphoi man maqul shudand, vale oqibati kor tamoman digar baromad – mulloe, ki bo vay gap mezadam, yakbora ba izdihom ru ovardu guft: «Gapro kashol dodan chi lozim, hoy khaloiq, shumo gufta buded, ki mardikor namedihed, rost ast?». Tamomi izdihom ba yakboragi baso bosalobatu badvohima gurungos zad, ki: «Rost, namedihem. Rost, namedihem»– man bosham faqat haminro gufta tavonistam, ki farmoishi alohazratro dar borai mardikori har kore shavad, ijro kardan darkor».

On chi ayon ast chi hojat ba bayon ast – magar az in zurtar manzararo didan mumkin ast? Kay peshtar mardum dida bud, ki khudi gubernatori harbii viloyat dar peshi dehqononu kosiboni dehot gap zanad?! Hayr, agar gap zada boshad ham, kay yak odami olimansabi general-gubernatori az dahoni om in qadar gaphoi ruyrostu pukhtavu burro shunida bud?!

Minbad ham qistakuzihovu isfisoriho bo kambagaloni Hujand aloqai mustahkam doshtand va dar zarurat favran ba madadi onho meomadand. Masalan, vaqte 21 iyuli 1916 hukumatdoroni Hujand chor kasro ba habs giriftand, ki onho guyo mardumro ba shurish davat mekardaand, tamomi qistakuziho ba madadi khujandiho shitoftand. Hurdu kalon, har kase ki gashta metavonist, ba roh baromadand. Kalononi shahr bo yak azob peshi rohi in izdihomi panjhazornafararo giriftand va namondand, ki ba Hujand daroyand.

Dar Uroteppavu dehahoi atrofi on ham shuru oshubho meshudand. Likoshin ba general-gubernatori Turkiston A.N.Kuropatkin 7 dekabri soli 1916 maktube firistod, ki dar on navishta bud: «… 1 avgust ba shahr az vulusi Gonchi du guruh dehqonon omadand – yak guruh 200 nafar, guruhi digar 250 nafar, onho ba tartib dodani ruykhat mone shudani budand. Bo yordami posbononi savora va politsayho gonchigiho parokanda karda shudand».[5]

Sarfi nazar ba hamai in, sardori uezdi Hujand polkovnik Rubakh khavf dosht, ki mardumi in joyho boz shurish mekunand. Binobar in vay az gubernatori harbii Samarqand iltimos kard, ki ba vulusi Gonchi «otryadi jazodihandai SHahriston firistoda shavad… va on boyad huquq doshta boshad, ki dar zarurat tazir ham kunad». Pas az in Rubakh menavisad: «…azbaski betakhir tezutund amal kardan darkor, binobar in dahho va sadho kasro habs karda, ba zammi in tamomi rasmiyathoro (qarori habs, pursishu tergav, malumot ba idorahoi boloi) rioya kardan mumkin nest» [6] va az gaphoyash malum, ki shurish haqiqatan vusat yofta budaast.

Mamuriyati podshohi armiyai khudro ba manbahoi shurish bo azob taqsim mekard, zero otryadhoi jazodihanda namerasidand. 9 avgust dar Qistaquz mardum boz shurish bardoshtand. Hudi hamon Likoshin ba Toshkand chunin khabar doda bud: «Izdihomi buzurgi mardum – khurdu kalon, mardu zan ba havlii idorai sardori vulus zada daromadand va sardori vulus, ellikboshi (?) va pos­bonro doshta zadand».[7]

«Soldatu kazak firisted!», «Soldatu kazak firisted!»–az tamomi vulusu uezdu viloyathoi kishvari Turkiston ba markazi on faqat hamin guna telegrammaho meomadand. Zero shurish dar Hujand sar shuda, sarosari kishvarro faro girift va to tiramohi soli 1916 dar manbahoi asosii khud va dar baze joyho az in ham dertar davom kard. Faqat pas az on ki ba Osiyoi Miyona qismhoi navi armiya omadand, shurish pakhsh karda shud. Quvvai asosii shurish dehqonon va kosibon budand. Dar nohiyahoi ziroatkori muqobilati shurishgaron ba darajae sakht shud, ki general-gubernatori Turkiston on muqobilatro faqat bo zuri armiya va artilleriya raf karda tavonist.

Muvofiqi malumoti arkhiv dar amorati Bukhoro ham shuru oshubho az ibtidoi soli 1916 sar shudand va alalkhusus, dar Kitob, SHahrisabz, YAkkabog va CHiroqchi vusat yoftand. Makhsusan dehqonone ba shur omadand, ki amir baroi sokhtmoni rohi ohani Bukhoro-Tirmiz zuran safarbar karda bud. Taqriban mohhoi mart-apreli soli 1946 Agentii siyosii Rossiya dar yake az khabarhoi khud navishta bud: «Norozigii korgaron toraft ziyod shuda istodaast. Istismoru khudsari had nadorad. Baroi du hafta kor sartho hamagi yak sum maosh megirand va khurdu khurokashon az khudashon (dar mavzei Kalif – Tirmiz). Ovoza pahn kardaand, ki roh davlati ast va dar on bepul kor kardan darkor». Aholii bekihoi kuhiston, masalan, aholii Baljuvon sar bardoshtand. [8]

SHurishi soli 1916 nehzati stikhiyavi bud va na dar hama mahalho khususiyati khalqi dosht. SHurishgaron na vazifai shurishro durust dark mekardandu na rohhoi galabaro medonistand. Bisyor shurishho judo-judoi berobita budand. Naqshai yagonai amaliyot, rohbariyati yagona nabud.

Garchande muvofiqi malumoti idorai politsiya dar baze mahalho baze sotsial-demokratho, ki dar baze shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona zindagi mekardand, dar in yo on shurish ba in yo on andoza dakhl doshtaand, vale mo gufta nametavonem, ki dar in shurishho rohbarii proletari vujud dosht, in guna rohbari nabud. Proletariati mahallii milli holo kamshumor va tashakkul nayofta bud, baroi rohbari qodir nabud. Proletariati rus boshad, garchande ba onho partiyai bolshevikon rohbari mekard, dar ibtidoi shurish bo mehnatkashoni mahalli, ki asosan az dehqonon iborat budand, robitai mustahkam nadosht. Natijai muhimtarini shurishi soli 1916 dar hamin, ki shurish dar on joyhoe, ki khususiyati haqiqatan khalqiyu ozodkunanda dosht, poyahoi hokimiyati podshohi va istismorgaroni mahalliro sust kard.

Dar ayni hol, boyad hatman qayd kunem, ki dar baze shahru nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona josusoni imperialistoni Germaniya va sultoni Turkiya khele jiddu jahd kardand, ki shurishhoi khalqii ziddipodshohiro ba shurishi ziddi umuman rusho tabdil dihand. Dar navbati khud mullohoi mutaassib, alalkhusus, payravoni ashaddii tasavvuf kushidand, ki shurish ba khud shakli «gazovot»-ro girad, ki dar in surat tamomi rusho boyad qir karda meshudand.

SHohidon naql mekunand, ki dar yake az mahallahoi Hujand yak guruh odamon, ki yo josusi imperialistoni Germaniya yo sultoni Turkiya budaand, bayroqi khalifai Turkiyaro bardoshta baromadaand. Malumote hast, ki sultoni Turkiya Afgonistonro tahrik mekardaast, ki ba korhoi amorati Bukhoro va kishvari Turkiston dakholat kunad.

Ba josusoni Turkiya muyassar shud, ki bo firebu nayrangu rishvayu pora sardoroni baze qabilahoi turkmanro az roh barorand va dar in khel mahalho shuru oshubi mardum ba foidai sultoni Turkiya jarayon yoft. Dar nohiyahoi sarhaddi Afgoniston va Eron hodisahoe ruy dodand, ki shurishgaron ba rohiohanchiyoni begunohu muzduri rus daraftodand, qasabahoi rushoro otash zadand, posbongohho, vositahoi aloqa va gayraro kharob kardand. Boyho va mullohoi turkman mekhostand, ki ba tufayli in shurish qabilahoi turkmanro ba Eron yo Afgoniston va badtar ba Turkiya hamroh kunand. In guna niyathoi dushmanona dar digar mahalhoi Osiyoi Miyona ham joy doshtand.

Hullasi kalom, hangomi baho dodan ba khususiyati shurishi soli 1916 sharoiti konkreti har yak mahalli Osiyoi Miyonaro ba hisob giriftan darkor. Aniqu ravshan judo kardan darkor, ki kadom shurish stikhiyavi bud, kadom shurish khususiyati khalqiyu ozodkuni dosht, kadom shurishro feodalhoi irtijoi, mulloyon va digar unsurhoi ziddikhalqi tashkil kardaand, yo ba manfiati khud istifoda burdaand.

Badi berahmona pakhsh kardani shurishi soli 1916 hukumati podshohi mardumro bemalol ba mardikori, aniqtarash, baroi kor dar aqibgohi armiya safarbar kardan girift. In safarbari bo khudsariyu bedodihoi beshumor meguzasht. Ba mardikori faqat farzandoni benavoyonu kambagalonro megiriftand, boyho boshand, rasman hukuq doshtand, ki ba joi farzandoni khud digar kasro kiro karda firistonand. Farzandoni boyho, amaldoron, mulloho poravu rishva ham doda, az mardikori khudro khalos mekardand. Dehqononi bechora baroi rishvayu pora pul nadoshtand, binobar in bazan chunin meshud, ki az yak oila yakbora du-se kas ba mardikori meraft – yake az ruyi «qonun», digare ba joi qarz va sevumi khudro mefurukht, ki zanu kudaku piru kampironi dar khona monda quti loyamute doshta boshand.

Kasoni ba mardikori safarbarshuda dar sokhtmoni inshooti mudofia kor mekardand, dar korkhonahoi sanoati har guna korhoi siyohro ijro mekardand, bazan onhoro dar zaminhoi pomeshikho ham kor mefarmudand. Na idorahoi harbi va na sohiboni zavodu fabrikaho, ki boyad mardikoroni osiyomiyonagiro qabul mekardand, ba in kor mutlaqo tayyori nadida budaand. hazoron hazor mardikoron dar baraku zaminkanhoi khunuki bepechka zindagi mekardand, az khunukiyu gurusnagiyu kasaliho sadho nafari onho murda meraftand.

Vahshiyona pakhsh karda shudani shurishi soli 1916, khudsariyu bedodiyu beinsofihoi beshumori tartibi mardikorgiri, zindagii mudhishu vazninu toqatgudozi mardikoron dar garibi – hamai inho nafratu adovati mehnatkashoni Osiyoi Miyonaro nisbat ba hukumati podshohi, hukumatdoroni mahalli va tamomi zolimon khele sakhttar kard. Dar ayni hol, shurishi soli 1916 az rui unsurhoi burjuazii milli niqobro kanda partoft.

Targibotchiyoni panturkiya natavonistand, ki khalqhoi Turkistonro ba rohi kaji «ittihodi jamei muslimin» ravona kunand, dar rohi «ittihodi milliyu dini» az muborizai sinfi dur sozand.

hamai in dar Osiyoi Miyona dar vaqti shurishi soli 1916 baso ayon zohir gardid va dar in kor khudi jadidho ham kumak kardand. Malum, ki onho nehzathoi khalqiro ba manfiati khud istifoda burdani meshudand va dar ahyon-ahyon joyho (masalan, dar Jizzakh) ba onho muyassar shud, ki ehtirosi revolyutsionii ommaro ba majroi taassubi dini andozand. Ammo aksari aholi – kambagaloni mahalli dushmanoni aslii khudro nagz shinokhta giriftand. Qayd kardan lozim, ki az khudi avvali shurish to pakhsh karda shudani on tamomi kalononi «obrumand», boyhoi mahalli bo amaldoroni khurdu kaloni podshohi faolona hamkori mekardand. Ba mamuriyati podshohi millatchiyoni burjuazi–jadidho ham harjoniba kumak mekardand. Ahvol ham dar Hujandu Uroteppa, ham dar Samarqandu Margelon, ham Dar Pishpeku Verniy, dar hama shahrho, nihoyat dar khudi Toshkand ham hamin bud.

In khoinon ba manfiathoi millii khalqi khud khiyonat  karda, idorahoi makhsus tasis medodand, ki ba hukumati podshohi dar masalai mardikorgiri madad rasonand. Masalan, dar markazi general-gubernatori «Komiteti shahrii Toshkand baroi ba kor davat kardani aholii mahalli»[9] nom muassisae tasis yoft, ki ba on Munavvarqorii dar bolo nomburdai mo, Hojaev nom yak savdogari serpuli korchallon va digar namoyandagoni davlatmandi boyhovu jadidho sarvari mekardand. Dar viloyati Sirdaryo namoyandagoni burjuaziyai mahalli ba gubernatori harbii viloyat makhsus ariza doda ijozat pursidand, ki «dar bayni aholi tashviqotu targibot barandu onho ba marakai gundoshtani chizu choravu molu ashyo baroi ehtiyoji jang muqobilat nakunand».[10]

In iqdom va digar kirdorhoi ba in monand ravshan dalolat mekunand, ki jadidho ham misli tamomi burjuaziyai millii Turkiston az ommavi budan va raviyai muayyani sinfi doshtani shurishi soli 1916 ba haros aftoda, dar gami mavqei khud shuda, bo dushmanoni ashadii tamomi khalqhoi mamlakat – hukumatdoroni podshohi zabon yak kardand.

[1] Vosstanie 1916 goda v Sredney Azii i Kazakhstane». dok. 53, s. 105.

[2] Nig.: Rajabov 3., 1955; Tursunov H., 1962; Usenboev K., 1967; Kastelskaya 3.D., 1972; nashrhoi makhsusi «Akhborot»-i AF Tojikiston va AF Uzbekiston, «Risolaho»-i Instituti tarikh, zabon va adabiyoti AF Riruiziston va uayra

[3] «Vosstanie 1916 goda v Sredney Azii i Kazakhstane», dok. 56. s. 109.

[4] Dar hamon jo, s. 162–163, dok. 92.

[5] «Vosstanie 1916 goda v Sredney Azii i Kazakhstane», dok 92 s 170

[6] Dar hamon jo, dok. 89, s.137, akhboroti Likoshin ba general-gubernator Kuropatkin, 5 avgusti soli 1916.

[7] Dar hamon jo, dok. 92, s. 170.

[8] Mukhtorov A., 1967, s. 33.

[9] SGA Uzb. SSR, I. 1, op. 31, d. 1128, ll. 5–8 va uayra.

[10] SGA Uzb. SSR, I. 17, d. 166, ll. 11 – 14.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

planet

ZAMIN – SAYYORAI SISTEMAM OFTOBI

Sababhoi tagyiryobii faslhoi sol. Az kursi tabiatshinosi mo medonem, ki Oftob in markazi sistemai oftobii mo …