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SHaroiti muhit dar davrahoi avvalini zamin

Fahmidani sharoite, ki «nishonahoi avvalini hayot» chi guna paydo shudaand, baroi ilm ahamiyati kalon dorad. Dar in bobat khizmati olimi rus akademik A.I.Oparin buzurg ast, zero u hanuz soli 1924 bori avval farziyai evolyutsiyai khimiyaviro peshnihod karda bud.

Muvofiqi in farziya bo rohi tajriba dar laboratoriya sharoiti hamonvaqtai Zamin, yane atmosferai beoksigenro ba vujud ovardan lozim bud.

pervaya-jizn

Bo istinod az hamin farziya soli 1953 olimoni amerikoi G.YUri va S.Miller bo asbobi oddie ba omekhtai metan, ammiak va ob bo jarayoni barq tasir kardand.

Bo hamin roh bori nakhust az mahsuli dar natijai chunin reaksiya hosilshuda baze aminokislotaho (glitsin, alanin, kislotai asparagin va glutamin) sintez karda shud.

Tajribahoi Miller va YUri ba tadqiqotho dar borai evolyutsiyai molekula va paydoishi hayot takon bakhshida, bo in roh tadrijan dar bisyor laboratoriyahoi ilmii dunyo payvastagihoi muhimi biologi sintez karda shudand.

Ba monandi tarkibi miqdorii atmosfera hisob kardani fishor niz bisyor mushkil ast. On hisobhoe, ki bo nazardoshti samarai «garmkhonagi» (effekti parniki) guzaronda shudaand, beasos va yo nachandon qanoatbakhsh meboshand.

Dar on hisobhoe, ki samarai «garmkhonagi» va shiddati takhminii nurhoi Oftob dar erai abiotiki ba inobat girifta shuda budand, ba chunin buzurgiho ovarda merasonand,

ki onho az harorati yakhbandi dahho marotiba ziyodand. Qarib hamai tajribaho oid ba paydo kunonidani sharoiti avvalini zamin dar harorati 20-2000S ijro karda shudaand. Alhol, in na bo rohi hisob yo imtidod (ekstrapolyatsiya)-i baze dalelhoi geologi, balki az rui miqdori harorati usutuvori payvasthoi organiki muayyan karda shudaast.

Bo istifoda az omekhtai gazhoi shabeh ba gazhoi avvalini atmosfera va namudhoi gunoguni energiyae, ki baroi sayyorai mo 4-4,5kh109 sol qabl khos bud, hamchunin, bo rohi ba hisob giriftani omilhoi iqlim, geologi va gidrogeografii hamon davra olimon bo rohi abiotiki paydo shudani chunin molekulahoi organiki, masalan, aldegidho, aminokislotaho, monosakharidho, puriniho, porfirianho, nukle otidho va gayrahoro isbot kardaand.

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