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Sarakhsshaklhoi qadima va hosil shudani angishtsang

Taqriban 300 million sol muqaddam dar hama joi sathi Zamin tamomi sol havoi garmu serrutubat hukmron bud. Bar asari boridani boronhoi garmu omadani sel daryoho serob shuda, kulho va botloqzaminho paydo shudand. Tumani tirai bukhori ob aksar vaqt oftobro panah mekard. CHunin sharoit boisi nashunamoi boavji nabototi nazdisohili va botloqi, khususan sarakhsshaklhoi qadima meshud. CHunki sarakhsshaklon doroi reshayu poyai purquvvat va barg. buda, nisbat ba ushnaho (azbaski onho reshai haqiqi nadoshtand) ba hayoti khushki mutobiqati khubtar doshtand. Dar onho spora khele ziyod hosil meshud va az in ru, metavonistand khubtar afzoish yoband.

saraxshaklDar chunin sharoiti baroi sarakhsshaklon khele muvofiq, onho dar yakjoyagi bo luchtukhmoni qadima beshazori anbuhi hayratangezro ba vujud meovardand. Aksari namoyandagoni sarakhsho, chilbandu mun- munahoi on davru zamon darakhtoni haqiqii qadbaland budand, ki to 40 metr qad kashida, tanai gafs doshtand. Dar qabati ruizaminii in beshazorho rastanihoi darakhtii nachandon kalon va alafi, ki ba sarakhsho, chilbandho va munmunahoi hozirazamon monand bu- dand, niz boavj nashunamo mekardand.

Dar shokhahoi in darakhton, ki holo gul nadoshtand va meva niz hosil namekardand, yagon khel parrandae dida nameshud. Dar beshazori toriku serrutubati sarakhsshaklon tanho suzanakhoi azimjussa parvoz mekardandu bas. Dar rui zamin boshad, hasharot, tortanak va kajdumho khazida megashtand.

In sarakhshoyu chilbandu munmunahoi qadim boisi ba vujud omadani konhoi an- gishtsang gardidand. Onho tadrijan nobud gardida, dar botloqho, zeri obu loyqa qabat-qabat jam me- gardidand. Zero onhoro daryohoi serob va jarayoni bakhrho ba joyhoi tunukob burda, ba boloyashon loyqa, gil, reg va gayraro mekhobondand. Dar chunin sharoit be ishtiroki oksigeni havo, dar zeri fishori ob va qabati jinshoi kuhi, in rastanihoi qadima dar da- vomi millionho sol botadrij ba angishtsang tabdil meyoftand. Hamin tavr, garmi yo energiyae, ki dar vaqti sukhtani angishtsang khorij meshavad, in hamon garmi yo energiyae meboshad, ki rastanihoi davrahoi nihoyat qadim dar ravandi fotosintez dar shakli mod- dahoi organiki dar khudashon gun kardaand va on hamchun boqimondahoi onho bo mururi zamon ba angishtsang tabdil yoftaast. PaD- doishi in energiya az oftob sarchashma megirad.

Angishtsang yake az suzishvorihoi behtarin va inchunin ashyoi khomi sanoati khimiya ba hisob meravad. Bo angishtsang katorakho, degkhoi bugdihanda, stansiyahoi (istgohhoi) barqi, alovi, zavodu fabrikaho kor mekunand. Az angishtsang suzishvorii gazi, plastmassa, ranghoi anilini, lakhoi gunogun, doruvori va bisyor digar mavodi baroi khojagii khalq muhim hosil karda meshavand.

Zakhirai angishtsang dar mikyosi jahon khele kalon ast. Dar jumhurii mo ham konhoi angishtsang mavjudand va bazei onho mavridi istifoda qaror dorand.

  1. Namudi zohirii sarakhsshakloni qadima chi guna bud?
  2. 300 million sol muqaddam dar rui Zamin kadom rastaniho nashunamo doshtand?
  3. Angishtsang chi tavr paydo shudaast?
  4. Angishtsang dar khojagii khalq chi ahamiyat dorad?
  5. Dar jumhuriamon kadom konhoi angishtsang mavridi istifoda qaror dorand?
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