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Sarakhsh: Sokht, hayot va ahamiyat

Sarakhsho ba guruhi rastanihoi qadimtarin dokhil meshavand. Onho dar rui Zamin vase pahn gardidaand. Dah hazor kheli onho malum ast. Dar sharoithoi gunoguni zist, dar biyobon va botloqzorho, kulho, maydonhoi kishti sholi, obhoi nisbatan shur, dar joyhoi sernamu soyai darakhtoni beshazor sukunat dorand.

Sarakhsho dar mintaqahoi kuhsor, dar joyhoi sernamu soya, tarqishi sanghoi serrutubat, sohili daryo, kanori chashmasorho mesabzand. Miqdori az hama ziyod va gunogunkheli sarakhshoro dar beshahoi namnoki tro- piki didan mumkin ast. Dar in jo sarakhsho nafaqat dar rui zamin, zeri jangal, inchunin dar shokhu tanai darakhton niz vase pahn gardidaand.

saraxsAndozai sarakhsho az yakchand millimetr to 25 metr merasad. Onho rastanihoi bisyorsolai alafiand. Sarakhshoi darakhtshakl nihoyat kam buda, onho beshtar dar Osiyoi tropiki, manotiqi markazii Avstraliya va Amerikai Janubi vomekhurand.

Dar Tojikiston gunogunkhelii sarakhsho nachandon bisyor buda, onho dar mintaqahoi kuhi beshtar vomekhurand.

Sarakhsho barg, poya va resha dorand. Onho bo doshtani resha az ushnaho farq mekunand. Aksariyati sarakhsho reshapoya dorand. Dar reshapoyai onho reshahoi ilovagi va barghoi dumchadaroz mesabzand. Dar bargi sabzi sarakhsho dar ravandi fotosintez az moddahoi gay- riorganiki moddahoi organiki hosil meshavand. Inchunin dar on jo sporaho niz hosil meshavand.

Tobiston dar zeri lalichai bargi sarakhs donachahoi burrang pay- do meshavand. Dar donachaho tudai khaltachahoe, ki dar onho sporaho pukhta merasand, joygir shudaand. Haltachahoi sporadorro faqat bo mikroskop didan mumkin ast.

Haltachaho badi pukhtani sporaho kushoda shuda, sporaho ba berun merezand va shamol onhoro pahn mekunad. Sporaho ba joi musoid aftoda, ba monandi ushnaho ba sabzish shuru mekunand. Vale az sporai sabzidaistodai sarakhs avval pahnaki mayda (bargchai)-i sabz inkishof meyobad, ki qutrash (diametrash) yakchand millimetr ast. Pahnaki sabz navniholi sarakhs ba hisob rafta, vay bo yorii rizoidho ba zamin dokhil shuda, mustaqilona nashunamo mekunad.

Dar pushti navniholi sarakhs hujayrahoi jinsii narina -an- teridiya bo nutfa va zanona — arkhegoniya bo hujayratukhm tashakkul meyoband. Hangomi purra tayyor shudani nutfa devori anteridiya kushoda shuda, onho ba berun mebaroyand. In hodisa odatan dar vaqti boridani boron yo shabnami sahari ruy medihad. Nutfaho dar ob shino karda, to arkhegoniya (hujayrai jinsii zanona) meoyand.

Barobari kushoda shudani devori arkhegoniya yake az nutfaho ba on vorid shuda, hujayratukhmi dar on budaro bordor mekunad. Az hujayratukhmi bordorshuda zigota (janin) inkishof meyobad. Janin avval az navnikholi sabz gizo megirad. Vay ba sabzish shuru karda, az on gadrijan resha, poyai khele kutoh va bargi avvalin inkishof meyobad. Ba tufayli reshaash navnihol ba khok resha ronda, ba gizogirii mustaqilona meguzarad. Hamin tavr, sarakhsi javon nashu- namo karda, ba sarakhsi haqiqi mubaddal meshavad.

  1. Sarakhs chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Sarakhsho dar kujo meruyand?
  3. Sporaho dar kadom uzvi sarakhsho tashakkul meyoband?
  4. Afzoishi sarakhs chi tavr amali megardad?
  5. Pahnaki sabz chi tavr paydo meshavad?
  6. Janin chi tavr inkishof meyobad?
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