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Sanoati Tojikiston

Sanoat va masalahoi on. Dar mohhoi yanvar – sentyabri  soli 2018 jihati ba kor andokhtani iqtidorhoi nav, rohandozii istehsoli mahsuloti navi raqobatpaziru voridotivazkunanda, istifodai samaranoki iqtidorhoi mavjuda, gustarishi iqtidori sodirotii kishvar va dar in zamina tamini ijroi yake az hadafhoe, ki dar Strategiyai millii rushdi Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi davrai to soli 2030 muayyan gardidaast, yane guzarishi rushdi iqtisodiyoti kishvar az agrari-industriali ba industriali – agrari yak silsila tadbirhoi sudmand amali gardidaand.

Dar natija, hajmi istehsoli mahsuloti sanoati dar davrai hisoboti 16491,8 mln. somoniro tashkil namud, ki nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta 13,5 foiz afzudaast. Dar dar sohai sanoati istikhroj hajmi istehsoli mahsuloti sanoati 3538,6 mln. somoni (surati rushd 118,6 foiz), dar sohai sanoati korkard ba 9118 mln. somoni (surati rushd 115,2 foiz) va istehsoli nerui barq, gaz, garmi va obtaminkuni ba 3835,3 mln. somoni  (surati rushd 107,5 foiz) tashkil namudaast. 

Hajmi  nominali va rushdi voqeii sanoat dar nuh mohi solhoi 2014-2018

Tibqi malumoti omori dar nuh mohi soli jori dar jumhuri  105  korkhonayu korgohhoi sanoati  bo 1487 joyhoi navi kori, az jumla dar shahr Dushanbe 20 korkhona bo 151 joyi kori,  viloyati Sugd 38 korkhona bo 561 joyi kori, viloyati Hatlon 23 korkhona bo 443 joyi kori, VMKB 4 korkhona bo 184 joyi kori va NTJ 20 korkhona bo 148 joyi kori  ba faoliyati istehsoli ogoz namudaand.

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Boyad qayd namud, ki sarfi nazar az afzoishi hajmi istehsoli mahsulot surati rushdi sohai sanoat nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta 8,5 bandi foizi, az jumla dar sohai sanoati istikhroj 4,7 bandi foizi, sanoati korkard 7,8 bandi foizi va istehsoli nerui barq, gaz, garmi va obtaminkuni 7,9 bandi foizi kohish yoftaast.

Tibqi tahlilho kohishyobii surati rushdi sohai sanoat nisbat ba surati rushdi hamin davrai soli guzashta asosan az hisobi kam gardidani istikhroji mavodi energetiki (-28,3 bandi foizi), gayrienergetiki (-1,8 bandi foizi), istehsoli mahsuloti khurokvori, yakjoya bo nushokiho va tamoku (-14,4 bandi foizi), istekhsoli nassoji va duzandagi  (-26,3 bandi foizi), istehsoli harguna masnuoti gayrifilizii madani (-14,3 bandi foizi), istehsoli nerui barq (-7,9 bandi foizi) va taqsimoti nerui barq, gaz va ob (-9,1 bandi foizi) ba amal omadaast.

Dar davrai hisoboti afzoishi hajmi istehsoli mahsulot dar sohai sanoati istikhroj asosan az hisobi korkhonahoi JMM «SHirkati metallurgii Anzob» (141,9 foiz) va JMM KM JMM «Anzob» (104,6 foiz) tamin gardidaast.

Tahlilho nishon medihand, ki sohai istikhroj tamoyuli kohishyobi dorad, zero dar nuh mohi soli 2018-um 118,6 foiz rushd karda boshad ham, surati rushdi on nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta (123,3 foiz) 4,7 bandi foizi kam shudaast.

YAke az sababhoi kohish yoftani surati afzoishi hajmi istehsoli mahsulot dar sohai istikhroj in pesh az hama kohishyobii hajmi istehsoli mahsulot dar JMM «SHirkati sanoati kuhii Tojikistonu Hitoy» meboshad, ki dar davrai hisoboti dar sathi 86,6 foizi hamin davrai soli guzashta mahsulot istehsol namudaast (dar nuh mohi soli 2017 surati afzoish 117,2 foiz).

Sababhoi asosii kohishyobii hajmi istehsoli mahsulot dar sohai istikhroj kamshavii zakhirahoi kon, chuquri va afzoishi darajai dushvorii korhoi istikhroji, kohishyobii foiznokii madan, hamzamon ziyodshavii hajmi kislota dar tarkibi madan va mushkilot dar tartibi hisobi bonusi obunavi va royalti baroi istikhroj meboshad.

Hamzamon kohishyobii surati istehsoli mahsulot nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta dar korkhonahoi istikhroji angisht, az jumla KF SHakhta «Fon-YAgnob» (8,5 bandi foizi kam), JDMM «Kombinati metallurgii  Tojik» (1,9 marotiba kam) va JMM «Talko resurs» (27,7 bandi foizi kam) ba miyon omadaast, ki boisi kohishyobii surati istehsoli mahsulot dar sohai sanoati istikhroj gardid.

 Istikhroji naft dar 9 mohi soli jori 18017,0 tonnaro  tashkil doda, nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta 336,2 tonna ziyod va dar sathi 101,9 foiz tamin gardidaast.

Istikhroji gaz boshad, hamagi 706,0 haz.m3-ro tashkil doda nisbat ba  hamin davrai soli guzashta 319,4 haz.m3 kohish yofta, dar sathi 68,9 foiz tamin gardidaast.

Sababi asosii ijro nagardidani naqshai istikhroji gaz in dar marhilai nihoii istikhroji qaror doshtani konhoi naftu gaz, purra qat gardidani istikhroji naftu gaz dar koni gazi «Surkhsimo» va dar davrai hisoboti faoliyat nakardani jamiyathoi istikhrojkunandai naftu gazi «Setos» va «Sugdnaftugaz» ba hisob meravad.

Az in ru az jonibi maqomoti mutasaddi bartaraf namudani mushkiloti shirkathoi istikhrojkunanda va ziyod namudani istehsoli mahsuloti zersohai istikhroj andeshidani chorahoi sarivaqti zarur arzyobi megardand.

Muvofiqi malumoti omori dar davrai hisoboti az 14 zersohai korkard ba gayr az harguna sohahoi sanoat (94,7 foiz nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta) dar digar zersohaho natijahoi musbi tamin gardidand.

Tamoyuli nishondihandahoi zersohahoi  sanoati korkard dar nuh mohi soli 2018 (bo foiz)

Dar davrai hisoboti ziyodshavii hajmi istehsoli mahsuloti sohai korkard nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta asosan az hisobi JDMM «Koka-Kola Nushokihoi Tojikiston» (141,0 foiz), JSP «Juntay Dangara» (134 foiz), JDMM Huaksin Gayur B. Gafurov (126,5 foiz), JMM «Huaksin Gayur sement» (113,3 foiz), JSK «Cementi tojik» (131,2 foiz),JSP «Nord aziya metall» (2,3 marotiba) va digar korkhonaho ba vujud omadaast.

Dar nuh mohi soli 2018 baroi istehsoli mahsuloti nav, tasisi istehsoloti nav, voridoti tajhizoti tekhnologi va vasegardonii fondhoi istehsoli dar sohahoi sanoat 695,4 mln. somoni mablaghoi dokhilii korkhonaho va sarmoyaguzoroni khoriji, az jumla dar sohai sanoati sabuk va pilla 11 korkhona bo mablagi 204,1 mln. somoni, dar sohai sanoati madanhoi kuhi va metallhoi qimatbaho 3 korkhona bo 192,4  mln.somoni, dar sohai sanoati moshinsozi, sanoati mudofia va kimiyo 1 korkhona bo mablagi 96,0 mln. somoni, dar sohai sanoati masolehi sokhtmon 10 korkhona bo mablagi 95,8 mln. somoni, dar sohai sanoati khurokvori 8 korkhona ba mablagi 79,8 mln. somoni, dar sohai sanoati angisht 4 korkhona bo mablagi 27,3 mln. somoni ravona gardidaast.

Dar asosi malumoti omori az 175 namudi muhimtarini mahsuloti sanoatii dar jumhuri istehsolshavanda, afzoishi hajmi istehsoli 122 nomgui on, az jumla moshinhoi kishovarzi (112 marotiba), khuroki paranda (17 marotiba), kaogulyant (11 marotiba), rishtai polietileni (7 marotiba), ftoridi alyuminiy (6,4 marotiba), angisht sang shiresh (6 marotiba), bompushhoi ohani (5,5 marotiba), kriolit (5,3 marotiba), mekh (4,5 marotiba), bozichahoi kudakona (4 marotiba), konservahoi gushtiyu rastaniho (4 marotiba), mekh (3,9 marotiba), saqfhoi oroishi (3,8 marotiba), klinker (3,7 marotiba), bozichahoi kudakona (3,5 marotiba), sobuni khojagi (3,4 marotiba), mahsuloti plastmassagi (3,4 marotiba), khaltahoi polipropileni baroi bastabandii ashyoi khom (3,3 marotiba), simhoi pechi (3,3 marotiba), cherepitsa (3,3 marotiba), takhtahoi asbesti (2,9 marotiba), mahsuloti jurobu paypoq (3,2 marotiba), zarfi rektashudai alyuminiy (3,1 marotiba), mavodi chubu takhta (3,1 marotiba), sachoqhoi namnok (3 marotiba), gaj sang (2,8 marotiba), mazut (2,7 marotiba), zarfhoi safoli (2,6 marotiba), penoblok (2,4 marotiba), nakhi pakhta (2,4 marotiba), profilhoi plastiki (2,4 marotiba), istehsoli pust (2,4 marotiba), muhr va sika (2,4 marotiba), profilhoi plastiki (2,2 marotiba), shirai rastaniho baroi tayyor namudani doruvori (2,1 marotiba), istehsoli asfalt (2,1 marotiba), gaj kardon (2,1 marotiba), andovai minerali (2,1 marotiba), mayonez (1,9 marotiba), muhr va sika (1,8 marotiba), papirosu sigaretho (1,6 marotiba), qumi kvarsi (1,6 marotiba), quburhoi metalli (1,5 marotiba), namaki oshi (1,5 marotiba), qolinhoi taftingi (1,5 marotiba), qogazi tashnob (1,5 marotiba) va suzishvori dizeli (1,5 marotiba) nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta ziyod tamin gardidand.

Hamzamon nuh nomgui mole, ki dar hamin davrai soli guzashta istehsol nagardida budand, az jumla kaltsid, sipori traktori, toyband, avtobusho, rishtai polipropileni, farshhoi bedarzi rezini, mavodi narmi bompush, mola va yadak istehsolashon ba roh monda shudaast.

Dar barobari in boyad qayd namud, ki hajmi istehsoli 44 namudi mahsuloti istehsoli, az jumla sobuni mushkin (71,9 foiz),  shishai sokhtmoni (70,6 foiz), shampan (65 foiz), ftoridi kaltsiy (63,6), sobuni mushkin (64,3 foiz), rangi sokhtmoni (63,1), rangi sokhtmon (61,3 foiz), shireshi kafel (60,6 foiz), istehsoli lampahoi kammasraf (59 foiz), plitahoi tarabkhonaho (57,6 foiz), qismhoi ehtiyoti ba moshinhoi kishovarzi baroi ehtiyojoti tamir (57,0 foiz), armaturi sokhtmoni (34,4 foiz), pakhtai kurpabob (33,4 foiz), khishti khom (31 foiz), korkardi duyumdarajai alyuminiy (26,0 foiz), konsentrati ruh (25,4 foiz), bompushhoi ohani (24,1 foiz), konsentrati surb (22,6 foiz), khishti khom (19,4 foiz), ohanu betoni vaslshavanda (17,2 foiz), dolomit (15,9 foiz), mahsuloti doruvori (14,1 foiz), mahsuloti zargari (11,0 foiz), suzandoru (7,7 foiz), gazi naftii rohguzar (6,8 foiz), sabus (6,7 foiz), shampun (5,3 foiz) va asbobhoi musiqi (1,7 foiz) nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta kohish yoftaand.

Dar nuh mohi soli jori az 2081 korkhonahoi sanoati 141 korkhonai az faoliyat bozmonda, az jumla 39 adad dar shahri Dushanbe, 50 adad dar viloyati Hatlon, 34 adad dar viloyati Sugd va 18 adad dar nohiyahoi tobei jumhuri ba qayd girifta shudaand.

Dar in samt Vazorati sanoat va tekhnologiyahoi navro zarur ast, ki sababhoi az faolyait boz mondani korkhonahoro muayyan namuda, yakjo bo maqomoti ijroiyai hokimiyati davlatii viloyatho va shahru nohiyaho jihati ehyoi faoliyati onho tadbirho andeshand.

Garchande dar sohai sanoati korkard surati afzoishi hajmi istehsoli mahsulot 115,2 foizro tashkil namuda boshad ham, dar yake az sohai asosii sanoati korkard sohai istehsoli mahsuloti khuroka, az jumla nushokiho va tamoku hajmi istehsoli mahsulot ba 3314,5 mln. somoni barobar gardida, hamagi 9,4 foiz ziyod shudaast, ki in qonekunanda nest.

Tahlilho nishon medihand, ki dar davrai hisoboti yake az mahsuloti asosii sanoati dar soha istehsolshavanda ord dar sathi 97,6 foiz, non va mahsuloti nonu bulka 90,1 foiz va mahsuloti makaroni 101,6 foizi hamin davrai soli guzashta istehsol shudaast, ki bo nazardoshti farovonii bozori istemoli  voqeiyatro ba purragi inikos namenamoyad.

sanoati-tojikiston

Az in lihoz, Agentii omorro zarur ast yakjo bo maqomoti ijroiyai hokimiyati davlatii viloyatho va shahru nohiyaho jihati bahisobgirii purrai nishondihandahoi istehsoli dar in samt tadbirho andeshida az natijaash to okhiri mohi noyabri soli jori ba Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston malumoti mufassal peshnihod namoyad.

Hamzamon tahlilho nishon medihand, ki dar jumhuri dar mohhoi yanvar – sentyabri soli jori az jonibi korkhonahoi soha ba miqdori 18570,9 dal spirti etili, 1434,5 dal konyak, 35778,9 dal araq va mahsuloti likyoru araq  90969,7 dal obi jav va 4,4 dal shampan istehsol shudaast, ki  mutanosiban  102,2, 100,0, 101,2, 100 va 35,0 foizi sathi hamin davrai soli guzashtaro tashkil medihad.

Tibqi malumoti gumruki dar mohhoi yanvar-sentyabri soli 2018 ba jumhuri 3,3 tonna spirti etili ba mablagi 66,2 hazor dollar, 2,9 hazor tonna araqu vino ba mablagi 4,0 mln. dollar va 5,9 hazor tonna obi jav ba mablagi 2,9 mln.dollar vorid gardidaast.

CHunone az tahlilho barmeoyad, hanuz istehsoli spirti etili, sharobu araq va obi javi istehsolnamudai korkhonahoi vatani talaboti bozori dokhiliro qane namekunand. Zero ba qalamravi jumhuri dar khajmi kalon in namudi mahsulot vorid meshavand.

Holo on ki imruzho araqi istehsoli vatani, bakhusus «shohona» az jihati sifat javobgui meyorhoi baynalmilali buda, dar bayni istemolkunandagoni vataniyu khoriji shuhrat paydo namudaast.

Az in lihoz, vazoratu idorahoi masul boyad jihati taqviyati istifodai iqtidorhoi korkhonahoi vatani, afzoish dodani hajmi istehsoli mahsulot va sodiroti on ba kishvarhoi khoriji chorahoi zaruri andeshand.

Hamzamon tahlilho nishon medihand, ki dar davrai hisoboti dar korkhonahoi sanoati khurokvori 19,4 mln. quttii sharti konservahoi mevayu sabzavot istehsol karda shudaast, ki  dar sathi hamin davrai soli guzashta buda, bo nazardoshti afzoishi istehsoli ashyoi khom, az jumla mevagiho va sabzavot va mavjudiyati iqtidorhoi istehsoli nokifoya arzyobi megardad.

Zero tibqi malumoti omori hanuz bozori istemolii kishvar qisman az mahsuloti konservashudai voridoti tamin megardad.

Boyad qayd kard, ki az shumorai umumii korkhonahoi  konservabarori 14 adadi onho hajmi istehsoli mahsulotro kohish doda, 1 adad korkhona dar davrai hisoboti tamoman mahsulot istehsol nakardaand.

YAke az sababhoi asosii kohishyobii hajmi istehsoli makhsulot dar korkhonahoi konservabarori va faoliyat nadoshtani onho  in pesh az hama farsudashavii tajhizothoi istehsolii korkhonaho meboshad.

Binobar in, Vazorati sanoat va tekhnologiyahoi navro zarur ast yakjo bo maqomoti ijroiyai hokimiyati davlatii viloyatho va shahru nohiyaho baroi ziyod namudani hajmi istehsoli konservahoi mevayu sabzavot va aznavtajhizonii korkhonahoi soha tadbirho andeshand.

Dar nuh mohi soli jori dar jumhuri az jonibi korkhonahoi korkardi mevai khushk 2108,1 tonna mahsulot istehsol karda shudaast, ki nisbat ba hamin davrai soli guzashta 21,5 foiz ziyod ast.

Boyad qayd namud, ki khushk kardani meva va dar korkhonaho korkard kardani on imkoniyat medihad, ki sifati mahsulot baland bardoshta shuda, dar bozori khorija bo narkhi garontar ba furush barovarda shavad, hamzamon dar mintaqahoi kishvar joyhoi navi kori tasis doda shavand.

Dar samti mazkur imkoniyati vase az lihozi tamini ashyoi khom mavjud buda, baroi yakchand marotiba ziyod namudani hajmi istehsoli mevai khushk sharoiti musoid faroham meboshad.

Az in ru, maqomoti ijroiyai hokimiyati davlatii viloyatho va shahru nohiyahoro zarur ast, ki jihati tasisi korkhonahoi korkardi mevai khushk tadbirho andeshida, baroi omuzonidani aholi az tarzu usulhoi khushkonidani meva choraho amali namoyand.

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