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Saljuqiho va suquti davlati Gaznaviyon

YAk guruh amaldoroni olimaqomi darbori gaznavi bo sardorii hojib ba vasiyati sulton Mahmud amal namuda, pisari khurdi u — Muhammadro ba takht nishondand. Vale pisari buzurgi vay — Masud az in hol bokhabar shuda, ba muqobili Muhammad sar bardosht. Masud ba chashmoni Muhammad mil kashida, uro bo farzandonash dar qalae habs kard va saltanatro ba dasti khud girift.

Dar davrai hukumatdorii Masud (1030–1041), ki dar harisi va khasisi az padari khud mondani nadosht, toroj gardidani aholi az had guzasht. hokimoni viloyathoi judogona ba vositai rishvagiri va andozhoi gayriqonuni khalqro tamoman khonakharob menamudand. Azbaski yak qismi sarvati bo in rohho gunshuda ba tariqi tuhfa va peshkash ba sulton doda meshud, u na in ki bar ziddi in qabil beadolatiho muboriza nameburd, balki onro bo har vasila pushtiboni mekard.

Masud nisbat ba Qarokhoniho hamon siyosati padari khudro davom medod va kushish menamud, ki hama vaqt bo onho munosibati dustonai hamsoyavi doshta boshad, zero dar chunin sharoite ki shurishhoi khalq va zadukhurdhoi dokhili mamlakat quvvat megirift, raviyai dushmanona doshtani Qarokhoniho baroi davlati gaznavi khele khavfovar bud. Maktubi zerini Horazmshoh Oltuntosh, ki dar soli 1030 ba Masud navishtaast, mohiyati in munosibatro ravshan nishon medihad: «Oshkor ast, ki amiri marhum (Mahmudi Gaznavi) baroi ba takhti khoni nishastani Qodirkhoni Qarokhoni kushishi ziyode namuda, sarvati beandozae ham dar in roh sarf kard. holo zarur ast, ki uro himoya kunem, to ki dustii bayni mo va u mustahkam gardad. Onho (Qarokhoniho) dustoni haqiqii mo nakhohand shud, vale dar har surat dar zohir munosibati dustii khudro bo mo nigoh doshta istoda, digaronro bar ziddi davlati gaznavi nakhohand shuronid».[1]

Horazm, ki zohiran dar tobeiyati Gaznaviyon boshad ham, vale amalan hamchun davlati mustaqile bud, dar halli taqdiri davlati gaznavi roli bagoyat kalone bozid. Agarchande Masud pas az margi Oltuntosh baroi kam kardani huquqi hukmroni Horazm chorahoi lozima did, ammo mamlakatro boz ba dasti vorisoni u boqi guzosht. Masud unvoni «Horazmshohi»-ro ba pisari khud doda, pisari Oltuntosh horunro hamchun noibussaltana ba hukmronii Horazm tain kard. Albatta, in raftori Masud ba farzandoni Oltuntosh tasiri bad nakarda nametavonist. In bud, ki horun bo Alitegini Qarokhoni va saljuqiho munosibati dusti barqaror namuda, dar soli 1034 Horazmro mustaqil elon kard va nomi sultoni gaznaviro az khutba bardosht. Dar bahori soli 1035 horun ba Huroson lashkar kashid. Farzandoni Alitegin (khudi Alitegin dar soli 1034 vafot karda bud) harakati horunro himoya karda, az tarafi digar, ba sarzamini Gaznaviyon hujum namudand. Lekin vaqte ki horun dar ruzhoi avvali lashkarkashi ba dasti gulomoni khud, ki ba Masud furukhta shuda budand, qatl gardid, farzandoni Alitegin ba Samarqand bargashtand. Masud ba muzokiroti oshti bo Qarokhoniho shuru namud, ki ba tufayli in guftuguzor dar bayni onho aloqai dusti va kheshi barqaror gardid. Ba hamin tariq, khavfi hujume, ki az tarafi Horazm va Qarokhoniyon ba davlati gaznavi tahdid mekard, bo rohi diplomati bartaraf karda shud.

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Dar khudi hamon soli 1035 Masud meboist ba muqobili turkoni saljuqi, ki ba Huroson hujumovar shuda budand, lashkar bikashad. Sulton Mahmud dar davrai muboriza bar ziddi Qarokhoniho, ki baroi Movarounnahr meburd, ba yak guruhi Saljuqiho baroi maskan namudan dar shimoli Huroson ba onho rukhsat doda bud. Kushishi ozod shudan az jabri andozhoi vaznin va ba dast ovardani zaminu charogohhoi nav borho boisi isyon namudani Saljuqiho gardid. Muboriza avvalho goh ba foidai Saljuqiyoni Huroson va goh ba foidai hukumati gaznavi davom menamud. Soli 1035 hujumi navi Saljuqiyon ogoz yoft. Masud az Nishopur quvvai ziyodi harbiro bar ziddi saljuqiho ba Niso ravona namud. Dar in muhoriba, agarchande avval askaroni gaznavi galaba ba dast ovardand, lekin saljuqiho ba qarorgohi onon shabokhun zada, ba lashkari Masud zarbai sakht dodand.

Badtar Saljuqiyon ba Gaznaviyon yakchand martaba zarbahoi sakht vorid ovarda, qismi ziyodi Huroson, az jumla, Nishopurro ishgol kardand. Sulton Masud tamomi quvvahoi askari khudro jam karda, ba sui istiqomatgohi Saljuqiho harakat namud. Bahoroni soli 1040 dar nazdikii Dandonaqon (Toshraboti hozira) muhoribai halkunanda ba vuqu payvast.

Dar natijai in muhoriba (az rui malumoti sarchashmaho mumkin ast onro yake az khunintarin jangho dar tarikhi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona donist) saltanati Gaznaviho dar Huroson ba tavri doimi khotima yoft. Dar barobari tamom shudani harbu zarb sardori Saljuqiho — Tugral dar maydoni jang takhte orosta bar on nishast va khudro hokimi kulli Huroson elon namud.[2] Boyad qayd kard, ki ayonu ashrofi shahrhoi Marvu Nishopur, ki manfiathoi onon az tarafi Gaznaviho mahdud karda shuda bud, ba Saljuqiho kumaki buzurge rasonidand.

Sulton Masud az daryoi Marvurrud guzashta, ba Gaznin omad, vale bo vujudi in, u baroi dubora jam kardani quvvai harbi bar ziddi Saljuqiho jurat nakard. Zero ba vay ayon bud, ki dar miyoni ommai vase himoyat nakhohad did. Na ayonu ashrofi ba muqobili markaziyat sar bardoshta, na aholii az khiroju andozhoi beshumor muflisgardidai Hurosonu Takhoriston, na mardumi girdu atrofi Gaznin, Siston va mamlakati kuhistoni Gur niyati muhofizat kardani davlati Gaznaviyonro nadoshtand. Dar muhoribai nazdi Dandonaqon az dushman ru ba gurez nihodani guruh — guruh askaron, ki Masud bo chashmoni khud dida bud, ba in hol khele ravshan guvohi medod. Az in sabab Masud ba qarore omad, ki boyad har chi zudtar ba hinduston rafta, dar on jo lashkari purquvvat hozir namoyad, to ki ba in vosita bozdoshtani harakati Saljuqiho mumkin gardad.

CHunon ki Bayhaqi menavisad, Masud pesh az ba hinduston safar kardani khud ba Arslonkhon nomae firistoda, dar muborizai ziddi Saljuqiho az u kumak khost. Sipas, vay amr dod, to barodarash Muhammadro, ki hamrohi u ba hinduston raftani bud, az habs barovarand. Tarafdoroni Muhammad bo ham zabon yak karda, ba Masud hujum namudand va uro ba habs girifta, Muhammadro ba sultoni bardoshtand. Masud badi chand ruzi digar ba dasti odamoni Muhammad kushta shud (s.1041).

Mavdud – pisari sulton Masud dar barobari shunidani qatli padarash dar mohi apreli hamon sol ba Gaznin omada, khudro sulton elon namud. Pas dar jangi nazdi Dinur (Fathobod) quvvai harbii Muhammadro shikast doda, uro taqriban bo hamai farzandonash ba qatl rasonid.

Mavdud na faqat muqobilati barodaroni tojutakhttalabi khudro bartaraf karda tavonist, dar ayni zamon, ba nigoh doshtani Gaznin va ham Tirmizu Balkh dar dasti khud muvaffaq gardid. Pas az in ba zudi dar hinduston qushuni purquvvate faroham ovarda, ba muqobili Saljuqiho ravona namud. Vale Saljuqiho in quvvai sultoni gaznaviro ham torumor kardand. Nihoyat Mavdud bo podshohoni hinduston, Turkiston va digar kishvarhoi hamsoya ittifoq basta, dar solhoi 1049–1050 bo quvvai ziyode ba Huroson harakat namud, ammo dar roh kasal shuda, ba Gaznin bargasht va dar on jo vafot kard.

Dar soli 1059 Saljuqiho Balkhro zabt namuda, aloqai bayni Movarounnahr va davlati gaznaviro buridand. Bad az in davlati Gaznaviyon ruz to ruz iqtidori khudro gum kardan girift. Dar okhiri asri HII okhirin sultoni gaznavi ba dasti lashkari Gur – davlati nav dar sarzamini Afgoniston, ki dar intihoi asri HI va ibtidoi asri HII ba vujud omada bud, asir aftod.

[1] Bayhari, 1962, s. 108

[2] Doir ba in muhoriba marolai makhsuse hast: Zakhoder B.N., 1943.

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