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SHahri Dushanbe

Dushanbe (fors. دوشنبه‎) – kalontarin shahr va poytakhti Jumhurii Tojikiston ast. Masohati shahr to 01.01.2016 – 126,6 km murabba buda, dar on 802,2 hazor nafar shahrvand zindagi mekardand. Ammo dar asl dar shahri Dushanbe ziyoda az 1 million tan aholi zindagi mekunad. Darozii umumii kucha, guzargohho, rohhoi sohili, pulho, rohhoi zerizaminiash – 705,6 km ast. Masohati fazoi sabz va darakhtonash – 74800 metri murabba meboshad. SHahr doroi chahor nohiyai mamuri: SHohmansur, Ismoili Somoni, Firdavsi va Sino meboshad. Poytakhti Tojikiston az jumla — 230 korkhonai sanoati, 38 korkhonai tarobari, 132 korkhonai sokhtmoni, 40 bank, 8 mehmonkhona, 35 bemoriston, 21 masjid, 121 maktabi tahsiloti umumi, 14 omuzishgoh, 12 kollej, 21 donishgoh, 7 osorkhona va 7 namoishsaro-ro dorad.

sovremeni_dushanbe

Naqshai navi generalii shahri Dushanbe bo Qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston az 28 apreli soli 2017 tasdiq gardid, ki tibqi on vaseshavii asosii mamuriyu hududii poytakht ba janub, qisman ba shimol, sharq va garb amali shuda, ziyod gardidani hududi sokhtmonii shahr az 12, 7 hazor gektari hozira to 18 hazor gektar dar soli 2025, to 25 hazor gektar dar soli 2040 va to 30 hazor gektar badi soli 2040 peshbini gardidaast. Afzoishi shumorai aholi dar hududi loihavi dar marhalai avval to soli 2025 936 hazor nafar va dar muhlati hisobi to soli 2040 1 millionu 176 hazor nafar muayyan gardidaast.

TARIHI DUSHANBE

Sarzamine, ki hamaknun shahri Dushanbe dar on joy dorad, dar sadahoi miyona «SHumon» (fors. «شومان»‎) nom doshtaast va dar rohnomaho va tarikhnomahoi qadim ba gunai «Sumon» (fors. «سومان»‎) niz navishta shudaast. Dar «Hudud-ul-olam min-al-Mashriq ilal-Magrib» omada: «SHumon shahrest ustuvor va babaro kuh nihoda va girdi u borae kashida va uro kuhandizest bar sari kuh nihoda va andar miyoni kuhandiz chashmai obast buzurg. Az vay zafaron khezad bisyor».[4] SHumon dar qismati boloobi rudi Qubodiyon va shimoli Puli Sangin va shahri Voshjird (Visagird, aknun — Fayzobod) voqe bud, ki ba guftai Istakhri ba andozai Tirmiz vusat dosht va ba masofati andake dar janubi on qalai buzurgi SHumon voke bud. Muqaddasi dar «Ahsan al-taqosim» guyad: «SHumon makone purjamiyat va obodu neku ast». SHarafuddin Alii YAzdi dar «Zafarnomai Temuri» az in qala ba nomi «Hisori SHodmon» (fors. «حصار شادمان»‎) yod karda va goliban onro ba surati mukhtasar «Hisor» (fors. «حصار»‎) yo «Hisorak» (fors. «حصارک»‎) navishta va imruz ham «Hisor» maruf ast.[5] SHoyoni yodovarist, ki vojai «hisor» arabi va manoyash «dij» va «qala» ast. Qalae, ki hamaknun dar 5-kilometrii shimolu garbii shahri Dushanbe qaror dorad, bozmonda az hamon shahri SHumon ast, ki dar sadahoi XV – XVII m. «hisori SHodmon», yane «qalai SHodmon», nomida meshud. Bar asari kasrati talaffuz «SHodmon» az on aftodu «hisor» mond va ismi khos — «Hisor» – gasht.

Dar ogozi sadai XX in qala takhtgohi beki Hisor SHohimardonqul bud va dar zaminlarzai 8 sentyabri soli 1907 vayron shud va az on tanho yak darvoza va du burj dar miyoni du kuh barjoy monda ast. Pas az on zaminlarza SHohimardonqul ba qalai Dushanbe kuchid ki dar on zamon markazi yake az amlokdorihoyash bud va az on pas Dushanbe takhtgohi beki Hisor shud.

Az joynomi «Dushanbe» (fors. «دوشنبه»‎) baroi nakhustin bor dar kitobi donishmandi balkhi Mahmud ibni Vali «Bahr ul-arof fi manoqib al-khayr» (ogozi sadai XVII m.) va nomai khoni Balkh Subhonqul Bahodur ba shohi davlati Rus Fyodor Alekseevich (dekabri 1676) yod shudaast. Dar sanade bozmonda az soli 1826 in shahr «Dushanbe-qurgon» (fors. «دوشنبه قورغان»‎) nomida shudaast. «Qurgon» vojai turki va manoyash «qala» va «hisor» ast. Qalai Dushanbe dar kanorai chapi rudi Varzob joy doshta va har ruzi dushanbe dar nazdi on bozor barguzor meshudaast. Nomi kununii poytakhti Tojikiston yodovari hamin bozor ast. Azbaski in joyro «dushanbebozor» meguftand, dehkadae, ki bo guzashti zamon dar joi «dushanbebozor» paydo shud, Dushanbe nom girift.

Soli 1924, pas az tashkil kardani Jumhurii Mukhtorii SHuravii Sosialistii Tojikiston dar tarkibi Jumhurii SHuravii Sotsialistii Uzbekiston, Dushanbe shahr va poytakht elon gardid.

16 oktyabri soli 1929 Dushanbe ba Stalinobod, (bakhshida ba rohbari hamonvaqtai IJSHS Iosif Stalin (1924-1953) nomash ivaz gardid. Soli 1961 dubora Dushanbe nomida shud. CHunin ivaz kardani nomhoi shahru mahalhoi aholinishin dar natijai tagyir yoftani sokhti jamiyativu siyosi dar Tojikiston ba vuqu omadaast (Nig: Ruykhati nomguzorihoi navini shahrhoi Tojikiston)

SANOAT:

Dushanbe ba kalontarin markazi sanoati tabdil yoftaast. Dar poytakht ba miqdori 40 fisad (%) iqtidori sanoati mamlakat joygir bud. Dar poytakht taqriban 15 fisadi (%) aholii jumhuri zindagi mekard va choryaki majmui mahsuloti dokhilii mamlakatro istehsol mekard. Kompleksi sanoatii poytakht holo 230 korkhonai sanoatii gunogunshaklro dar bar megirad, ki dar on ziyoda az 19 hazor aholii poytakht faoliyat dorand. Az hajmi umumii istehsoli mahsulot 30 % molhoi sermasrif (az jumla khurokvori) tashkil medihad. Mahsuloti az korgohhoi poytakht ba furushi beruna sodirotshavanda: matohoi pakhtagin, resmoni pakhtagin, korkardi mahsuloti jurobbarori, mahsuloti kabelbarori, armatura va mahsuloti korkardi kishovarzi va dig. tashkil medihad. Ziyoda az 10 korkhonahoi yakjoya bo shirkathoi khoriji dar Dushanbe faoliyat dorand.

Taqsimoti korkhonahoi istehsoli az nuqtai nazari sohahoi bartari doshta.

  • Sanoati sabuk – sohai beshtar taraqqikardai sanoati kompleksii poytakht meboshad. CHunin holat ba on manidod meshavad, ki manbai asosii ashyoho (pakhta, nakhi mahinakh va gayra) dar dokhili jumhuri istehsol meshavand. Na tanhoi korkhonahoi shahr, balki korkhonahoi buzurgi jumhuriro ba misli tashkiloti istehsolii JMM «Nasoji» (korkhonai bofandagi va resandagi), ki bo quvvai istehsoli dar yak sol korkardi pakhtai mahinakhro ba 25 hazor tonna merasonad, dar bar megirad. JS «CHevar» korkhonai baroi istehsoli makhsuloti duzandagii tayyor, JS «Nafisa» korkhonai korkardi mahsuloti jurobbarorie, ki dar ayni zamon asosan mahsuloti khudro ki az nakhi pakhta iborat ast, istehsol meamoyand.
  • Sohahoi barqi, moshinsozi va metallurgi – korkhonahoi azimi jumhuri ba hisob meravand. IIVD «Tekstilmash» (istehsoli dastgohho va tajhizot baroi sanoati pakhtatozakuni, khojagii qishloq, istehsoli hisobkunakhoi gazi, nerugohhoi barqii khurd va avtonomi, vasl namudani tekhnikai khojagii qishloq) JS «Tojikkabel» – korkhonai istehsli mahsuloti kabeli (ziyoda 40 nomgui va namud sar karda, az kabelhoi telefoni to kabehoi puriqtidori elektroni) JS «Somon-tajhizot» korkhonai istehsoli tekhnikai elektroni, molhoi elektriki maishi, JS «Torgmash» – korkhonai istehsoli tajhizot baroi muassisahoi savdo, JS «Zavodi armaturbarori»- korkhonai istehsoli rekhti chuyan, armatura.
  • Sanoati khurokvori va korkardabarori: Tamomi namudi mahsuloti khurokvoriro istehsol menamoyand, inchunin molhoi mashrubotiro. YAke az sohahoi kalontarin in kombinati shirbarori va gushtu konserva, zavodi mashruboti shahri Dushanbe, kombinati khurokvorii Tojikiston, korkhonahoi mahsuloti non «Nonpaz», qanodi, fabrikai «SHirin» meboshand.
  • Sanoati masolehi binokori – zavodi sementbarorii shahri Dushanbe, zavodi shiferbarori, zavodi khishbarori va inchunin digar korkhonahoro, ki masolehi binokori konstruksiyai betoni istehsol menamoyand, dar bar megirad.
  • Sohai elektroenergetiki – korkhonahoi TETS-i Dushanbe va nerugohhoii barqii Varzob – korkhonahoi korkardi elektroenergetiki va garmiro dar bar megirad.
  • Sanoati kimiyovii poytakht – az korkhonahoi korkardbarorii masolehi nefti va istehsoli ashyoi plastmassagi iborat ast.
  • Sanoati jangal, korkardi chub, qogaz va selyuloza – ba khud korkhonahoi istehsoli korkardi jangal, istehsoli ashyo baroi mebel, ki ba standarthoi davlati tanosub ast, dar bar megirad.
  • Sanoati poligrafi – ziyoda az 20 korgohhro dar bar girifta, ki kitob va digar namudi chopi poligrafiro istehsol menamoyand.

Maorif

Miqdori maktabhoi malumoti oli – 20;

dar onho:
Donishjuyon, hazor nafar – 97,2;
Mutakhassisoni khatmkunanda, hazor nafar – 17,1;
Miqdori omuzishgohhoi kasbiyu tekhniki – 9;

dar onho:
Honandagon, hazor nafar – 9,0;
Korgaroni mutakhassisi khaimkunanda, hazor nafar – 2,1;
Miqdori maktabhoi tahsiloti umumi – 140;

dar onho:
Honandagon, hazor nafar – 172;
Omuzgoron, hazor nafar – 7,2;
Miqdori muassisahoi bachagonai tomaktabi – 112;
Bacha dar onho, hazor nafar – 24,1

Ilm

Tashkilothoi ilmi – 45;
tedodi kormandoni ilmi – 2828;

Dorandagoni unvoni ilmi dar onho:
doktoroni ilm, nafar – 231;
nomzadhoi ilm, nafar – 583.

az jumla:
Instituthoi Akademiyai ilmhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston – 15;
tedodi kormandoni ilmi – 883;

Dorandagoni unvoni ilmi dar onho:
doktoroni ilm, nafar – 115;
nomzadhoi ilm, nafar – 229.[11]

Maktabhoi oli

Maqolai asosi: Maktabhoi olii Dushanbe

YOdgorihoi memori – tarikhi
1. Mujtamai yodgorii oshtii milli va ehyoi Tojikiston bo haykali Ismoili Somoni, dar maydoni “Dusti”;

2. Haykali Sadriddin Ayni;

3. Haykali Abuali ibni Sino;

4. Haykali Mirzo Tursunzoda;

5. Haykali A. Firdavsi;

6. Haykali V. V. Kuybishev;

7. Haykali A. Rudaki;

8. Haykali Sadriddin Ayni va Maksim Gorkiy;

9. Haykali Abulqosim Lohuti;

10. Haykali Umari Hayyom;

11. Nimpaykarai akademik Bobojon Gafurov;

12. Nimpaykarai Makhatma Gandi;

13. Mujtamai yodgorii Ittifoqi navisandagoni Jumhurii Tojikiston (“Sitorahoi SHarq”);

14. Mujtamai nishoni davlatii Jumhurii Tojikiston;

15. Mujtamai parchami davlatii Jumhurii Tojikiston.

Osorkhonaho

Maqolai asosi: Osorkhonahoi Jumhurii Tojikiston
Osorkhonai millii Tojikiston (soli 2012 tasis yoftaast)
Osorkhonai millii ba nomi Kamoliddin Behzod (soli 1934 tasis yoftaast)
Osorkhonai millii bostonii Tojikiston (2001)
Osorkhonai mardumshinosii AI Tojikiston(etnografi)(1954)
Hona — muzeyi Sadriddin Ayni (1963)
Osorkhonai jumhuriyavii farhangi musiqii ba nomi Ziyodullo SHahidi dar Dushanbe (1991)
Hona — muzeyi Muhammadjon Rahimi (1968)
Hona — muzeyi Muhiddin Aminzoda (1974)
Osorkhonai Tursunzoda — Hona — muzei Mirzo Tursunzoda (1981)
Osorkhonai sharafi jangii shahri Dushanbe (1995)
Osorkhonai Lohuti (1963)
Osorkhonai zaminshinosii Tojikiston dar shahri Dushanbe (2011)
Osorkhonai asbobhoi musiqii ba nomi Gurminj Zavqibekov

Muassisahoi teatri

Teatri davlatii akademii dramavii ba nomi A. Lohuti
Teatri davlatii javonon ba nomi M. Vohidov
Teatri davlatii dramai rusii ba nomi Vladimir Mayakovskiy
Teatri davlatii akademii opera va baleti ba nomi Sadriddin Ayni
Teatri davlatii lukhtak

Muassisahoi konserti

Filarmoniyai davlatii Tojikiston ba nomi A. Juraev
Ittihodiyai davlatii guruhhoi ejodiyu konserti
Ansambli davlatii raqsii «Lola» ba nomi G. Valamatzoda
Ansambli «Somon»
Muassisai davlatii safariyu hunarii «Bazmoro»
Markazi ejodii «Ilhom»

Bogu gulgashtho

Bogi A. Rudaki
Bogi farogat va istirohati ba nomi S. Ayni
Bogi hayvonot
Kuli javonon
Bogi «Iram»
Bogi Luchob
Bogi Galaba
Bogi kudakon (Dushanbe)
Bogi nohiyai SHohmansur
Gulbogi ba nomi A. Mironenko
Gulbogi ba nomi V. Kuybishev (Dushanbe)
Gulbogi «Buston»
Gulgashti ba nomi akademikho Rajabovho

Nashriyaho

Miqdori ruznoma va majalahoi jumhuriyavii dar shahr nashrshavanda:
ruznoma – 37
majalla – 37

az jumla Majallai «Tojikiston»,«Ilm va hayot», Majallai «Bonuvoni Tojikiston», «Farhang», «Tojikiston»,«Adabiyot va sanat», Ruznomai «Jumhuriyat», «Narodnaya gazeta», «Aziya-plyus», «Payomi Dushanbe», «Vecherniy Dushanbe» «Nidoi ranjbar» va dig. nashr meshavand.

Dar poytakht 4 Ojonsihoi ittilootii Tojikiston amal karda istodaand: Ojonsii ittilootii «SIMONYUS», Ojonsii ittilootii «Aziya-Plyus», AMIT «HOVAR», Ojonsii umumimillii ittiloot «TOJNYUS»(«TOJNEWS») (faoliyati ojonsi dar soli 2016 qat shudaast).

Tandurusti

Az hama bemorkhonai kalontarin dar Osiyoi MarkaziTedodi bemorkhonaho – 43;
Kati bemoroni onho – 5447;
Tedodi dukhturoni hamai takhassusho, nafar – 6282;
Tedodi muassisahoi tibbii yorii ambulatori-darmoni dihanda – 16.[12]

Inshoothoi varzishi

Stadionho – 8;
Tolorhoi varzishi – 121;
Havzhoi shinovari – 4;
Tolorhoi tennisbozi – 3;
Maydonhoi futbolbozi – 57;
Mashqgohi tirandozi – 3;
Mujtamai maydonhoi varzishi – 140;
Tedodi joy dar inshoothoi asosii varzishi:
Stadioni Frunze – 24 hazor;
Stadioni Spitamen (Spartak) – 6 hazor;
Stadioni Aviator – 2 hazor.

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