Home / Gunogun / Safforiyon: davlati solhoi 873–903

Safforiyon: davlati solhoi 873–903

Davlati Safforiyon – Dar asrhoi IH–H, ba misli davrahoi guzashta, yake az vazifahoi hokimiyati davlati dar vohahoi ziroatii Osiyoi Miyona tashkil kardani muhofizati in vohaho az hujumi goratgaronai bodiyanishinon bud. Bo hamin maqsad dar in davra dastahoi makhsusi fidoiyoni musallah tashkil doda shuda budand, ki onhoro gozi — muborizoni rohi din menomidand. Ba safi goziyon aksaran barzgaron va peshavaroni muflis dokhil megardidand. In odamone, ki jangro kasb karda girifta budand, ba hamon johoe firistoda meshudand, ki bo «kofiron» zadukhurd ba amal meomad.

Hokimoni mahalli in favjhoi goziyonro baroi khizmat ba istehkomote, ki dar hududi bayni vohahoi ziroati va sahroi bodiyanishinon voqe gardida budand, mefiristonidand. CHi nave olimi jugrofidoni arab — Maqdisi qayd mekunad, goziho «ham takyagoh va ham yak vositai nooromii» hukumatdoroni mahalli budand, onho, az yak taraf, ba taarruzi bodiyanishinon zarba doda vohahoi ziroatiro az tokhtutozi dushmanon muhofiza namoyand, az tarafi digar, dar nehzati khalqii ziddi ayonu ashrofi mahalli faolona ishtirok mekardand.

Dar okhiri asri IH favjhoi musallahi goziyon asosi on junbishi buzurgi khalqiro, ki dar hududi Osiyoi Miyona va Eron ruy doda bud, tashkil namudand. In junbishi khalqro barodaron YAqub ibni Lays va Amr ibni Lays ba manfiati khud istifoda burdand[1]. In du barodar dar avvali kor yak dastai rohzan tashkil dodand, ki dere naguzashta in dasta ba yake az favjhoi goziyoni tavobei Siston hamroh shud. Istedodi jangovari va dilovari ba YAqub imkoniyat dod, ki dar andak fursat rohbarii favjro ba dasti khud bigirad. In favj ba hayoti siyosii viloyat faolona ishtirok namud va az shurishi mardumoni vohahoi ziroati istifoda burda, dar soli 861 hokimi tohirihoro rond va markazi Siston shahri Zaranjro zabt kard.

YAqub hukmroni in viloyat gardida, dar zarfi dah soli oyanda yak qator viloyathoi sharqii khilofatro tasarruf kard, ki onhoro to in vaqt okhirin namoyandai silsilai Tohiriho – Muhammad ibni Tohir (862-873) idora menamud.[2] Dar soli 873 YAqub ba quvvai harbii Tohiriho shikast doda, markazi Huroson shahri Nishopurro zabt kard. Ba hamin tariq, hokimiyati Tohiriho dar Osiyoi Miyona va viloyathoi sharqii Eroni kununi tamoman az bayn raft.

Agarchande hukumati Bagdod az in muvaffaqiyathoi YAqub khele ba iztirob aftoda, baroi beshtar pahn nagardidani nufuzi u baze choraho peshbini karda boshad ham, natijae nabakhshid. Az in sabab khalifa dar soli 874 in amri voqeiro etirof namuda, majbur gardid, ki idora kardani tamomi khoki Hurosonro ba YAqub suporad.

YAqub to okhiri hayoti khud hamchun yak nafar mardi jangii sodda va shikas-tanafs boqi mond, libosi oddii resmoni mepushid, ba palos va qolin ahamiyat nadoda, ba zamin menishast va dar vaqti istirohat sarashro ba joi bolisht ba rui sipari khud guzoshta mekhobid. Dar ayni hol vay bo maromi junbishhoi khalqii Osiyoi Miyona yagon qadar nazdikie nadosht.

Dar bayni lashkariyoni u intizomi sakht hukmfarmo bud. Hudi u namunai dilovarii hayratangezero nishon doda, az sarbozon va sardoron niz inro bo qatiyat talab mekard. Dar yake az jangho rui uro bo shamsher zada chunon mayub karda budand, ki bist ruzi tamom ba dahonash naycha guzoshta khurok mekhurd. Pas az sihat shudan boz misli peshtara dalerona ba korzor daromad.

saforiyon-1024x784

YAke az qismhoi asosii qushuni uro sarbozoni «fidoi» tashkil mekardand, ki goho onhoro bo ohangi karohatomez «ayyor» ham (ba manii «qallob» va «rohzan») meguftand. In tabaqai makhsusi «mujohidoni rohi din» bud, ki safi khudro az hisobi barzgaroni bezamin va firori purra mekard. Ayyorho dar hayoti siyosi roli muhim mebozidand, az jumla, onho dar Siston ba muqobili istilogaron bo matonati tamom muboriza burdand. Zohiran hamon ayyor-hoero, ki dar jang besh az hama dilovari nishon medodand, ba martabai balandtar bardoshta, ba guruhi sarhangho dokhil mekardand. Dar qatori ayyorho farzandoni dehqonon va zamindoron ham budand, ki onhoro «ozodagon» menomidand. Gayr az in dar qushun dastahoi makhsusi gulomon ham mavjud budand. Avvalho dar ikhtiyori Safforiyon hamagi 2-3 hazor sarboz bud, ammo dar sol-hoi 874-75 YAqub dar yak muhoriba 15 hazor askari savoraro ba korzor daro-vard. Qushuni saffori moshinhoi harbi va filhoi jangi dosht. Dar vaqti hujum ba guzoshtani dastai peshohangi muhofiz va tajassus ahamiyati kalon doda meshud. Sarbozho dar har se moh maosh megiriftand. har vaqt dar ayyomi Navruz taftishi qushun ba amal meomad. Az sarboz to sardori qushun ba amaldori makhsus aspu silohi khudro namoish medod va, sipas, pul megirift.[3]

Muvaffaqiyathoi YAqub ibni Lays ahvoli vaznini mehnatkashonro, ki u bo yordami onho ba in daraja rasida bud, zarrae tagyir nadod. YAqub goliban ba zamindoroni khurd va miyonai feodali takya menamud. U dar viloyathoi zabt-kardai khud tamomi tartib va qoidai mavjudaro bo hamon holati peshtara boqi guzosht, hatto miqdori moliyotro, ki bar dushi barzgaron bori garone bud, kam nakard.

Dar soli 876 YAqub bo niyati gasb kardani hokimiyati khilofat ba Bagdod lashkar kashid, lekin to on jo narasida, 100 km durtar dar mavzei Doru-l-Akul az tarafi quvvai harbii khalifa ba shikasti sakht duchor gardida, aqib nishast. CHi nave ki manbahoi tarikhi nishon medihand, yake az sababhoi maglub shudani YAqub ibni Lays kumaki Ali ibni Muhammadi Burqairo rad kardani u bud. Ali ibni Muhammad ba shurishi zangiyoni gulom dar Iroq, ki taqriban 14 sol (869-883) davom namudaast, sardori mekard. YAqub ibni Lays, ki khud tarafdori gulomdori bud, az ittihod bastan ba gulomon or kard va az in sabab kumaki peshnihodkardai peshvoi shurishiyonro napaziruft. Pas az se soli lashkarkashii bemuvaffaqiyat ba Bagdod asosguzori sulolai Safforiyon YAqub ibni Lays vafot kard. Lashkariyoni u barodarash Amr ibni Laysro ba takht nishondand.

Amr ibni Lays (879–900) dar barobari ishgol kardani joi barodari khud favran ba khalifa murojiat namuda, itoati khudro bo markazi khilofat izhor kard. In bud, ki az tarafi khalifa mansabi qoimmaqomi Huroson va idora kardani yak miqdor viloyathoi sharqii Eron ba u suporida shud. Lekin dar amal Amr ham misli Tohiriyon istiqloliyati khudro az khilofat nigoh medosht. Bar tibqi malumoti sarchashmaho, vay yak shakhsi dar idora kardan sohibtadbiru dono va lashkarkashi tavono bud.

Dar asosi baze madrakho chunin takhmin kardan mumkin ast, ki Safforiho nehzati mazhabii shiahoro, ki dar bayni barzgaron va peshavaron muvaffaqiyat paydo karda bud, ba darajai khele ziyod istifoda burdaand (hatto rivoyate hast, ki guyo YAqub «Mo ba joi Kaba parastishi oftobro jori mekunem», gufta boshad).

[1] Az rui baze malumot YAqub misgar bud. Dar zaboni arab misgarro saffor megu-yand. Nomi silsilai Safforiyon niz az hamin barmeoyad. Amr najjoriro kasb karda bud.

[2] Muhammadi Tohiri yake az kalontarin feodaloni on zamon bud. Madrakhoe bori mondaand, ki muvofiri shahodati onho vay az zaminhoi dar Mozandaron doshtaash rarib yak million diram foida ba dast meovardaast (dar surate, ki daromadi umumii Mozandaron 13 millionu 630 hazor diramro tashkil mekard). Nig.: Ibni Isfandiyor, 1320/1941, jildi I, s. 74.

[3] Bartold V.V., 1963 b, s. 272–280; Eosworth S.E., 1968.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

Vazi dokhilii Koreya (asri XIX)

Ba davlathoi sarmoyadori khoriji bastani shartnomahoi nobarobar norozigii vatandustoni Koreyaro ba vujud ovard. In norozigi …