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Sabzishi tukhmi rastani

Tukhmi janinash zindavu solim metavonad sabzida, nashunamo kunad va rastanii navro ba vujud ovarad. Dar baze holatho az osebi hasharothoi zararrason, magorbandi yo dar natijai miqdori ziyodi obashro gum kardan va sababhoi digar janin nobud megardad. Inchunin, janin dar natijai solhoi duru daroz nigoh dosh- tani tukhmi niz nobud meshavad. Nobud shudani tukhmi boisi qobi- liyati sabzishashro gum kardani tukhm megardad.

Dar sharoiti baroi sabzish muvofiq tukhm (don) pesh az hama obro jabbida varam mekunad. Dar in vaziyat tukhmhoi varamidai gayri qobili sabzish odatan mepusand, tukhmhoi janinashon solimu qobi- li sabzishbuda nesh zada mesabzand.

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Masalan, hangomi neshza- nii doni lubiyo pustash kafida, az reshachai janini inkishofyofta reshai asosi (javon) paydo meshavad. Vay zud sabzida dar zamin mustahkam megardad. Sipas, poyachai janin bo avj sabzida, tukhmpalla va mugjaro ba rui khok mebarorad. Az onho poyai asosi va barghoi lubiyo inkishof meyoband. Tukhmpallai nakhud va baze rastanihoi digar boshad, ba berun nabaromada dar zeri khok memonad. Poyavu bargi onho odatan az mugjachai janin tashakkul meyoband.

Baroi fahmidani on, ki kadom sharoitho ba sabzishi janin (yo tukhm) musoidat mekunand, tajribaho kumak merasonand.

Du zarfi shishagini stakani yakkhelaro girifta, ba har kadomi onho ba mikdori barobar doni (tukhmi) bosifagu qobili sabzish- budai gandum, nakhud, jav yo juvorimakkaro meandozand. Tukhmi sta- kani yakumro khushk guzoshta, ba dokhili stakani duyum kame ob ilova mekunand. Har du stakanro bo lavhachai shishagin pushonida, ba joi garm meguzorand. Dar stakani yakumi beob tukhm tagyir nameyobad.

Dar stakani duyumi obdor pas az 3-4 ruz tukhmhoi guzoshtashuda nesh mezanand.

tuxmii-rastaniHamin tavr, baroi sabzishi tukhm (don) ob hatman zarur ast. Zero janini sabzidaistoda moddahoi gizoii tarkibi donro metavonad faqat dar shakli mahluli obiashon istifoda barad. Baroi sabzi- shi tukhmi rastanihoi gunogun ba mikdori gunogun ob lozim ast. Masalan, doni nakhud (yo mushung) nazar ba vaznash taqriban yakunim marotiba ziyodtar ob mejabbad. Binobar on tukhmi nakhud va rasta- nihoi ba ob ziyodtar ehtiyojdoshtaro pesh az kisht tar mekunand. Tukhmi juvorimakka barobari nisfi vaznash ob talab mekunad, ammo baroi arzan barin rastanii khushkitobovar ob faqat baro- bari choryaki vaznash lozim ast.

Baroi guzaronidani tajribai duyum boz ba du stakan kame doni javdor, gandum yo jav meandozand. Ba stakani yakum az sathi tukhm khele baland ob merezand. Tukhmi stakani duyumro faqat tar mekunand. Da- honi stakanhoro bo lavhachai shishagin pushida, ba joi garm meguzo- rand. Doni dar stakani obash kambuda pas az 3-4 ruz nesh mezanad. Doni stakani purob boshad, faqat varam mekunad va nasabzida nobud me- gardad, chunki obi stakani purob havoro (oksigeni havoro), ki ba- roi nafaskalshi tukhm hatmai zarur ast, fushurda barovardaast.

Umuman, tukhmi rastanihoi gunogun ba havo ehtiyoji gunogun dorad. Masalan, doni sholi va arzanak dar sharoiti khele kam budani havo, hatto dar zeri ob metavonad sab- zand. Vale tukhmi aksari rastanihoi guldor nisbati oksigeni havo ser- talab buda, dar muhiti obi sabzi- da nametavonad.

Baroi tajribai seyum boshad, boz du stakanro girifta, ba onho tukhmi nakhud, lubiyo yo gandumro ba mikdo- ri barobar dokhil mekunem. Tukhmhoi har du stakanro tar karda, onhoro bo lavhachai shishagin mepushonem. Sipas, yake az stakanhoro dar choi nisbatan garm, digarashro dar joi khunuk (masalan, dar yakhdon yo zeri barf) nigoh medorem. Vaqte ki doni stakani joi garm sabzid, onro bo doni ba joi khunuk guzoshtaamon muqoisa mekunem. Mushohida nishon medihad, ki tukhm dar sharoiti  khunuki nesh nazadaast.

Hamin tariq, baroi sabzidani tukhm se sharoit: ob, havo va garmi behad zarur ast. Agar yake az in sharoitho ba tavri qanoat- bakhsh (kifoyakunanda) naboshad, tukhm ba sabzish shuru namekunad. Masalan, agar ob va havo kifoya boshadu garmi narasad, tukhm na- mesabzad va oqibat nobud meshavad. Vale tukhmi baze rastaniho, chunonchi, doni chavdor hatto hangomi yak daraja budani garmi (haro- rat) ham sabzida metavonad. Tukhmi aksari rastaniho hangomi 10- 15 daraja va yo ziyodtar budani garmi khubtar mesabzand 24 .

  1. Baroi sabzidani tukhmi rastaniho kadom sharoitho hatman zarurand?
  2. CHaro tukhmi khushk namesabzad?
  3. CHaro tukhmiro ba zamini nam boyad kisht?
  4. Dar kadom harorat tukhm khubtar mesabzad?
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