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Sabzishi resha va Qismhoi on

Malum ast, ki hangomi ba neshzani shuru kardani tukhm, pesh az hama reshachai janin nesh zada mebaroyad. Saravval on kam ayon buda, vale ba zudi kad kashida kalon meshavad. In hodisa chi tavr amali megardad?

Reshachai janini tukhm va reshai rastanii nashunamokunanda monandi digar uzvhoi rastani niz az hujayraho iboratand. Hujayrahoi reshachai janini moddahoi gizoii tukhmro dar shakli mahlul jabbida istifoda mebarand, mesabzand va taqsim meshavand.

Agar ba reshachai tukhmi sabzidaistodai nakhud yo lubiyo bo siyohy badi har 2 mm fosila az yakdigar kundalang khatcha kashida, on tukhmro ba boloi qogazi namkash, ki yak gushaash dar ob furu guzoshta shudaast guzorem, badi yak shabonaruz mebinem, ki fosilai bayni khatchahoi qismi nugii resha afzudaast.

Inkishofi shabakai reshai rastaniho Zero hujayrahoi qismi nugii resha teztez muntazam taqsim meshavand va boisi sabzishi boavju qadkashii resha megardand. In daleli on ast, ki resha az nugash mesabzad. Sanjishi in aqida na on qadar dushvor ast. Agar nugi 32 resharo burida partoem, resha az qadkashi bozmemonad. Dar reshai nugash buridashuda ba miqsori ziyod reshahoi pahlui mesabzand. Har yak reshai pahlui ham az nugash qad mekashad. Hangomi kuchatshinoni kandani nugi reshai asosi boisi az qadkashi bozmondani on va sabzishi reshahoi pahlui va ilovagi megardad. Hangomi kuchat kardani karam, pomidor, qashqargul va ziroathoi digari tirreshador nugi reshai asosii onhoro peshaki meburand.

Nugkanii reshai kuchat boisi sabzishi boavji reshahoi pahlui va ilovagi gardida, gizogirii rastaniho khele behtar megardad. Amali nugi reshai navniholi rastaniro burida, bo yorii mekhchubi nugtez kuchat kardani onhoro kuchatshinoni menomand.

Reshai rastanihoi sabzanda dar khok khele chuqur joygir meshavad. Darozii reshai rastanihoi galladonagi (gandum, javdor, jav, juvorimakka) ba chuqurii 1,2-2,0 m, yunuchqa to 3-5 m, rastanii yantoq boshad to 15-20 metr inkishof meyobad.

Resha na tanho ba poyon  ba chuquri, balki ba tavri ufuqi ba sathi khoki atrof ham khele inkishof meyobad. Masalan, reshai juvorimakka ba atrof ba masofai takriban 2 metr, reshai piyoz boshad ba 60- 70 sm pahn meshavad. Hususan, reshai darakhton boavj nashunamo karda, to chuqurii 10-15 m dar khok resha meronand. Masalan, reshai darakhti seb ba atrof az bekhi tanaash to 15 m duri resha ronda, to 3-4 m chuqur meravad. Darozii umumii tamomi reshahoi yak bekh rastani khele buzurg ast. Rastani ba tufayli nashunamoi khubi resha az khok beshtar ob va moddahoi gizoiro jabbida megirad.

tirresha-patakresha

Qismhoi resha. Qismi nugii reshai navrastai lubiyo yo nakhudro dar zeri purbin az nazar guzaroned. SHumo mebined, ki nugi resharo monandi angushtpona gilofaki resha pushidaast. Dar zeri mikroskop didan mumkin ast, ki gilofaki resha az yakchand qabati hujayraho iborat buda, onho nugi resharo az osebi zarrahoi sakhti khok emin medorand. Hujayrahoi gilofaki resha kutokhumr buda, muntazam nobud megardand va ba joi onho mudom hujayrahoi nav paydo meshavand.

Az qismhoi gunoguni resha buridai tunuk tayyor karda dar zeri mikroskop mebinem, ki hujayrahoi qismhoi gunoguni resha az jihati shakl va andozaashon az hamdigar farq dorand. Majmui hujayrahoe, ki sokhti yakkhela doshta, vazifahoi yakkhelaro ichro mekunand, bofta nomida meshavad.

Gilofaki resha tavassuti boftai pushish hosil shuda, odatan hujayrahoi boftai hosilkunandaro, ki teztez taqsim shuda, qad- kashii resharo ba darozi tamin mekunand, muhofizat mekunad. Dar qitai boftai hosilkunandai qismi nugii resha hujayraho muntazam taqsim shuda, mikdorashon meafzoyad. Binobar on, in qismi resharo juzi taqsimshavi menomand. Bolotar az juzi taqsimshavi juzi sabzish yo qadkashii resha joy giriftaast, ki khujayrahoi on qad kashida andozaashon kalon meshavad va dar natija resha sabzida daroz meshavad. Durtar az juzi sabzish, qitai bo muyakreshahoi sershumoru shaffof ihotagardidai resha joygir ast, ki onro juzi jabbish menomand. Muyakreshahoi bisyor rastanihoro metavon bo chashmi oddi mushohida kard. Onho dar yakjoyagi boftai asosi yo jabbishro tashkil medihand. Masalan, muyakreshahoi nakhud nagz namudorand. Muyakreshahoi gandum va bisyor rastanihoi khushador ba tibit monandand.

tirresha-patakresha-2

Muyakreshaho khele khurd buda, hamagi az 0,1 to 1,5 mm darozi dorand. Vale dar baze rastaniho, masalan, dar gandum to 8-9 mm qad mekashand. Onho hamagi yakchand ruz umr dida, bad nobud megardand. Joi onhoro muyakreshahoi navhosilshuda ivaz mekunapd. Bo tufayli muyakreshaho rastani az khok ob va moddahoi madaniro dastras mekunad.

Dar bayni juzi jabbish va sarshavii poya juzi guzaronandai resha voqe ast, ki tavassuti boftai guzaronanda va raghoi dar on mavjudbuda ob va moddahoi madanii dar on halshuda az resha ba poya meguzarand. Dar in qitai shokharondashudai resha muyakreshaho dida nameshavand. Inchunin dar in qitai resha hujayrahoe mavjudand, ki moddahoi organikii dar barg hosilshudaro az poya ba resha medihand.

Mustahkami va chandirii resha ba tufayli mavjudiyati boftai mekhaniki tamin karda meshavad. Hujayrahoi boftai mekhanikiro  tashkilkunanda ba darozii sathi berunii resha qad yozonda, bo lifofai gafs ihota gardidaand. In hujayraho barmahal dokhiloti khudro gum karda, bo havo pur meboshand.

Rasmi 34. Sokhti reshai navnihol (naqsha)
  1. Reshai navrasta (navnihol) az kadom qismho iborat ast?
  2. Gilofaki resha chi ahamiyat dorad?
  3. Qismi zud-zud taqsimshavandai hujayrahoi resha dar kujo joygir ast, vay az qismhoi digari resha chi farq dorad?
  4. Muyakresha chist?
  5. Qismi jabbandai resha kadom vazifaro ijro mekunad?
  6. Qismi guzaronandai resha dar kujo joygir ast?
  7. Bofta chist?
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