Home / Ilm / SHURISHI SANJAR

SHURISHI SANJAR

SHurishi Sanjar. Istiloi davlati qarokhoni az tarafi Muhammadi Horazmshoh

CHunon ki qayd karda shud, hanuz dar nimai avvali asri HII dar Bukhoro khonavodai olinasab – namoyandagoni ruhoniyoni darajai olii islom, ki unvoni «Sadri jahon»-ro girifta budand, nufuzi kalone paydo namudand. Gayr az miqdori ziyodi zaminhoi vaqf, ba dasti ruhoniyon guzashtani daromadi muassisahoi tijorati, bozor, andozi zaminhoi ziroatii girdu atrofi shahr, hamchunin moliyoti peshavaron va tojiron sarvati sadrhoro khele afzud. To chi andoza sarvatmand shudani sadrhoi Bukhororo az hamin jo ham donistan mumkin ast, ki yake az sadrho Muhammad ibni Ahmad bo oidoti khud metavonist 600 nafar faqehro nigohdori kunad. hangome ki u ba Makka safar namud, baroi taminoti roh ziyoda az sad ushtur bor hamrohi khud burd. Vale u dar ivazi hirsu oz va raftori noqobile, ki dosht, laqabi «sadri jahannam»-ro girifta bud.

Sarvati sadrhoi Bukhoro sarchashmai digare niz dosht. Onho bo bahonai ba gurkhonhoi qarakhitoi pardokhtani khiroji soliyonai mamlakat khalqi zahmatkashro berahmona istismor va bo har vasila gorat mekardand. Zimnan, qismati ziyodi sarvate, ki ba in tariqa jamovari meshud, ba khudi sadrho merasid.

Albatta, hamai in beadolati va goratgariho hissi nafrat va adovati ommai vasero nisbat ba sadrho ba vujud nayovarda natavonist. Dar soli 1206 aholii Bukhoro bo rohbarii Sanjar nom ustoi siparsoz bar ziddi hukumati sadrho qiyom namudand.

Quvvai asosii shurishi Sanjarro peshavaroni shahr tashkil mekardand. Sarchashmahoi tarikhi dar borai chi guna sar zadani shurish va vusati minbadai vay malumoti khele kam medihand. Mo dar khususi on ki shurishchiyon pas az galaba chand vaqt shahrro dar dasti khud nigoh doshtand va kori tashkilii onho chi guna ba roh monda shuda bud, chize namedonem. Faqat hamin qadar malum ast, ki Sanjar bad az ishgol kardani shahr, chi nave ki vaqoenigoroni darbor menavisand, odamoni nomdor, yane ashrofi feodaliro khele «tahqir» kard. Sadrho bo yak holati iftizohomez az shahr ronda shuda, molu mulki onho ba dasti shurishiyon daromad.

Sadrhoi rondashuda az Qarakhitoiho madad khostand.

Dar chunin vaziyat Muhammadi Horazmshoh, ki baroi az Qarakhitoiho giriftani Movarounnahr fursat mejust, voqeai Bukhororo baroi ijroi naqshahoi khud mavqei musoid daryofta, bo quvvai buzurgi harbi ba sui Bukhoro harakat namud. SHurishiyon, ki baroi mudofiai shahr hej yak chorajui nadida va, hatto bo barzgaroni obodihoi atrof muttahid nagardida budand, hamlai quvvahoi harbii Horazmshohro daf karda natavonistand. Dar soli 1207 sulton Muhammad qabl az on ki Qarakhitoiho ba Bukhoro rasand, shahrro zabt namud. Sadrhoi Bukhoro hokimiyati khudro az nav barqaror karda, mutei Muhammadi Horazmshoh gardidand. Tasarrufi shahri Bukhoro faqat muqaddimai maqsadi ba pesh guzoshtai sulton Muhammad bud. Baroi tamoman tobe namudani Movarounnahr ba u lozim meomad, ki az bayni hokimoni khudi in sarzamin muttafiq paydo kunad.

Dar sarchashmahoi khatti roje ba voqeahoi in davra malumoti eiyode mavjud ast. Vale fikrho aksaran mukholifi yakdigarand.[1] Baroi ravshan kardani bisyor masalaho, holatho va tarikhi voqeaho mahz madrakhoi sikkashinosi kumak merasonand.[2]

saforiyon-768x588Hokimi Samarqand va sarsulolai ismii Qarokhoniyon — Usmon ibni Ibrohim buda, dar Fargona barodari u — Qadarkhon hukmroni mekard. Usmon dar hududi asrhoi HII–HIII ba takhti padar nishasta, pas az chande unvoni dabdabanoki «sultoni buzurgi sultonon»-ro qabul namud. Vaziyati u dar bayni Muhammadi Horazmshoh va Qarakhitoiho chunon bud, ki guyo dar «miyoni obu otash» qaror girifta boshad. Vale u to yak muddat khele mohirona az in vaziyat berun meomad. CHunin ba nazar merasad, ki Muhammadi Horazmshoh, dar avvalho fikri barham dodani sulolai Qarokhoniyonro nadosht, u faqat dar rafti muboriza bo Qarakhitoiho siyosati khudro dar in bobat tagyir dod. Munosibati bayni Qarokhoniyon va Muhammadi Horazmshohro metavon ba se marhila judo kard: avval munosibati muttafiqona, soni munosibati tobeiyat va, nihoyat, taqib va nest kardani hokimoni Qarokhoni.Pas az zabti Bukhoro Muhammadi Horazmshoh bo Usmoni Samarqandi, be on ki ba mulki u davoe kunad, ittihod bast. Usmon misli peshtara ba nomi khud bo hamon unvonu laqabhoe, ki hatto az unvonhoi Muhammadi Horazmshoh dabdabanoktar bud, sikka zadan girift.

Dar hamin vaqt ittifoqchiyon, yane Muhammadi Horazmshoh va Usmon az Qarakhitoiho shikast khurdand. Muhammadi Horazmshoh majbur shud ba mamlakati khud bargardad, Usmon boshad, dubora bo Qarakhitoiho nazdik shuda, dukhtari khudi gurkhonro ba zani khost. Ammo javobi rad girifta, boz ba tarafi Muhammadi Horazmshoh mayl namud, vale in bor na ba sifati ittifoqchi, balki hamchun shakhsi mute pazirufta shud. In bud, ki Usmon dar soli 1209/10 sikkaro ba du nom zarb kard: dar yak tarafi sikka nom va unvoni Muhammadi Horazmshoh va dar tarafi digari on nomi khudro sabt namud.

In khiyonati Usmon gurkhonro ba khashm ovarda, boisi ba Samarqand hamla ovardani u gardid. Qarakhitoiho Samarqandro girifta va yak miqdor boj sitonida, ammo ba sababi nooromihoi jiddii dar sharqi mamlakati khud baamalomada majbur shudand, ki shahrro tark karda, pas gardand.

YAke az sababhoe, ki to yak andoza baroi muvaffaqiyat paydo kardani Muhammadi Horazmshoh imkoniyat ba vujud ovard, mavridi hujumi qabilai naymanhoi mugul qaror giriftani davlati qarakhitoi bud. Naymanho hatto khazinai gurkhonro gorat kardand. Usmon in nokomi va nobarorihoi kori Qarakhitoihoro dida, az sari nav ba tarafi Muhammadi Horazmshoh guzashta, boz ba du nom sikka zad va ba in vasila tobeiyati khudro tasdiq namud. Muhammadi Horazmshoh mustahkam kardani saddi mudofiai Samarqandro farmuda va dar nazdi Usmon namoyandai khudro guzoshta, khud ba quvvai askar ba tarafi sharq ravona shud va dar muhoribai vodii Talas bar qushuni Qarakhitoiho golib omada, sipahsolori ononro asir namud.

Agarchande in muhoriba taqdiri Qarakhitoihoro ba kulli hal nakard, vale dar ayni hol obru va etibori Muhammadi Horazmshohro khele ziyod namud. Pas az in nomi uro dar hujjathoi rasmi bo unvoni «Iskandari duvum» yo khud «Sulton Sanjar»[3] yod kardand.

Muhammadi Horazmshoh az in jihat ham Movarounnahrro ba osoni fath namud, ki aholii in sarzamin umedvor budand, pas az ronda shudani Qarakhitoihoi «butparast» va istiqror yoftani hokimiyati Horazmshohiyoni hamdin vaziyati onho behtar khohad gardid. In umedvorii khalqro sulton Muhammad dar rohi rasidan ba maqsadi khud khele khub istifoda namud. hangome ki u dar soli 1207 Bukhororo ishgol kard, zohiran, ba askaroni khud farmon dod, ki ba aholi hej guna javru zulm nakunand. hatto rohbari shurishiyon — Malik Sanjar, ki bar ziddi sadrho va gurkhoni qarakhitoi baromada bud, niz dar avval salomat monda, faqat pas az chand vaqt ba daryoi Omu garq karda shud.

Vale aholii Movarounnahr ba zudi tamomi sakhtihoi hokimiyati khorazmshohi «musulmon»-ro his kardand. Usmon, pas az on ki Muhammadi Horazmshoh bar Qarakhitoiho galaba kard, ba dukhtari Muhammad khonador shuda, yak soli tamom dar Horazm mond. Sipas u ba Samarqand bargashta, az alami tobeiyat ba khorazmiho va mahrumiyat az istiqlol boz ba Qarakhitoiho guftuguzor sar kard. Ba in tariqa, u az siyosati peshinai khud, ki ba tarafi zuru tavono mayl kardan bud, in dafa ru gardonid. In dafa manfiati hokimi qarokhoni ba manfiati khalq muvofiqat namud: zulmu istibdodi khorazmiho dar muborizai umumi onhoro ba ham muttahid sokht.

Jabru zulmi hokimi dar Samarqand guzoshtai Muhammadi Horazmshoh to darajae sakht bud, ki khalqi shahr toqat nayovarda, dar soli 1212 ba muqobili in sitamgaroni nav shurish kardand. Onho medonistand, ki baroi muboriza burdan bo Muhammadi Horazmshoh quvvai kofi nadorand, binobar in Qarakhitoihoro ba yori davat namudand. Lekin Muhammadi Horazmshoh az in hodisa khabardor gardida, favran ba Samarqand omad va shurishro dar yak surati berahmona furu nishond. Qatlu gorati aholii shahr se ruz davom kard. Dar natijai in vahshoniyat hazoron odamoni begunoh nobud shudand. Usmon ham kushta shud.

Sulton Muhammad, pas az on ki ba aholii sarkashi Samarqand chunin raftor kard, in shahrro ba iqomatgohi khud tabdil doda, dar on jo ba sokhtani masjid va qasri podshohi shuru namud. Vay baroi mustahkam gardidani mavqei khud dar Movarounnahr farmud, ki dar viloyathoi judogonai Osiyoi Miyona hokimoni qarokhoniro ba qatl rasonand.

U Fargonaro, ki barodari Usmon Qodirkhon hukmroni mekard, niz ishgol namud. Pas az in ham dar soli 1213 dar Uzgand — poytakhti kalontarin mulki Qarokhoniyon va dar Samarqand – poytakhti davlati qarokhoni sikka ba nomi Muhammadi Horazmshoh  zada shud, ki in manii tamoman az bayn raftani sulolai Qarokhoniyonro dosht.

Ba mavjudiyati sulolai Qarakhitoiho sardori naymanhoi bodiyanishin — Kuchluk khotima guzosht. Kuchluki nayman dushmani muqtadire bud, vale fikru zikri khorazmshohi johtalab va shuhratparast ba mulkhoi hamsoyai janub va garbi khud band bud, u orzu dosht, sarzaminhoi Afgoniston va Eronro zabt namuda, bo khudi khalifa sitezajui kunad. CHun vay dar khud iqtidori dar du jabha jangidanro namedid, az tarsi on ki Kuchluki nayman ba istiloi viloyathoi shimolu sharqi davlati u say khohad kard, aholii SHosh, Isfijob va yak qismi Fargonaro ba mahalhoi digar kuchonida, amr namud, ki in nohiyahoro kholi guzorand.

Dar ayni zamon Muhammadi Horazmshoh Eron va Afgonistonro ba tahti tasarrufi khud darovarda, az khalifa talab namud, ki umuri idorai Bagdodro ham ba ikhtiyori u voguzorad. Vale u ba in ham qanoat nakarda, umuman az takhti khilofat mazul gardidani khalifaro elon namuda, ba joi vay Said Aloulmulki Tirmiziro khalifa khond va soli 1217 ba tarafi Bagdod lashkar kashid. Vale az in baroyash chize hosil nashud. Digar malumot va akhboroti sarchashmaho doir ba munosibati bayni khalifa va sulton ikhtilofoti ziyode dorand. Baze sarchashmaho khabar medihand, ki sulton Muhammad khalifaro murda elon karda, taqriban dar tamomi shahrhoi mamlakati khud az khutba nomi uro barovard. Qismi digari sarchashmaho, baraks, bo khalifa rohi muroso va musolimat justani Horazmshohro takid mekunand. Muarrikhon beshtar tarafdori fikri duvum meboshand.[4] Ammo madrakhoi sikkashinosi nishon medihand, ki fikri avval ba haqiqat nazdiktar ast: ham pesh az lashkar kashidani Muhammadi Horazmshoh ba Bagdod va ham pas az on nomi khalifa dar sikkahoi baze shahrho yod shudaast va dar sikkahoi bazei digar shahrho ne.[5] Az in jihat sikkahoi Tirmiz – zodgohi Aloulmulk khele jolibi diqqat ast: dar in jo badi khalifa elon shudani Aloulmulk va pas az yurishi Bagdod nomi khalifai «mazul» dar sikkaho dida nameshavad (hol on ki peshtar mavjud bud), vale nomi Aloulmulki Tirmizi ham dar yagon sikka sabt nagardidaast. Obruyu etibori khalifai Bagdod dar bayni musulmonon nihoyatdaraja baland bud. Binobar in sulton Muhammad dar siyosati khud sobitqadamona va to okhir dar rohi azli khalifa muboriza karda natavonist. Vay az in taloshi khud chize burd nakard, balki bisyor chizhoro az dast dod. V.V.Bartold durust qayd mekunad, ki dar jamiyat yagon sinfe nabud, ki takyagohi Muhammad boshad. Feodalho, ruhoniyon, mardum — hama bo sababhoi gunogun az u norozi budand. hatto askaroni kiroya, ki tamomi galabahoi uro tamin karda budand, dar okhir az itoati u sar kashidand. Davlati buzurgi Muhammadi Horazmshoh az darun mahkam va ustuvor nabud va binobar in dar natijai zarbahoi istilokoroni mugul ba osoni az po aftod.

[1]Bartold V.V., 1963 a, s. 420 va mobad.

[2]Davidovich E.A., 1957, b, s. 93–108.

[3] Iskandari Marduni va okhirin namoyandai marufi silsilai saljuri sulton Sanjar dar nazar doshta meshavad.

[4]Bartold V.V., 1963 b, 437–440.

[5]Davidovich E.A., 1953 6, s. 51–53.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

planet

ZAMIN – SAYYORAI SISTEMAM OFTOBI

Sababhoi tagyiryobii faslhoi sol. Az kursi tabiatshinosi mo medonem, ki Oftob in markazi sistemai oftobii mo …