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SURATKASHII MAHAL

Vositahoi uratkashin mahal. Surati mahalro bo vositahoi gunogun giriftan mumkin ast. Ammo on suratho az yakdigar farq mekunand. Surathoi mahale, ki az samolyot va Radifhoi masnuii Zamin girifta shudaand, obekthoi mahalro bevosita aks mekunand. Dar surathoe, ki dar zamin bo asbobho girifta shudaand? obekthoi mahal bo alomathoimsharti ifoda karda, navishta meshavand. Hangomi suratkashi dar zamin masofaro ba vositai chashm muayyan mekunand. Az hamin sabab in guna suratgiriro suratkashii nazardis menomand. On bo du usul girifta meshavad: qutbi va marshruti (rohiaymoi).

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Tayyori ba suratkashii mahal. Baroi naqshi mahalro kashidan vasoiti zerin zarurand: planshet, qutbnamo, transportir, chentasma, jadvali manzura, kalam, khatkurkunak, sepoyai sufachador, pargor va suzan, Badi vositahoro tayyor kardan planshetro baroi suratgirii mahal omoda mesozem. Bo in maqsad faner va yo kartoni andozaash 40 ba 40 yo 50 ba 50-ro girifta, dar sathi on kogazi safedro mustahkam menamoem. Dar gushai chapi on qutbnamoro chunon meguzorem, ki aqrabaki on samthoi SHimol va Janubro nishon dikhad. Ba ravishi samti aqrabaki qutbnamo az tarafi chapi qogaz khat mekashem, ki vay ba misli aqrabaki qutbnamo samti SHimol (SH) va Janub (J)-ro ishora menamoyad.

Pas az ijroi in amal ba mahale, ki suratkashy meshavad, shinos shuda. Miqyosi suratkashiro muayyan mekunem. Miqyosro chunon intikhob menamoem, ki mahali aksshavanda purra joy girifta tavonad (rasmi 16). Sipas planshetro ba naqshagirii nazardid omoda mesozem. Baroi in amalro ijro kardan avval nuqtai ibtidoii suratkashii nazardidro muayyan namuda, sepoyaro barjo karda, dar boloi takhtachai on planshetro guzoshta, onro ba tarafhoi ufuq muvofiq mekunem, yane to on dame, ki aqrabaki qutbnamo va khati dar tarafi chapi planshet kashida yak khel samti SHimol (SH) va Janubro (J) nishon dihand. Bad az in dar rui kogazi dar planshet mustahkamkarda nuktai joi metrro muayyan karda, ba on jo suzan mekhalonem, suratkashii mahalro ba vositai jadvali manzura oqoz menamoem.

Suratkashni kutbi. Baroi bo in usul giriftaki surati mahal, pesh az hama, dar markazi mahal nuqtaero intikhob mekunem, ki az on jo tamomi obekthoi mahal ba nazar khub namoyon boshand. In nuqtaro kutb meguyand. Bad sspoyaero, ki dar boloi on planshet guzoshta shudaast, dar nuqtai qutb Suratgirii sutby. A-ia.iudi u.chu mich maydon. K-tasvmr yar nuunucm badi ichchchchi suratgiry. V-iakshai tayyori uavlchch maktab

guzoshta, onro ba vositai qutbnamo ba tarafhoi ufuq muvofiq karda, ba suratkashii mahal omoda mesozem. Badi ba kor omoda sokhtani planshet dar markazi on (qutb) suzan khalonda, ba tarafi rosti on jadvali manzuraro guzoshta, ba vositai on ba obekthoe, ki ba naqsha girifta meshavand, bo navbat nigoh karda, bo qalam dar markazi qutb khat mekashem (rasmi 18). Bad az in masofai bayni qutb va nuqtahoro bo pargor chen karda, muvofiqi miqyosi intikhobkarda masofai har yak nuqgaro bo miqyos meguzorem. Obekthoro ba joi nuqtaho bo alomathoi shartii ba onho monand ifoda mekunem (rasmn 18). CHunin usuli suratkashii nazardidro suratkashii qutbi menomand.

Suratkashii marshruti (rohpaymon). In az hama odditarin usuli ba surat giriftani mahal meboshad. In usul az usuli suratkashii qutbi bo on farq mekunad, ki hama amalhoi suratkashii marshruti dar rafti safar ijro karda meshavand. Baroi in pesh az ba sayohat baromadan nuqtai ibtidoii sayokhatro muayyan karda, planshetro bo yorii qutbnamo ba tarafkhoi ufuq muvofiq menamoem. Dar in surataqrabaki qutbnamyu va tirchae, ki dar tarafi chapi planshet kashida shudaast, boyad samti SHimol (SH) va Janubro (J) nishon dihad. Badi in korro ba somon rasondan obekthoi dar atrofi nuqtai ibtidoi sayohat voqsbudaro bo alomatkhoi sharti tasvir menamoyand.

Sipas az nuqtai ibtido ba vositai chadvali manzura samti nuqtai oyandai harakatro muayyan namuda, onro bo doiracha ifoda mekunem. Bad ba nuqtai oyanda omada, masofai bayni nuqtai ibtido va oyandaro bo miqyosi khatti dar planshet qayd menamoem. Obekthoi atrofi nuqtai oyandaro niz dar planshet bo alomathoi sharti ishora mekukem. In amalhoro hangomi az yak nuqta ba digar nuqtai samti marshrut guzashtan muntazam takror menamoem. Badi suratkashiro ba okhir rasondan onro tozanavis mekunem. Navishtajot va alomathoi shartii dar planshet bo qalam navishtaro, toza karda, onhoro bo tush menavisem. Hangomi tozanavis kardan boyad ba on diqqat dod, ki alomathoi sharti muvofiqi alomatkhoi topografie, ki dar atlasi sinfi 6 kashida shudaand, tasvir yoband. Dar qismi poyoni surati Mahal Miqyosi onro menavisand. Sarlavhai suratro az khoshiya berun dar bolo yo poyoni on sabt menamoyand.

Savol va suporish

  1. Baroi suratgirii nazardidi mahal kadom asbobho zarurand?
  2. Planshetro baroi suratgirii mahal chn tavr tayyor mekunand?
  3. Baroi chi Suratgirii zaminiro suratgirii nazardid menomand?
  4. Suratgirii nazardidro bo kadom usulho ba jo meovarand?
  5. Suratgirii qutby az suratgirii marshruti chi farq dorad?
  6. Pesh az suratgiri kadom amalhoro ijro kardan lozim ast?
  7. Surati mahal va kharitaro muqoisa karda gued, ki alomathon shartii surati mahal az alomathon shartin kharita chi farq dorand?
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