Home / Gunogun / SUGD DAR ASRHOI VI-VII

SUGD DAR ASRHOI VI-VII

Nomi «Sugd» dar makhazhoi gunogunzabon dar muddati madid duchor meshavad.[1] Muhaqqiqi mashhur V. Tomashek takhmine pesh nihod, ki kalimai «sugd» az kalimai umumieronie barmeoyadu manoyash «rakhshidan», «durakhshidan» va «sukhtan» ast.[2] Dar farhanghoi tojikiyu forsi kalimai mazkur tamoman digar khel sharh doda meshavad: «shibarzamin, yo khud pastie, ki dar on jo ob kul meshavad».[3] Dar zaboni hozirai tojik alhol «sugd» gufta joero meguyand, ki shibarzaminu botloq, joi kishtbobi shodob boshad, vale, az aftash, in tafsir sonitar paydo shudaast.

Hududi geografii Sugd chi guna bud? Ba aqidai sayyohi asri VII Syuan-szan, Sugd kishvarest bayni daryoi CHu dar shimolu sharq va Darvozai Boysun dar janubu garb. Malum, ki in hudud hududi siyosiyu geografii Sugd ne, balki makoni zindagii sugdiyon meboshad. Makhazhoi arabu tojikzaboni davrahoi soni (asosan asrhoi H–HIII) idroki hamonzamonai masalai mazkurro tajassum namuda, ba har hol, baze gaphoi qadimaro ham ba inobat giriftaand. Az in makhazho mo voqif meshavem, ki Sugd ba du mano: ba manoi tang va ba manoi vase istifoda meshud. Sugd ba manoi vase tamomi vodii Zarafshon (bazan nohiyahoi bolotarini onro istisno mekardand) va vodii Qashqadaryo meboshad. Dar ayni hol, tasavvure niz mamul bud, ki Sugd tanho nohiyai Samarqand meboshad. Muarrikhoni asrhoi miyona dar borai «Sugdi Samarqand» bisyor sukhan rondaand. Inchunin «Sugdi Bukhoro» nom mafhume ham bud. YOqut guftaast: «Guyand du Sugd hast – Sugdi Samarqand va Sugdi Bukhoro».[4] Vodii Qashqadaryo juzi Sugd donista meshud va zimnan, baze muallifon, masalan, YAqubi Keshro poytakhti Sugd guftaand.[5] Hamai in malumotro muhaqqiqon mufassal tadqiq kardaand.[6]
sogd-oblast-tajikistan-k-300x202

Syuan-szan va Hoy CHao dar borai Sugd

Syuan-szan ba Sugd soli 629 omad. Vay menavisad, ki Samokiyon yo Samoszan (Samarqand) – mulkest, ki az sharq ba garb tul kashidaast. Andozai poytakhti kishvar barobari Tirmiz budaast. Mulki Samokiyon az chor taraf bo moneahoi tabii muhofizat shudaast. Mardumash khele bisyor. Dar in mulk az digar mamlakathoi khorija molu sarvati nihoyat purqimattarin bisyor jam shuda memonad. Zaminash hosilkhez astu hosili farovon medihad. Dolu darakht nagz mesabzad (vay darakhthoro beshagi nomidaast), gulu meva nihoyat ziyod ast. Dar in kishvar asphoi khushzot hastand. Mardumi in kishvar nisbat ba mardumi kishvarhoi digar dar sanat va hunar (muvofiqi tarjumai digar – dar tijorat) peshqadam meboshand. Iqlim narmu mutadil ast. Aholi  sergayratu pukhtakoru notarsu daler meboshad. In kishvar dar mobayni kishvarhoi «barbari» joy giriftaast. Tamomi khalqhoi hamsoya dar khushakhloqi va nakukori az sugdiyon ibrat megirand. Podshoh kasi jasuru bebok ast va hama nohiyahoi atrof ba vay itoat dorand. Dar ikhtiyori shoh lashkari sershumor, az jumla, sarbozoni savora hast. Sarbozone, ki sayyoh onhoro «chi-kia» nomidaast, maqomi makhsus doshtand. Onho ba darajae fidokor budand, ki hatto bo shodi sui marg meraftand. Vaqte onho hamla kunand, yagon dushman istodagari karda nametavonist.

Sipas, Syuan-szan az mulkhoi Mimokiya yo Mimokhe (Moymurg), Szebudan (Kabudon), Syuyshuanniszya (Kushoniya), Bukhe (Bukhoro), Szeshuanna (Kesh) va gayra sukhan meronad. Inchunin dar borai andozai onho malumote ovarda, ba hamai onho yak khel tavsifi mukhtasar doda meshavad: «Dar bobati urfu odat va mahsulot ba Samokiyon (Samarqand) shabohat dorad».[7]

Hoy CHao (soli 726) umuman «kishvari Hu»-ro tasvir namuda, ba hayati on An (Bukhoro), Sao (Ishtikhon), SHi (Kesh), SHi-lo — Mi (Moymurg) va Kan (Samarqand)-ro dokhil kardaast. Garchande har yaki in mulkho malike doshta boshand ham, hamai onho ba arabho tobe meboshand. In mulkho kalon nestand va dar har yaki onho dastai khurdi sarbozon hast. Az chorvoi in jo shutur, khachir, gusfand va aspro nom burdan mumkin. Pakhta mekorand. Libosi mardum pakhtagin ast, shalvor va jomahoi onho pashmin. Mardon sallai safed mebandand va rishu muysari khudro toza metaroshand. Zaboni onho az zaboni mardumi mamlakathoi hamsoya farq dorad. Urfu odati onho bad ast – har zanero, hatto modar va khohari khudro ham ba zani megirand. Dar Eron ham, mard haq dosht modarashro ba zani girad. Dar shash mulk dini zardushtiro meparastand, dini Buddo rasm ne, faqat dar Samarqand yak dayri buddoi hastu on yak rohib dorad.[8]

Tarikhi siyosi

Alhol madrakoti kofi nest, ki tarikhi siyosii Sugd, alalkhusus, tarikhi siyosii mulkhoi on tartib doda shavad. Makhazho faqat malumothoi berabti alohida-alohida medihand.

Dar ibtidoi asri VII, muvofiqi khabari solnomai tarikhi dar Sugdi Samarqand (dar solnoma nomashro «Kan» guftaand) oli mahallie hukm merond, ki ba niyogoni yuji nisbat dosht (yo khudro ba yujiho mansub elon mekard). CHunin aqida hast, ki badi julusi khud in ol be tanaffus qarib, ki az ibtidoi erai nav hukmroni kardaast. Unvoni malik chjaou bud.[9] Maliki sugdiyon dar hamon vaqt dar «Aludi» nom shahri serodam zindagi mekard Solnoma navishtaast, ki «Kan davlati muqtadir ast».[10] Dar natija, hatto khoqoni Hoqonii garbii turkho Datoi (solhoi hukmroniash az 575/76 to 603) lozim donistaast, ki bo maliki Sugd Tayshepi (E.SHavann va K.SHiratori nomi uro chunin khondaand) kheshu aqrabo shavad va dukhtarashro ba zani dodaast.

SHohoni Sugd ba avlodi Unash nisbat doshtand (in nom dar solnomahoi muarrikhoni Hitoy zikr shudaast va dar navishtajoti sugdiyon niz vomekhurad).[11]

Dar on davraho ba Kan, yane ba Sugdi Samarqand, Mi (Moymurg), Sao va He (Ishtikhon va Kushoniya), Ani Sagir (nohiyae dar sarhaddi sharqii vohai Bukhoro), Nashebo (Nasaf) barin hasht mulk tobe budand.[12] Ba hamin tariq, qarib tamomi mulkhoi vodii Zarafshon (az afti kor, faqat gayr az qismi garbii on) va inchunin vodii Qashqadaryo (Nasaf) dar zeri tasarrufi maliki Sugdi Samarqand bud. Amalan malum ne, ki in ittihod kay ba vujud omad, chi khususiyat dosht va darajai itoati mulkhoi alohida ba hukumati markazi chi guna bud.

Dar qasri maliki Sugdi Samarqand «kokhi niyogon hast, ki mohi shashum dar on jo nazr medihand. Digar malikon jam omada, ba nazrdihi yori merasonand».[13] In khabarro daleli hamin donistan mumkin, ki dar bayni malikhoi Sugd robitai kheshu taborie bud va hamai onho guyo yak ajdodi umumie doshtand (ba in makhazho ham ishorat kardaand). Albatta, digar guna tavzehro ham az etibor soqit kardan darkor ne, yane ehtimol meravad, ki farmonbardoroni oli hukmroni Samarqand uhdador budand, dar marosimi nazrdihi shirkat namoyand va bo hamin ba maliki khud sodiq budanashonro nishon dihand. Az afti kor, imkonpazir budani har du tavzehro dar nazar doshtan darkor.

Ba gumon ast, ki hayat va hududi geografii in ittihod betagyir monda boshad. Ehtimol, dar in yo on davrai mavjudiyati vay vohai Bukhoro, yo khud qismi ziyodi onro dar bar megirift. Inro az chunin khabari Masudi fahmidan mumkin, ki devori atrofi vohai Bukhororo dar qadim yake az podshohoni Sugd sokhta budaast.[14]

Dar kadom yak davrai vujudi Sugd poytakhti on Kesh bud. Ba in makhazhoi davrahoi sonitar ham ishorat mekunand, dar in bora muarrikhi asri IH YAqubi ham khabar medihad.[15] Taqviyati mulki Kesh dar choryaki yakumi asri VII ogoz meyobad.[16] Malik Ticho (mabodo in talaffuzi ajnabii hamon nomi eronii Tish naboshad?) maliki muqtadire hisob meshud. Vay ba kadom yak davlati khoriji hayati saforat firistod; shahri Ki-shero sokht, ki odatan khudi hamon Kesh meguyand. Inchunin khabar hast «SHashepi» nom digar Malik niz soli 642 bo tuhfayu inomi ziyod hayati saforat firistoda bud.[17] Dar makhazhoi tarikhi dar borai vay digar yagon malumot nest. Vale in malik tanga mebarovardaast. Dar bayni tangahoe, ki dar Panjakent yoft shud, tangahoe hastand, ki dar rui onho «ikhshid SHashpir» navishta shudaast. Dar tangaho ideogrammai oromii «podshoh» hast, ki dar tangahoi sugdi unvoni hokimoni tamomi Sugd–ikhshidhoro ifoda mekunand. Dar natijai muqoisai in malumot malum meshavad, ki az hama aniqtarin sharhu tavzehi on hamin, ki SHashpir nom malik podshohi tamomi Sugd bud.[18] Albatta, in faqat yake az rohhoi tavili masala meboshad.

Vale hukmronii Kesh dar ittihodi Sugd tul nakashid. Inak, muvofiqi khabari makhazho, dere naguzashta, dar bayni solhoi 656–660 maliki navi Kesh CHjaou SHiagye (nomro Bichurin chunin khondaast; E.SHavann meguyad, ki onro Cho-a-ho khondan darkor) mutei podshohi Samarqand shud.[19] Dar omadi gap, maliki Sugdi Samarqand andake peshtar–dar bayni solhoi 650–655 podshohi tamomi Sugd shuda bud. Az afti kor, yak fursati muayyan lozim shudaast, ki Kesh hukmronii Samarqandro etirof kunad. Faqat takhmin kardan mumkin, ki dar muddati in panj sol dar bayni Samarqandu Kesh muboriza raftaast va dar natija SHashpir sarnagun shudaastu ba joi vay ba takhti Kesh SHiagye (SHeaho) baromadaast. Unvoni ikhshidi Sugd aknun nasibi Oli Samarqand shud, ki ajnabiyon onhoro Fukhuman[20] meguyand. YAk silsila tangahoi sugdi hast, ki khati onhoro, ba aqidai O.I.Smirnova, «ikhshid Varhuman» khondan darkor (ba aqidai vay, Fukhuman talaffuzi ajnabii nomi shohi sugdiyon Varhuman yo khud aniqtarash Avarhuman ast)[21]. Nomi in podshoh dar katibai kaloni sugdii Afrosiyob ham zikr shudaast.

Dar barobari podshohoni umumi Sugd malikhoi mahalli ham vujud doshtand. Maliki Kesh, ki aknun tobei Oli Samarqand bud, «ikhrid» nom unvoni merosi dosht.[22]

Dar makhazhoi khitoi mulki Bukhoro An, Neumi, inchunin Bu-kho (Pog-ho) nomida meshud va unvoni maliki on chjaou bud. Nasabi malikhoi Bukhoro va Samarqand yak bud. Dar choryaki duvumi asri VII dar Bukhoro Alinga (nomi uro Bichurin chunin khondaast; E.SHavann taklif mekunad, ki Ho-ling-kia khonda shavad) nom shakhse malik shud. Makhazi khitoi khabar medihad, ki Oli Bukhoro «az nasl ba nasl bist pusht hukmroni mekunad»,[23] yane chand asr hukmroni kardaast.

Dar nohiyai Bukhoro tangahoi skifatii (yane furukhamidai) misin dar muomilot bud, ki dar ruyash ba sugdi «shoh Asvar» navishta shuda bud. Muvofiqi madrakoti paleografi in tangaho ba asrhoi IV-V nisbat doshtanashon mumkin. Nomi shoh eronist va manoyash «aspsavor» ast. Az rui khati tangaho malikhoi Bukhoro du unvon doshtaand, ki manoi yake «shoh» va manoi digarash «hokim» budaast.[24]

Mulki Panjakent mulki mustaqili muhim bud. Ba hayati on gayr az nohiyai khudi Panjakent (on zamonho nomash Panj bud) dar ibtidoi asri VIII atrofi boloobi Zarafshon ham dokhil meshud. Dar hujjathoi sugdie, ki az kuhi Mug yofta shud, Mohiyon (ba manoi «Mahtobi»), Pargor (yane «Zamini boloi kuh» — Falgari hozira), Kshtut (Kshtuti hozira), Martushkat (Mastchohi hozira) nom burda meshavad. Dar in nohiya bisyor dehaho bud. Dar in jo dehahoi Madm va Qum (alhol bo hamin nom vujud dorand), Zarovadk (Zerobodi hozira), Eskotar («Zamini boloi», Iskodari hozira), Hshikand (Hushekati hozira), Varz («Baland», Varzi Manori hozira), Kurut (Kuruti hozira), Fatmiv (Fatmevi hozira), Pakhut (Pokhuti hozira), Ertmaut (Falmouti hozira), SHavkat («SHahri siyoh», SHvatki hozira) zikr gardidaand. Vodii YAgnob ham ba mulki Panjakent dokhil meshud. Az afti kor, digar nohiyahoi Petaman  (Butamoni asri miyona), yane dar in mavrid nohiyahoi kuhhoi hisor va Zarafshon ham ba hayati mulki Panjakent dokhil meshudand yo ba on tobe budand. Masalan, dar hujjathoi Mug dehai hozirai Anzob[25] nom burda shudaast.

Tangahoi sershumori Panjakent — Panjro muhaqqiqon batafsil tadqiq mekunand. Muqarrar shud, ki dar Panjakent — Panj oli mahallie hukmroni mekard (vale nomi namoyandagoni oli mazkur ba juz baze istisnoho to hol muayyan nashudaast). Dar ayyomi vaznintarini vujudi Sugd — dar choryaki yakumi asri VIII dar natijai hamlai arabho maqomi mulki Panjakent khele bolo shud zero dar ibtido vay ba tolonu toroji arabho giriftor nashuda bud. hokimi Panjakent — Divashtak, ki khud az avlodi shohon nabud (dar hujjati V-4 kuhi Mug nomi padari vay Edkhshetaka be unvoni «shoh» zikr shudaast), ba takhti Samarqand va ba unvoni «shohi Sugdu hokimi Samarqand Divashtak» iddao dosht va, az afti kor, muddate ba in martaba ham rasida bud.

Dar barobari mulkhoi kalon mulkhoi khurd ham bisyor budandu bazei onho tanga ham mebarovardand. Dar «Samitan» nom dehai Sugd (dar joi Kushoniyai qadim, yane zaminhoi dehahoi imruzai Metan, Poyariq, CHalak) markazi mulki khurde bud, ki hokimi on az nomi khudash tangai birinji sikka mezad.[26]

Taqviyati baze mulkhoi alohidai ittihodi Sugd az malumoti makhazhoi tarikhi, arkheologi va numizmati barmeoyad. hokimiyati markazii shohi Sugd sust meshavad, tang megardad. Dar borai masohati ittihod az chand makhaz malumot giriftan mumkin ast. Soli 712 arabho ba pisari ikhshidi Sugd — Gurak vada dodaand, ki uro «podshohi Samarqandu atrofu nohiyahoi on, Kesh va Nasafu shahru qalahoi on» khohand kard. Ba hayati ittihodi Sugd inchunin Mi (Moymurg) va Sao (Kabudon yo Ishtikhon)[27] va ehtimol, baze digar mulkho niz dokhil meshudand. Kalontarin mulki ittihodi Sugd — Bukhoro istiqlol yoft va ba takhti on oli bukhorkhudotho[28] nishast. Dar tangahoi namoyandagoni oli mazkur unvoni onho «SHohi Bukhoro» zikr shudaast.[29]

Viloyathoi Sugd bo digar viloyathoi Osiyoi Miyona robitahoi diplomati doshtand va ba digar viloyatho hayati saforat mefiristodand va az digar viloyatho hayati saforat qabul mekardand. Dar surati Afrosiyob, beshubha, omadani yake az chunin hayathoi saforat va marosimi dar Samarqand qabul shudani onho inikos yoftaast. Az navishtajoti sugdii tagi in surat porchai zerin boqi mondaast: «Vaqte shoh Varkhuman (zodai) Unash nazdi vay (yane safir) omad va (safir) lab kushod: «Manam dapirpati (sardori dabiron.- B.G.) CHagoniyon, nomam Bukarzod. Az shohi CHagoniyon Turontosh omadam, ba Samarqand nazdi shoh baroi izhori hurmat va inak, peshi shoh istodaam bo ehtirom. Va tu (shoho) nanmo shubhae az man, na az khudoyoni Samarqand va na az katibhoi Samarqand (shoyad ba manoi kitobhoi dini boshad.- B.G). Man khub voqifam va nakhoham rasond ziyone ba shohi (Samarqand). Bodo, shoho, davlatat ziyoda». Va shoh Varkhumon (zodai) Unash uro rukhsat dod. On (goh) lab kushod dapirpati CHoch…»

hujjathoi arkhivi Mug rivoyat mekunand, ki bo bisyor viloyathoi Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla, bo CHoch, Istaravshan, Fargona va g. munosibathoi diplomati amal dosht. Bisyor makhazho hikoyat mekunand, ki az Sugd ba khoriji Osiyoi Miyona hayati saforat va az davlathoi gunogun ba in jo hayati saforat meomad.

Obyori. Hojagii qishloq

Se kanali asosii obyori, ki zaminhoi janubi Samarqandro shodob mekard, dar asrhoi miyona az Varagsar («Sari dargot») nom mahalle (hozir nomi in mahal «Raboti Hoja») sar meshud. V.V.Bartold qayd karda bud, ki az tavzehu tafsiri istiloi arab malum meshavad, ki in kanal pesh az istiloi arabho, yane dar asrhoi VI-VII vujud doshtaast.[30] Dar khudi hamin davraho kanale bud, ki Samarqandro az ob tamin mekard.[31]

Az kanalhoi kaloni toislomi kanali Norpayro nom burdan darkor, ki on nohiyai Kushoniyaro obyori menamud. Dar poyontari Zarafshon, dar hududi vohai Bukhoro yake az kanalhoi dar asrhoi miyona kalontarin — kanali SHopurkom (badho SHofirkom shud) nom dosht va zimnan rivoyate hast, ki onro SHopur nom kadom yak shohzodai sosoni sokhtaast.[32] In kanal zaminhoi shimolitarini vohai Bukhoro -nohiyahoi mulki Varzonaro shodob menamud, ki hokimoni on bo bukhorkhudotho raqobat doshtandu ziddi onho mejangidand. Inchunin boz yakchand kanalhoi  kalon mavjud bud.[33] Dar vohai Qashqadaryo ham shabakai mukammali obyori amal mekard.[34]

Viloyati Samarqand ba darajae obodu shodob, ba darajae serdolu darakhti puru farovonhosil bud, ki avvalin voliyoni arab onro «ravzat-ul-amir al-muminin», yane «bogi khalifa» nomida budand.[35]

Ziroat dar Sugd asosan obi bud, vale in mano nadorad, ki ziroati lalmi nabud, baraks, zaminhoi lalmi ham kor farmuda meshud. Tavsifi umumii khojagii qishloq dar yak solnomai hamon davraho chunin ast: «Iqlimash narm, baroi kishti hamaguna galla muvofiq. Mardum dar bogdori va obchakori mohir. Darakht umuman mesabzad. Asp, shutur, khar hast».[36]

Bozyofthoe, ki hangomi hafriyoti kuhi Mug ba dast omad, dar borai anvoi ziroat malumoti khele mufassal medihad. Az in jo donu donakhoi gunogun va boqimondahoi niholi pakhta yoft shud.[37] hujjathoi Mug shahodat medihand, ki dar nohiyai Zarafshoni Bolo ziroati asosi galla va angur bud. Inchunin jav, arzan va nakhud ham mekishtand.[38] Istilohi sugdii «galla» az jihati etimologiya ba manoi «bekhta» aloqamand ast.[39]

Gallaro dar osiyob mekashidand. Hujjati V-4-i kuhi Mug shartnomaest dar bobati az tarafi Mohiyon nom shakhse ijora giriftani se osiyob «bo tamomi anhoru binovu sanghoi on»; haqqi ijora bo ord doda meshud.[40] Garchande dar borai osiyobhoi on davra mo tasavvuroti mukammal nadorem, vale, ba har hol, masalan, az Afrosiyob chand sangi kaloni osiyob yoft shud. Dar barobari osiyob dar ruzgori mardum dastoshoi khurdu kalon bisyor istifoda meshud.

Dar hujjatho suporishhoi ziyode hast, ki galla, meva va sharob doda shavad.

Tokdori yake az sohahoi asosii khojagii qishloq bud.

Dar Panjakent charkhushte yoft shud. CHarkhusht chuquriest, ki dar tagash boz novachae dorad. Dar pahlui chuquri boz yak khandaqcha mekanand, ki on bo novae ba chuquri payvasta ast. Devorahoi chuquri va khandaqcharo bo gaj andova mekunand. Mumkin ast dar tagi khandaqcha takhta ham mechidand, bad ba boloi on yantoqi sabz meandokhtand va ba boloi yantoq angur rekhta, onro fishor medodand. Obi angur dar natijai fishor az bayni yantoq meguzashtu ba vositai novacha ba chuquri merekht. Pas az on ki obi angur dar chuquri tahshin megardid, onro girifta, ba khumho meandokhtand. Baze charkhushthoi imruzai khalqii tojiki ham mahz chunin sokht dorand.[41]

Dar solnomahoi tarikhi malumot hast, ki dar Sugdi Samarqand sharobi angur bisyor bud. Habar doda meshavad, ki dar havlihoi boyon zakhirahoi ziyodi on solho nigoh doshta meshud. Madrakoti arkheologi va hujjathoi Mug shahodat medihand, ki in khabarho muboliga nest. Dar yake az hujjathoi Mug chunin suporish hast: «Ba faloni az on sharobi nob boyad dod, ki kanizakho menushand va dar in takhir nashoyad. Boqii sharob sar ba muhr shavad va bo hamin minvol mahfuz monad». In guna khabarho guyo tasdiqi rivoyati solnomaho meboshad. hatto vazifai «sarsoqi» vujud dosht.[42]

Dar barobari tokzorho bisyor bogho ham budand. Dar khudi hamon hujjathoi Mug unvoni «bogbon» zikr shudaast. Mevaho nihoyat khushsifat budaand. Masalan, az Sugdi Samarqand shaftolue meovardand, ki ajnabiyonro dar hayrat meguzoshtaast, zero «har yaki on misli tukhmi murgobi kalon budu rangi onho tilloi metoft va onro «zarshaftolu menomidand».[43] Olui safedu zard ham baroi furush ba khorija meraft.[44] hamai in tavsifero, ki Syu-an-szan ba khojagii qishloqi Sugd doda bud, purra tasdiq mekunad.

Ba aqidai ajnabiyone, ki asphoi khushzoti Samarqandro mekharidand, in aspho ba asphoi Fargona monand budand.[45] Az Samarqand, Bukhoro, Kesh va Moymurg dar solhoi 624, 724, 726, 727, 744, 750 ba Hitoy baroi furush galai asphoi khushzoti sugdiro ovarda budand.[46] Diqqati muallifoni khorijiro in-chunin gusfandoni Samarqand, ki «dunbai benihoyat kalon»[47] doshtand, jalb karda budand, malum, ki in hamon gusfandoni mashhuri dumbakalon ast;

Dar hujjathoi Mug govu gusfandu buz, aspu kharu khachir zikr shudaast.[48] Dar baze joyhoi hamvor shutur ham istifoda burda meshud.[49] SHubhae nest, ki dar Sugd kirmakdori ham ravnaq yofta bud. Dar asosi ashyoi khomi mahalli (va ashyoi az digar mamlakatho ovardashuda) matohoi abreshimi, pakhtagi va pashmi bofta meshud.

Hunarmandi va tijorat

Kuhhoi atrofi Sugd pur az madaniyot ast. Muvofiqi makhazhoi khatti, bazei onho istikhroj karda meshud. Masalan, malumoti aniq hast, ki tillo va navshodir istikhroj meshud.[50] Tillo na faqat istikhroj megardid, balki miqdori ziyodi on az Sugd, az jumla, az Kesh va Moymurg sodir ham karda meshud.[51]

Az Moymurg inchunin khulai metallie mekashondaand, ki nomi onro «latun», yane khulai misu ruh tarjuma kardaand.[52] Inchunin namak ham istehsol karda meshud. Namakro baroi khurok va baroi tahiyai anjomi zinatu oroish istifoda meburdand. Dar makhazho makhsusan namaki ranga qayd karda shudaast, ki az Moymurg va Kesh meovardaand.[53]

Miqdori ziyodi istikhroji madaniyot, pesh az hama, taqozoi ehtiyojoti dokhili va faqat qisman talaboti sodirot bud. Materialhoi arkheologi oid ba ashyoi ohani khele gunogun ast. In guna materialho makhsusan az hafriyoti Panjakent farovon ba dast omad. YAke az ustokhonahoi ohangari dar in jo dar obekti sevum[54] padid omad. Ustokhona az du binoi payvast iborat ast. Dar yake az in binoho dar sufai past khume chappa shinonda shudaast, ki on vazifai kuraro ado mekard. Gayr az in digar asbobu anjom ham yoft shud. Du naychai dumila niz ba dast omad. Ohangaroni Sugd baroi hosil shudani harorati baland du damro yakbora kor mefarmudand, ki dar natija dar damidan tanaffus nameshud, yane sikli damish anjom paydo mekard (dar omadi gap, halli in muammo dar asrhoi miyona dar nazdi injeneroni Evropai garbi ham istoda bud).[55]

Dar digar ustokhonai ohangari (ki on ham az du qism iborat ast) asosan joi kori ohangar nagz boqi mondaast. Kura dahana va baroi dam dodan surokhe dorad. Andaruni kura yak tuda dajgol. Ba farshi ustokhona ham porahoi ohan va dajgol bisyor rekhtaast.[56]

Inchunin belchai kura, afzori ohangari yoft shud, ki az sandon sar karda, to bolgavu putku fonavu iskanahoi kalonero darbar megirad.

Mahsuloti ohangaron gunogun bud. Agar yaroqu asliharo ba nazar nagirem, anvoi on khele ziyod ast. In ham oloti mehnat — belu tabaru dos va g; ham masolehi binokoriyu duredgari — mekh, kashak, tirgak, halqa va g. budand. Az ashyoi ohanini ruzgor kordhoi gunoguni ohani, sagaki ohaniyu birinjii tasmaho, pulakchaqoi gunogun, qaychi, kalid, shamdonhoi gunoguni birinjiyu ohani, jihozi zebu zinat va gayraro nom burdan mumkin ast.[57]

Bo ohangari istehsoli yaroqu asliha zich vobasta bud. Ohangaron dar ayni hol yaroqsoz ham budand, vale az ehtimol dur ne, ki makhsus ustoyoni yaroqsoz ham vujud doshtand.

Aslihai hamlavari sugdiyon az aslihai durzanu nazdikzan iborat bud. Onho kamonhoi oddiyu murakkab, shofu shamsher, khanjar, gurz, tabarzin doshtand. Vositai muhofizati badan sipar, zireh, javshan va khud hisob meshud. Honandaro ba malumoti intishorshudai hafriyot va asarhoi makhsus[58] havola karda, faqat haminro qayd menamoem: yoft shudani khudi yaroqu asliha (masalan, siparu tir az kuhi Mug, paykonu pulakchai kamon az Panjakent va g., inchunin materialhoi ziyodi ikonografi), akhbori makhazhoi khatti dalolat mekunand, ki yaroqsozi sohai asosii hunarmandi bud. In miqdori azimi yaroqu asliharo faqat shumorai azimi ustohoi yaroqsoz tayyor karda metavonistand. Mehnati onho vazninu purmashaqqat bud, vaqti bisyor va mahorati balandro talab mekard. Baroi misol kamoni murakkabro girem. Muvofiqi madrakoti tarikhiyu etnografi, baroi tayyor kardani yak dona in guna kamon az yak to du sol vaqt meraft. Az Panjakent yoft shudani pulakchahoi ustukhonii tanai kamon dalolat mekunad, ki in guna kamonho dar Panjakent ham tayyor karda meshudand. Aslihai ayonu ashrof, masalan, shamsher va khanjarhoi onho, ehtimol, khele zebu oroish doshtandu asari mukammali balandsifati sanati hunarmandi budand. Dar asosi on nuskhahoi yaroqu asliha, ki dastrasi mo gardidaast, metavon guft, ki yaroqsozoni Sugd usuli tahiyai yaroqu aslihai shaklan badeiro az khud karda budaand. Dastai khanjaru shamsherho asari haqiqii sanat meshudand, az metallhoi qimatbaho tahiya gardida, bo usuli khotamkori va pulakchabandi zinat meyoftand, ba onho shakli sari ajdaho va g. doda meshud. Baze siparho ham ba hamin tariq khele zebu zinat doda meshudand.

Afzaliyati yaroqu aslihai sugdiyon na faqat dar shakli zebovu mukammali zohirii on bud. Az in ham muhimtarash hamin bud, ki yaroqu aslihai Sugd koragar bud. SHuhrati zirehu javshani sugdiyon dar sharqu garb khele dur pahn shuda bud. Soli 718 sugdiyon chun tuhfa ba Hitoy zireh ovardand. YAroqsozoni Hitoy dar asosi hamin zirehi sugdiyon zirehsoziro yod giriftand va dere naguzashta dar lashkari khitoiyon chunin zirehho paydo shudand.[59]

Sugdi Samarqand inchunin makoni «ashyoi badeii»[60] balandsifat bud. Nomi bazei on ashyoro mo az rui makhazhoi khatti medonem. In ashyo chilimhoi qimatbaho, atrdonhoi khurdi ajoib meboshand. Az Samarqand, Moymurg, Kesh ba darbori podshohoni ajnabi chun inom sanghoi qimatbaho va ashyoi az sanghoi qimatbaho sokhtashuda meburdand. Masalan, az Samarqand guldone ovarda budaand, ki az karnelian sokhta shudaast.[61]

Dar rasmhoi rui devor bisyor ashyoi zargari: tabaqho, qadahho, jomho va g. tasvir shudaand. Baze ashyoe, ki berun az hududi Osiyoi Miyona yoft shudaand (masalan, tabaqi nuqragine, ki dar dehai Kulagish sobiq guberniyai Perm yoftashuda, alhol dar Ermitaji davlati mahfuz ast), niz az jumlai asarhoi sanati zargarii sugdiyon meboshad[62] va dar in tabaq sahnai jangi tan ba tan tasvir shudaast. Digar asari sanati zargarii sugdiyon gufta bazan hamon tabaqero meguyand, ki dar on savore tasvir shudaastu ba tarafi sheri ba vay hamlakarda tir meparonad.[63] Vale in davo asosi kofi nadorad, zero khati on sugdi nest va dar on ravshan nomi shakhse navishta shudaast, ki bo suporishi vay in tabaqro tayyor karda budaand. Tahlili lingvisti ba aqidae meovarad, ki tabaqi mazkur, ehtimol, dar Eron, dar davrahoi badi sosoniyon sokhta shudaast.[64]

Ba tufayli hafriyot bisyor ashyoi zargari: gushvorahoi tilloii olijanobi aqiqsangi firuzachashmi marvoridnigin, angushtarinhoi niginashon az sanghoi qimatbaho va nimqimatbaho va shaddahoi mukhtalifi ranginkamoni rakhshonu purnur yoft shudand, ki misli shabnami saharii rui bargi gul partav meafkanad.

Dar Sugd hunari bofandagi khele rivoj yofta bud. Ba in bozyofthoi arkheologi va khabarhoi makhazhoi khatti dalel ast. Dar Qalai Mug qarib 150 namunai mato yoft shud. Garchande in matoho khele fit gashtaast va tanho porahoi on boqi mondaast,[65] ba har hol imkon medihand, ki bofti onho muayyan karda shavad. Muvofiqi hisobu kitobi M.P.Vinokurova, az 135 namud matoi Qalai Mug, ki u tadqiq kardaast, 90-toash pakhtagin, 44-toash abreshimi va faqat 1-toash pashmin ast (I.B.Bentovich navishtaast, ki «dar bayni matoho matoi pashmin nihoyat kam meboshad»). Bofti tamomi matohoi pakhtagin bofti oddii muqarrarii katoni ast. Hudi resmon sust resida shudaast, tugunu girehhoi ziyod dorad, gafsiash ham gunogun ast. Hudi mato on qadar zich nest: dar yak sm. kv. az 8–10 toru 10–12 pud, to 10–14 toru 20–15 pud va zimnan namunahoi durushttarini on ba katoni imruza monand. Umuman az rui gafsii resmon, navi boft va zichii mato tamomi matohoi pakhtaginro ba chor namud taqsim kardan mumkin. YAgon namudi gazvori pakhtagini guldor yoft nashud.

Gazvorhoi sof abreshimi ham chor namud dorand. Bofti aksari onho murakkabi kiperi (farangi) yo repsi buda, bazei onho katoni yo khud mushtaraki katoniyu kiperi meboshand. Gazvorhoi abreshimi nisbat ba matohoi pakhtagin zichtar ast: dar yak sm. murabba to 39-40 pud va 39-40 tor dorad. Umuman baroi boftani gazvorhoi abreshimi bofanda boyad usulhoi murakkabi bofandagiro azkhud mekard. Baze gazvorhoi abreshimii Qalai Mug bo usuli bofti matohoi pakhtagin bofta shudaand va ilova bar in, namudi gazvorhoi mushtaraki pakhtaginu abreshimi, ki dar bolo zikr namudem, ishorat mekunad, ki bofandaho tadrijan az usulhoi bofti matohoi pakhtagin ba usulhoi bofti gazvorhoi abreshimi meguzashtand. Ba vositai resmonhoi gunogunrang dar gazvor gul mepartoftand. Naqshi gazvor az qatori mainchaho iborat bud, ki dar miyonjoyash gulbarge dorad (chunin gazvori guldor dar rasmi rui devori Panjakent hast). Inchunin naqshi kungura ham dida meshavad, ki dar miyonjoi har yak tegai kungura khole yo tarhi dilshakle ba nazar merasad; gayr az in naqshi guli chorbarga, naqshi ramzii shokhavu gulu barg, naqshhoi murakkabi iborat az qatori doiraho hast, ki dar dokhili doira gulbarge kashida shuda, atrofi onro shokhavu bargu gul pechonida giriftaast va gayravu va hokazo. Ehtimol, baze namudhoi gazvorhoi abreshimi az Hitoy ham omada boshand, vale qismi asosii on, beshubha, dar khudi Sugd tayyor karda meshud.

Porai matoi pashmin rangi surkh va rakhhoi boriki kabudchai firuza dorad.

Albatta, baroi bofti in gazvorho dastgohhoi makhsus mavjud bud. YAke az qismhoi dastgohi bofandagi — shonai on az Qalai Mug yoft shud (yak shonai butun va chand shikastaporahoi on).[66]

Rasmhoi rui devori Varakhsha (va dar omadi gap, Panjakent), libosi boyon naqshu guli nihoyat murakkabi rangobarang dorad — az qatori oddii mainchahoyu gulbargho sar karda, to tarhi nihoyat pech dar pechi doiraho, andaruni onho rasmhoi parrandaho va gurozho kashida shudaast.[67] Dar rasmhoi ruidevorii Panjakenti qadim matohoe tasvir shudaand, ki naqshi onho az surathoi sherfil va parranda iborat buda, girdogirdi onhoro shaddahoi marvorid giriftaast. Libosi ashkhosi surathoi Afrosiyob ham az gazvorhoi purnaqshu nigor dukhta shudaast.

Dar muzeyhoi mamlakathoi Evropai garbi namunai shohihoe hastand, ki dar onho rasmi sherho, gusfandon va gulbargho hastand. Alhol in shohihoi rangparidai zardchai tiratob yo zardi past yo kabudi siyohcha meboshad. Malum, ki rangi in shohiho avval khele ravshanu guyo budu bo mururi vaqt, gayr az rangi kabud, digar hama rangho khira shudaast. Masalan, muqarrar gardid, ki zamone rangi in shohiho sabzi baland, simobi, gulobi, norinji va safedi toza bud. Baze az in shohiho butun ast va andozai har yak porchai on 1,6kh2,41 m buda, imkon medihad, ki andozai dastgohhoi bofandagi ham muayyan karda shavad. Ba aqidai muhaqqiqon naqshi komil iborat az qatori doirahoe bud, ki bo izorai mavjdor faro girifta shudaast.

Dar pushti gazvore, ki dar shahri YUi (Belgiya) mahfuz meboshad, bo siyohi khate navishtaand, ki V.V.henning onro chunin khondaast: «daroziash 61 vajab zandanichi». Mutakhassisi nomii gazvorhoi qadimi D.SHepard in guna matohoro dar digar muzeyho ham yofta, khususiyati onhoro muayyan namud. Vay nishon dod, ki in gazvorho az shohihoi khitoi farqi kalon dorand va in namud gazvorhoro gazvorhoi sugdi nomid. A.M.Belenitskiy va I.B.Bentovich bo isbotu dalelhoi ilovagi in aqidaro taqviyat dodand. Dar makhazhoi khitoi va dar makhazhoe, ki voqeahoi istiloi arabhoro tasvir menamoyand, dar borai gazvorhoi abreshimi bisyor sukhan meravad (yake az namudhoi on shohiho «zandanichi» nom dosht).[68]

Mo dar boloi dukhti liboshoi mardonavu zanona, dar borai namudhoi on va g. tavaqquf namekunem. Faqat haminro meguem, ki az rui rasmhoi rui devor hamai onhoro ravshan muayyan kardan mumkin ast.[69]

«Sugdiyon, — menavisad I.B.Bentovich, — charmgariro nagz medonistand». Meshii khushsifati olijanob ba joi kogaz meraft. «Masalan, hujjati mashhuri arabi (az Qalai Mug.- B.G.) mahz dar chunin meshi navishta shudaast. CHarmi zardchatobi tunuk rukashi sipari chubin gardidaast. Porahoi quttichai chubin ham bo charmi siyohi zarringul rukash shudaast. Sarpushi sabadi chorkunja ham yak qabat charmi ranga dorad. Muzae jolibi diqqat ast. Dukhti on aynan dukhti hamon mukkihoest, ki dar kuhiston tojikoni imruza mepushand.[70] Malum, ki gayr az ashyoi charmini dar hujjathoi Mug zikrshuda charmgaron afzori aspu aroba, tasma, gilof barin chizhoro ham tayyor mekardand. Dar hujjathoi khattii Qalai Mug «pusti gusfand», «pusti barra» nom burda meshavad, agar gap az charm ravad, onro boz ham tasnif karda, «pusti ohu», «pusti govi qisir», «pusti javona» guftaand, pusti ranga ham zikr shudaast.[71]

Mukhtasar boshad ham, tamomi navhoi hunarmandiro tavsif kardan az imkon berun ast. Faqat haminro qayd menamoem, ki hunarhoi ustukhontaroshi, najjoriyu duredgari, kuloli va g. khele taraqqi karda bud.

Rivoji hunarmandi, alalkhusus, rivoji hunarmandi dar shahr boisi ravnaqi ham savdoi dokhili va ham savdoi khoriji gardid. YAkchand makhazho menavisand, ki sugdiyon dar tijorat «mahorat» dorand. Talimi bacha az panjsolagi sar shuda, avval savod meomukhtand, sipas, badi ba sinni muayyani balogat rasidan ba onho tijoratro yod medodand. Javonon 20-sola shuda, baroi tijorat ba mamlakathoi khorija meraftand. Makhazho khabar medihand, ki «aksari mardum ba foida ragbati zur dorad».[72]

Savdoi khoriji bo rohhoi bisyor ba mamlakathoi sharq va garb, inchunin ba aholii dashthoi shimol burda meshud. Masalan, robitahoi tijoratii Osiyoi Miyona va Vizantiya khele ravnaqu rivoj dosht. YAk qismi in tijorat ba vositai Eron va qismi asosii on ba vositai Kavkazi shimoli anjom doda meshud. Ba Sugd az Vizantiya shohi meovardand. Dar Sugd az rui namunahoi onho shohihoi ajoib meboftandu boz ba garb burda mefurukhtand. Dar sagonai Moshennaya Balka (dar Kavkazi shimoli) porai shohii sugdi yoft shud, ki taqlidan ba shohihoi Vizantiya bofta shudaast, vale az rui bisyor khususiyathoyash malum, ki shohii sugdi meboshad.[73]

Az «rohi abreshimi»-i Kavkazi shimoli na faqat shohivori, balki bisyor digar molho kashonda meshud. Dar in bobat tabaqi vizanti, ki az atrofi Kungur yoft shud, jolibi diqqat meboshad. Beshakku shubha, tasviroti onro torevthoi vizanti kandaand. Vizanti budani tabaqro hamin ham tasdiq mekunad, ki dar on muhri ustoi vizanti hast. hamono tabaq dar Vizantiya dar choryaki duvumi asri VI sokhta shudaast. Sarfi nazar ba hamai in dar tabaq bo khatti sugdii bukhoroi «podshohi Bukhoro faloni» kanda shudaast. Muvofiqi tahlili paleografi, khat ba okhiri asri VI va avvali asri VII taalluq dorad. Pas malum meshavad, ki mahsuli ustohoi vizanti badi tayyor shudan dere naguzashta to ba Sugdi Bukhoro rasidaast[74].

Bisyor molhoi sugdi — az sanghoi qimatbahovu ashyoi on sar karda, to matovu gazvorhoi ajoib ba Osiyoi Markazi va ba Hitoy burda furukhta meshud.

Hullas, hajmi savdoi beruni khele kalon bud. Dar barobari on savdoi dokhili ham rivoj meyobad. Dar in bora khele bisyor sikka zada shudani tangahoi misin, alalkhusus, tangahoi birinji shahodat medihad.

Muomiloti pul dar asrhoi V–VII Sugd durust tadqiq nashudaast. Bisyor tangaho, masalan, tangahoi dimnai Varakhsha to ba hol nashr nagardidaast. Az asri V sar karda, dar Osiyoi Miyona tangahoi nuqragine barovarda meshud, ki on taqlid ba tangahoi sosonii Piruzi I (solhoi 459–484) bud. Dar vodii Zarafshon chand ganjinai in tangaho yoft shud (dar har yak ganjina sadho dona tanga bud). Gayr az in tangahoe budand, ki taqlidan ba tangahoi sosonii Varakhrani V (solhoi 420–438) barovarda meshudand. Sonitar in tangaho dar Sugdi Bukhoro vositai asosii muomilot meshavand. In tangahoro odamon «diramhoi bukhorkhudoti» yo «tangahoi bukhorkhudoti» menomidand. SHarqshi-nosi rus P.I.Lerkh[75] oid ba in tangaho makhsus asar navishtaast. Sipas, onhoro bisyor numizmatho, az jumla D.Uoker[76] va R.Fray[77] tadqiq kardand. Zabonshinoson ba kushodani ramzi khati rui tangaho mashgul shudand. Ba aqidai henning, dar rui tangaho «SHohi Bukhoro» navishta shudaast.[78] Numizmatho muvofiqi sanai sikka tangahoro ba guruhho tasnif namudand; dar borai makoni sikka zada shudani onho takhminho hast, vale alhol yagon qarori qati nest.

Masalan, dar Sugdi Samarqand dar muomilot tangahoi mahallii birinji budand, ki khati sugdi va dar rui khud rasmi du odamro dorand. Vale puli asosi in tangaho ne, balki tangahoe budand, ki dar miyona surokhi chorkunjae dorand va az choryaki duvumi asri VII sikka zada meshudand. CHi qadar bisyor budani in tangahoro hamin fakt ravshan mekunad, ki az yak khudi hafriyoti Panjakent chandin hazor in guna tanga yofta shud. Dar rui tanga du alomat hast, ki guyo «gerb»-i podshohiro tashkil medihand va dar pushti tanga nomi podshoh va unvoni vay sabt shudaast. Az rui gunogun budani vaznu andozai in tangaho, ki dar davrahoi gunogun har khel meshud, guftan mumkin, ki tangahoi mazkur chand qimat dosht.

Tangai tillo, az rui akhbori makhazhoi khatti, dar muomilot ishtirok nadosht, garchande dar katibahoi sugdi «dinor» nom istilohe duchor meshavad, ki ba manoi «tangai tillo» omadaastu chun meyori bahoi in yo on chiz khizmat mekard.

Dar hujjathoi Qalai Mug aksaran tangahoi nuqragin — dirhamho zikr shudaandu tanho yak bor tangai misro nom burdaand.

In holat ba tarkibi tangahoi az Panjakent yoftshuda hej muvofiq nameoyad, zero dar Panjakent az hama beshtar tangahoi birinji yoft shudaand. Az afti kor, dar ruzgori ruzmarra va kharidufurushi bozor asosan tangahoi birinjiro kor mefarmudand, ki in az ravnaqi muomiloti puli dalolat mekunad; agar puli dodu giriftu kharidufurush khele kalon boshad va yo arzishi kharidufurushro dar hujjat qayd kardani shavand, dar in surat arzishro bo tangahoi nuqra – dirhamho ifoda mekardand.

Ba qudrati iqtisodii Sugd hamin chiz dalolat mekunad, ki tangahoi ikhshidhoi Sugd dar joyhoi khele dur az Sugd yoft shudaand.

[1] Majmui malumotro nig.: Tomaschuk W., 1877, s. 74.

[2] Dar hamon jo, 74–75.

[3] Majmui madrakotro nig.: Smirnova O.I., 1963, s. 24–25.

[4] YOqut, III, s. 394.

[5] YAqubi 1892 p. 299.

[6] Masalan, nig.:Bartold V.V., s. 477-478.

[7] Beal S., 1906, p.32-36.

[8] Fuchs W., 1938, s. 451-452.

[9] Oid ba in unvon du arida hast. Baze olimon (masalan, V.Radlov va I.Markvart) onro turki meguyand (oid ba okhirin tavzehoti in davo nig.:Haussig H. W., 1956), digar guruh olimon onro eroni meguyand (az davrahoi Remyuz: Aiel Remusat, 1829, r. 227, p. 2). Az tarafdoroni eroni budani unvoni mazkur V.Tomashek, S.Konov, H.SHeder va digaronro nombar kardan mumkin.

[10] Bichurin, II, s. 280–281.

[11] Albaum L. I., 1975, s. 54–55.

[12] Bichurin, II, s. 281.

[13] Dar hamon jo.

[14] Masudi, 1894, s. 65.

[15] YAqubi, 1892, s. 299.

[16] Umuman dar on jo khele peshtar az in oli mustarile bud. Dar asrhoi V– VI shohoni Kesh tangae mebarovardand, ki dar rui on rasm hast va dar pushti tanga surati hokimest, ki sher yo makhluri shermonandi ba poi rafoyash istodaro bo shamsher mezanad. Taklif kardaand, ki khati suudii in nav tangahoro «Podshohi Kesh (?)» khondan darkor (Kabanov S.K., 1961, s.137 va mobad; Livshis V.A., Lukonin V.G., 1964, s. 170, ezohi 110).

[17] Bichurin II, s. 316; Chavannus U, 1903, r. 146.

[18] Smirnova O.I., 1963, s.140-141, 62-63.

[19] Bichurin II, s. 316; Chavannus U, 1903, r. 146.

[20] Bichurin, II, s. 317; Chavannus E., 1906, r. 135.

[21] Smirnova O.I., 1963, s. 28.

[22] O.I. Smirnova jadvali khronologii malikhoi Keshro tartib dodaast (1962, s. 68).

[23] Bichurin, II, s. 282.

[24] Livshis V.A., Lukonin V.G., 1964, s. 169-170.

[25] Smirnova O.I., 1960.

[26] Smirnova O.I., 1967, s. 36–39.

[27] Bichurin, II, s. 311.

[28] Durusttarash bukhorkhudo boyad boshad, nig.: Narshakhi. Thu History of Iukhara, 1954, r.108.

[29] Livshis V.A., Lukonin V.G., 1964, s. 170.

[30] Bartold V.V., 1965, a. s. 186-187.

[31] Dar hamon jo, s. 188.

[32] Dar hamon jo, s. 198-199.

[33] Oid ba tavsifi shabakai radimii obyorii vohai Bukhoro nig.: SHishkin V.A., 1963, s. 22-25.

[34] Kabanov S.K., 1956 a, s. 164.

[35] Bartold V.V., 1965 a, s. 146.

[36] Bichurin, II, s. 281.

[37] Danilevskiy V. V. va dig., 1940.

[38] Smirnova O.I., 1963, s. 12-20; Smirnova O.I. va Bogolyubov M.N.,1963.

[39] Livshis V.A., 1962 b, s. 136.

[40] Dar hamon jo, s. 57.

[41] Dar in bora nig.: Bolshakov O.G. va Nematov N.N., 1958, s. 187-188.

[42] Livshis V.A., 1962, s. 140.

[43] Schafer E.N., 1963, r. 1, 117.

[44] Bichurin, II, s. 311.

[45] Schafer E.N., 1963, r. 147.

[46] Dar hamon jo, r. 61.

[47] Dar hamon jo, r. 64, 296.

[48] Smirnova O.I., 1963, s. 20.

[49] Bichurin, II, s. 281.

[50] Dar hamon jo.

[51] Schafur E.N., 1963, r. 754.

[52] Dar hamon jo, r. 257.

[53] Dar hamon jo, r. 217.

[54] Beleniskiy A. M., 1958, s. 117-119.

[55] A History of Tuchnology, 1957, r. 643.

[56] Beleniskiy A.M., 1961 a, s. 82.

[57] Beleniskiy A.M., 1958, s. 135-140; 1901, s. 84-85; 1961 b, s. 88-90.

[58] Masalan, nig.: Jalilov A., 1958, s. 81-95 (tafsiri mufid, vale nihoyat noris).

[59] Schafer E.N., 1963, r. 261.

[60] Bichurin, II, 1963, r. 259.

[61] Schafer E.N., 1963, r. 310.

[62] Dar borai suudi budani in ashyo M.M. Dyakonov va A.M. Belenitskiy navishtaand. Nomgui ashyoi torevtikai suudiro B.I. Marshak tartib dodaast.

[63] Zabelina N.N. va Rempel L., 1948; Pugachenkova G.A., Rempel L.I., 1965, s. 149-150.

[64] Livshis V.A., Lukonin V.G., 1964, s. 162-163.

[65] Bentovich I.B., 1958, s. 362.

[66] Vinokurova M.P., 1957, s. 17-32.

[67] SHishkin V.A., 1963, s. 158-159, 220-221.

[68] Beleniskiy A.M., Bentovich I.B., Beleniskiy A.M. va digaron, 1963.

[69] Syuan-szan dar borai Suud navishtaast: «Kas har qadar boytar boshad, hamon qadar beshtar uro hurmat mekunand, vale zohiran boy az kambaual farr nadorad, hatto boytarin odamon bo ranoat mekhurandu bo ranoat libos mepushand» (Vea1s., 1906, I, r. 27). Vale in «demokratizm» tanho zodai khayoloti Syuan-szan ast, zero madrakoti arkheologi va materialhoi arkheologi oid ba sarulibos in gaphoi uro tasdir namekunand.

[70] Bentovich I.B., 1958, s. 362-371-372. Inchunin nig.: Ivanov S.V., 1952,s. 49 52.

[71] Smirnova O.I. va Bogolyubov M.N., 1963, s. 11.

[72] Bichurin, II, s. 310; Chavannus U., 1903, r. 133, p.

[73] Ierusalimskaya A.A., 1967 a; 1967 b

[74] Livshis V.A., Lukonin V.G., 1964, s. 165-167.

[75] Lerkh P.I., 1875–1909.

[76] Walker S., 1941.

[77] Ugue R.N., 1949, r. 24–31.

[78] Shunning W.V., apud Ugue R.N., 1949, r. 28–29.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

ozero_krugi_solntse_zakat_peyzaj

OFTOB, HAVO VA OB – DUSTONI BEHTARINI MO

Agar az bachahoi sinf dar in khusus purson shavi, albatta, ba in fikr rozi meshavand. …