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SUDONRO ISTILO KARDANI ANGLIYA

Ba Sudon cap darovardani tojironi evropavi ba solhoi 30- yumi asri XIX rost meoyad. Onho ba in jo molhoi sanoatii anglisi ovarda mefurukhtand va az in jo gulomonro kharida, dar kishtiho bor karda, baroi furukhtan tavassuti Nil az Hartum ba Qohira mefiristodand. Soli 1857 hukumati Misr gulomfurushiro mamnu elon kard, ammo gulomfurushon rohi gayriqonunii gulomfurushiro yofta, in mashguliyati tijoratii khudro davom medodand. Vale az okhirhoi solhoi 60-um munosibati Angliya nisbat ba Sudon tagyir yoft. On az tijorat ba zabti in davlat guzasht. Aknun gulomjalloboni evropavi ba daromad az gulomfurushi qone nashuda, mekhostand, ki Sudonro purra zabt kunand. Zakhirahoi ashyoi khomi in mamlakat, imkoniyati gorat kardani aholii on, az hama muhimash ahamiyati strategii Sudon Angliyaro ba ogoz namudani in kor havasmand menamud. Sudon dar havzai daryoi Nil va dar sari rohi Afrikai Markazi voqe bud. Inchunin boloobi daryoi Nilro ishgol karda, Angliya ba Misr fishor ovarda metavonist.

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Soli 1869 Angliya dar zeri parchami Misr ba Sudon ekspeditsiyai harbi tashkil namud. Rohbari ekspeditsiya anglis Beyker gubernatori viloyathoi zabt kardashuda tayin gardid. In viloyatho yakjoya Ekvatoriya nom giriftand. Soli 1874 polkovniki anglis Gordon Beykerro dar in vazifa ivaz namud. In shakhs ishtirokchii pakhsh kardani shurishi Taypinho bud. Ba Gordon muyassar gardid, ki zaminhoi ziyodro az sarchashmai Nil cap karda to kuli Viktoriya zabt namuda, inchunin, pushtibonii Angliyaro bar shohigarii Uganda muqarrar namoyad. Vaqte ki soli 1877 mamlakathoi Evropa Misrro ba zeri nazorati moliyavii khud darovardand, Gordon general-gubernatori tamomi Sudon tayin karda meshavad. Afsarhoi sitodi u niz gubernatori muzofothoi gunoguni Sudon tayin gardidand. Badi istiloi Sudon gorati hamatarafai in davlat ogoz yoft. Dar natija az siyosati mustamlikadoron norozigii aholii mahalli ruz to ruz afzuda, ba shurish mubaddal gardid. Soli 1879 Gordon shurishhoi dar viloyathoi Bahr, Algazal va Darfur baamalomadaro pakhsh namuda, bad Sudonro tark kard. Ba joi u general-gubernatori Sudon shakhsi misrie tayin megardad. Vale dar muzofothoi Sudon misli peshtara evropaviyon gubernator budand. Soli 1881 tamomi Sudonro shurish faro girift. Ba harakati ozodikhohii ziddianglisi va zolimoni mahalli Muhammad Ahmad nom darveshe, ki tiramohi soli 1881 khudro Mahdi nomida bud, rohbari mekard. U mardumro bar ziddi khorijiyon va kofiron (hokimiyati khidevro kofir menomid) ba jikhod davat namud.

Qarorgohi Mahdi avval dar yake az jazirahoi Nil – janubtari Hartum voqe bud. Az in jo u ba vositai voizon talimoti khudro ba tamomi gushayu kanori mamlakat pahn menamud. Baroi dar marhalai tavlidash pakhsh kardani in harakat okhirhoi soli 1881 hokimoni Hartum ba on jo dastai jazodihandai khudro firistodand. In dasta az tarafi jonibdoroni Muhammad Ahmad purra torumor karda shud. Badi in Muhammad Ahmad qarorgohi khudro ba janubu sharqii mamlakat kuchond. Az in jo va az joyhoi digari mamlakat dakhho hazor kishovarzon va kuchmanchiyon omada, ba dastahoi fidoiyoni Mahdi dokhil meshudand. Onho dastahoi ba muqobilashon mahdichiyon ravonkardaro torumor mekardand. To ogozi soli 1883 onhoro Kordofanro ozod karda, okhirhoi soli 1883 artishi khidevro, ki ba on generali anglis Hiks rohbari mekard, torumor karda, viloyati Darfurro purra ishgol karda, bad dar sohilhoi Bahri Surkh jangi chirikiro vusat dodand.

Dar in sharoit Angliya dar Sudon usuli zabtkunii khudro tagyir dod. Ogozi soli 1884 Gordon az nav ba Hartum, in dafa ba sifati general-gubernator va namoyandai rasmii hukumati Britaniya omad. Ba vay suporish doda shuda bud, ki judoshavii Sudonro az Misr elon karda, artishi khidevro az Sudon barovarda, hukumati purquvvatero tashkil namuda, bad ba feodalhoi mahalli takya karda, shurishi Mahdiro pakhsh kunad. Muvofiqi naqsha Gordon meboist sultonhoro, ki to az tarafi Muhammad Ali zabt kardani Sudon dar in mamlakat hukmroni mekardand, az nav ba sari qudrat ovarda, Sudonro tavassuti fidoiyoni onho idora mekard. Lekin in naqsha purra shikast khurd.

Baroi barham dodani shurishi mahdichiyon Gordon hilayu nayrangi ziyodi digarro niz ba kor burd, vale hamai onho benatija baromadand.

Ogozi soli 1885 badi muhosirai duru daroz shurishgaron Hartumro ba dast darovarda, Gordonro qatl kardand. Gayr az baze mahalho Sudon ba dasti mahdichiyon guzasht. Dar in jo davlati dini tashkil yoft. Dar mamlakat ba sari qudrat omada, mahdichiyon munosibathoi jamiyati, munosibat ba molikiyat, sokhti sistemai siyosi va siyosati khorijii khudro ba manfiathoi millii mamlakat va islom tagyir dodand.

Angliya va Misr az qasdi jadidan istilo kardani Sudon dast nakashida budand. Dar okhiri asri XIX muboriza baroi ba dast darovardani Sudon va boloobi Nil ba marhalai nav dokhil gardid. Faronsa zabti Sudoni SHarqiro ogoz kard. Artishi Angliya va Misr tavassuti Nil ba bolo harakat karda, soli 1898 poytakhti Sudon – shahri Omdurmanro ishgol karda, tavassuti pulemyothoi navakak ikhtiro va istehsolkardai anglisi dahho hazor mahdichiyonro qir kardand. Davlati tashkilkardai Mahdi mahv shud. Anglisho maqbarai uro ba khok yakson kardand. Faronsa boshad, az zabti Sudon benasib mond. Az soli 1899 cap karda Sudon ba zeri hokimiyati yakjoyai Angliya va Misr darovarda shud. Vale ishtiroki Misr dar idorai Sudon bo nom vujud dosht. Tamomi hokimiyat dar dasti anglisho bud. Hamin tariq, Sudon ba nimmustamlikai Angliya tabdil meyobad.

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