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SOTIM ULUGZODA

Navisanda va dramanavisi tojik Sotim Ulugzoda 1-umi sentyabri soli 1911 dar dehai Varziki nohiyai CHusti viloyati Namangoni Jumhurii Uzbekistan dar oilai dehqon ba dunyo omadaast.

SOTIM ULUGZODASotim Ulugzoda dar maktab-internati nohiyai CHust tahsil namuda, ba Dorulmuallimini tojikii shahri Toshkand dokhil shuda, onro soli 1929 khatm namudaast. Badi khatmi Dorulmuallimin chand vaqt az fanni adabiyoti tojik dar on jo dars guftaast. Soli 1930 ba Dushanbe kuchida omadaast. U saravval kotibi masuli ruznomahoi «Komsomoli Tojikiston» (holo «Javononi Tojikiston») va «Tojikistoni surkh» (holo «Jumhuriyat»), pas jonishini muharriri masuli majallai «Baroi adabiyoti sotsialisti» va badan kotibi masuli Rayosati Ittifoqi navisandagoni Tojikiston shuda kor kardaast.

Soli 1940 ba aspiranturai nazdi Instituti adabiyoti jahonii Akademiyai ilmhoi Ittihodi SHuravi ba nomi Gorkiy ba Maskav firistoda shud. Barobari sarshavii Jangi Buzurgi Vatani az aspiran tura rost ba jang raft. Mukhbiri harbii yakchand ruznomahoi diviziya va frontho bud.

Dar okhirhoi soli 1944 az front ba aqibgoh davat karda shud. To soli 1946 raisi Sadorati Ittifoqi navisandagoni Tojikiston bud. Soli 1951 uzvi vobastai Akademiyai ilmhoi Tojikiston intikhob shud.

Faoliyati ejodiashro ba haysi munaqqid va adabiyotshinos ogoz namuda bud. Dar matbuoti davri maqolayu asarhoi tadqiqotii Sotim Ulugzoda az soli 1930 paydo shuda muntazam chop meshudand.

Soli 1939 pesai «SHodmon» va soli 1940 pesai «Kaltakdoroni surkh», soli 1944 pesai «Dar otash»-ro ba tab rasonidaast. Dar solhoi badijangi dramahoi tarikhii u «Rudaki» (1958), «Temurmalik» (1968), «Allomai Adham» (1970), «Vose» (1971) talif yofta, ba rui sahna baromadand.

sotim-ulugzoda-ubayd-rajab

Sotim Ulugzoda dar sohai kinodramaturgiya niz maqomi khose dorad. Kinopovesti «Ibni Sino» (1954), «Qismati shoir» (1957), ki soli 1960 dar kinofestivali mamlakathoi Osiyo va Afrika sazovori mukofoti «Uqobi tilloi» gashta bud, shuhrati adabiyot va sanati tojikro dar arsai jahoni bori digar namoish dodand.

Asarhoi mansuri Sotim Ulugzoda: povesti «YOroni bohimmat» (1947), romani «Navobod» (1953), povesti «Subhi javonii mo» (1954), povesti «Qahramoni Dnestr, Visla va Oder» (1965), romani «Vose» (1967), Dostonhoi «SHohnoma» (dar du jild, 1967), romani «Firdavsi» va povesti «Rivoyati sugdi» (1977) muallifi khudro hamchun navisandai nobigayu notakror va yake az saromadoni nasri tojik ba khonanda shinos menamoyand.

Sotim Ulugzoda – Navisandai Halqii Tojikiston, Kormandi SHoistai Sanati Tojikiston soli 25.06.1997 dar shahri Maskav az hayot chashm pushid. Bo amri Hukumati Tojikiston jasadi adib ba Dushanbe ovarda shud va chand soat sokinoni poytakht tavonistand, ki dar tolori Teatri opera va baleti ba nomi Sadriddin Ayni bo navisanda marufi Tojikiston vido namoyand. Manzili hameshagii Sotim Ulugzoda dar mazori bogi Luchob qaror girift.

PORCHAHO AZ «RIVOYATI SUGDI» VIRKAN

Savdogari gayur va korchalloni sugdi dar payi sud ba kujohoe ki nameraft. Rohhoi duru darozi Hitoy, Hinduston, Eron, Rum (Vizantiya) ba vay monandi kuchahoi shahri khudash Samarqand yo Bukhoro, yo ki Paykand shinos budand.

Korvonhoi bozargonii Sugdiyon «Rohi abreshim»-i kabirro, ki bo vay abreshimi khitoi ba Eron va Rum burda meshud, mepaymudand. Tillo, navshodir, zarfhoi nuqra, karbosu alochai mashhuri zandaneji, debo, charmi nafis, kimkhob, gilem, kamonu siparu javshanhoi aloi sugdiro ba mamoliki SHarqu Garb meburdand. Inchunin, ba tavassuti onho molhoi bozargonii kishvarhoi mukhtalif ba hamdigarashon intiqol meyoft. Ajab nest on bozargone, ki ba SHaykh

Sadi gufta bud, ki mekhohad gugirdi porsi ba CHin, kosai chini ba Rum, deboi rumi ba Hind, pulodi hindi ba Halab, obginai halabi ba YAman, burdi (karbosi durushti) yamani ba Pors burdan mekhohad, bozargoni sugdinajod boshad.

YAke az on korvonho dar soli 673 melodi ba YAman rafta bud, dar on jo bozargonon shunidand, ki amiri arabi Huroson Ubaydulloh ibni Ziyod az Jayhun guzashta Sugdro tokhta, Bukhoro, Paykand va shahru dehoti digarro toroj kardaast. Bozargonon, ki dar Sugd oilahoshon monda budand va kokhu koshonaho, molu mulk doshtand, az in khabari nokhush ba khavotir aftoda, dastgohi tijoratiashonro sarosema barchidandu rohi bozgasht pesh giriftand.

Korvon bo sohili Bahri Ahmar rohi biyobon mepaymud. Vayro dastai muhofiz – bist nafar chokaroni (sarbozon) musallah, ki onhoro bozargonon az jumlai javononi daleri sugdi yakkachin karda ba kiro girifta budand, mushoyaat (hamrohi) mekardand. Beshtarini chokiron aspsavor budand, digarhoshon dar kajovaho ba khar, shutur dunafari savor shuda meraftand.

Korvon dar chihil ruz ba Madina rasid. Aknun boz hamon guna rohi dur va purmashaqqati SHom dar pesh bud.

Oftob suzon, havoi regzoron chun dami kurai otash tafson. Zangulahoi panjsadu si ushturi purbor dar khomushii biyoboni Hijoz nagmasozi maqomi yaknavokht… Ruzi savumi safar banogoh dar aqibi korvon az durr siyohii savorone namudor gasht. Savoron az khomai balandi reg sarozer shuda tez-tez pesh meomadand. Sarhangi chokaron, ki bo nisfi dastai khud dar dumi korvon bud, az ehtiyot yakero sui nisfi peshgardi dasta davond, ki ogoh va hushyor boshand.

Savoroni paydoshuda bo hamon guna yaroqe, ki chokaron doshtand, yane bo shamsheru khanjaru nayzaho musallah budand. Malum nabud onho kistand: sipohiyoni amiri Madina yo sarbozoni yagon shaykhi bodiya? YO balki rohzanon boshand?

Badtarin gumoni korvoniyon rost baromad: savoroni noshinos nazdik omada yakbora bo hayohu ba boloi chokaron tokhtand. CHokaron sari rohi onhoro giriftand, zadukhurd ba vuqu payvast. Muborizoni har du taraf dar favvorai gardi tafson ba ham omekhta shamsher mezadand va nayza mekuftand.

YAke az chokaron, mardi sisolai tanumand, shonafarokh, rishsiyoh, javshan dar bar va qulahkhudi misin bar sar, savori aspi samandi qashqa, bo nakhustin hamla du rohzanro az asp furu galtond va nayzai savumiro bo yak zarbi shamsheri darozash shikast. Az yak rohzani zakhmkhurda hangomi galtidani u shamsherashro rabuda, bo du shamsher ba du dast bar chapu rost va pasu pesh zadan girift.

In mard sarhangi chokaron bud. Virkan nom, gulomi bozargoni bukhoroi Nufarn. YAke az rohzanon, ki hamchunin javshanu kulohdor bud, ba Virkan daraftid. Virkan arabi miyonasoli zebotalat va khushsavlatero dar barobari khud did, ki zohiran sarkardai rohzanon bud, rishu buruti kutohi bazebe, chashmoni kalonu siyohi sharorafshon dosht, az vajohatash shujoat meborid.

«SHoyad Molik ibn-ur-Rayb hamin mard boshad» – ba dil guzaronid Virkan, zero korvoniyon dar Madina shunida bud dand, ki dar on navohi rohzani beboke, Molik ibn-ur-Rayb nom, bo dastai goratgaroni khud paydo shudaast. Virkan khato nakard: sarkardai rohzanon haqiqatan Molik ibn-ur-Rayb bud. Duyashon bo nihoyati tundi va shiddat shamsherzani kardand.

 Ba zudi dastu gardan, kitfu ronhoi har du khunin gasht. Arab dar holi chorkhezi aspi toziash ba chapu rost chandonmekhamid, ki sarash qarib ba zamin merasid va az tagi asp ba shikami aspi harif yo poi savori on shamsher zadani meshud, ham goho ba boloi zin rost istoda hamla meovard. Voqeanjangisavori purhunare bud. Ammo pahlavoni sugdi ham az vay namemond. Dar ayni zadukhurd chokaroni peshgardi korvon ham darrasidand va ba rohzanoni latkhurdavu chande qurbonho doda daraftidand.

On goh Molik navmed shud, u narae kashida bo zaboni khud chize guft, zohiran ba sharikonash farmoni aqib gashtan dod, ki onho yakbora gurezon shudand va bad sarkarda ham az pasashon firor kard.

Maqtulu majruhoni dastai Molik dar regzor mondand,asphoi ononro sharikonashon etak karda burdand. Az chokaron ham yak nafar halok, se nafar zakhmi va maib shuda galtida monda budand.

Rafiqonashon onhoro bardoshta sui korvon, ki peshtar rafta qaror girifta bud, ravon shudand. Korvoniyon onhoro bo nidohoi tahsinu ofarin istiqbol kardand. CHande az khizmatgoron zud ba gurkovi va dafnii murda, yak korvonii solkhurda az doruhoi ehtiyotii bozargo non ba marham molidan dar jarohathoi se chokari zakhmdor mashgul gardidand.

 Dar in asno az Nufarn, khojai Virkan raftore ba zuhur omad, ki hej kas va alalkhusus, Virkan muntaziri on nabud, Hoja chi guna bo rohzanon nabard kardani gulomashro nazora karda bud, holo vay nokhost Virkani saropo dar garduregu khun oludaro ogush karda, az saru peshoniash busida basitoish daromad:

– Der zi, pahlavonam, gurdi safdaram, dilovaram!

Agar tu namebudi, holi mo chi meshud? Tu korvonro najot dodi, moro az ajali mualliq rahonidi!

Nufarn on qadar ba taassur va riqqat omada bud, ki hatto dar chashmoni az oftobi suzon va gardi biyobon surkhgashtaash ashk halqa zada, du-se qatrai on ba rishi siyohu safedash shorid. Sipas khoja ba korvoniyon murojiat karda guft:

Virkanro man ba chorsad diram kharida budam, vay imruz bahoi khudro sadchand va balki hazorchand karda ba man bozgardond. Hamin ki sihat- salomat ba vatan rasidem, man ba mukofoti fidokorie, ki dar muhofizati korvon va joni moyu shumo az in dilovar ba zuhur omad va ba shukronai najot yoftanamon az qatlu gorat, Virkani azizamro az gulomiozod mekunam. Ore, man ba vay ozodi mebakhsham.

SHumoyonroba hamin qavli khud guvoh megiram. SHarikoni bozargonii Nufarn, chokaron va digar ahli korvon hama ba vay ofarin khondand, olihimmatii uro si-

toish kardand va botinan khursand budand, ki shariki savobi gulomozodkuni shudand. Bozargonon ba Virkan, ki az in peshomadi nogahoni, az in khushbakhtii gayrichashmdosht motu mahbut va zabonash lol gashta bud, khitob mekardand, ki:

– Ba khojaat tazim kun, shukr guy! Dastashonro bibus! Pah lavon sarosema ba khojaash ham tazim kard, ham shukr guft va ham dar peshash ba zonu aftida dastashro busid…

 Vay az padari sugdi va modari turk tavallud yofta bud.

Padarash Revakhshiyon aslan samarqandi buda, bistu panj sol dar kishvari turkon

CHittesu (Haftrud) zist.

Sugdiyon dar sarzamini turkon ham to hududi Hitoy sokin shuda, dar qadi «Rohi abreshim» jo-jo ba khud dehaho, shahrchaho sokhta budand yo ki dar avulhoi turkon dar bayni boshandagoni tagjoi mezistand. Baze az on dehayu avulho manzilgohi korvonhoi rohguzar budand. Revakhshiyon dar yake az manzilgohhoi gumoshtai yak nafar bozargoni samarqandi bud. Dar hamon jo vay turkdukhtarero ba zani girift.

Zan dar vaqti zoishi avval murd, kudakash zinda mond, vayro boshiri buz, ohu, asp parvaridand. Bacha to bistsolagi dar CHittesu ba tarbiyai padarash bud. Monandi hamsoloni turknajodi kuchmanchii khud az sesolagi aspsavori omukht.

CHun bavoya rasid, javoni bokitfu bozu, nerumand va nihoyat chobuke gardid. Az aspi savorii khud ba pushti aspi romnoshudai gurezon mejahid va onro to rom nakunad, az pushtash namefaromad. SHikordust bud, bo shikorchiyon payvasta ba shikori gurg, ruboh, gavazn meraft.

Padarash dar pirsolagi ba Samarqand bargasht, dar dehai Revdod, ki zodgohash bud, sukunat ikhtiyor kard.

Farzandi dashthoi bekanor va kuhhoi baland-Virkan badehqoniyu bogdori odat nakard, havasash ba asp va kamon budu bas. Aspe dosht samandi qashqa, teztaki pulodsumi farbehsinai pushtfarokh, yoldarozi govdum, ki ba vay Rakhshi pasin nom nihoda bud, yane Rakhshi peshin aspi Rustami Daston ast va in pas az vay. Javon har goh, ki ba Rakhshi pasin menishast, khudro shahsavori jahon his mekard. Bo on

asp ba shikor meraft, chavgonbozi mekard, (chavgonbozi pisandtarin bozii javononi Sugd bud), dar marakaho savora gushti megirift. Dar du bozii okhir aksaran golib mebaromad. Dar bayni in shuglho vay haftae yak bor-du bor az darai Kishtut bo du ushturi padarash angishtsang kashonda dar bozori Samarqand mefurukht.

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:

  1. Zodgoh va ayyomi bachagii Virkanro sharh dihed.
  2. Virkan dar Revdod ba chi korho mashgul bud?
  3. Korvoni sugdiyonro chi majbur kard, ki pesh az muhlat bar vatan bargardad?
  4. Dar roh chi hodisai mudhish rukh dod?
  5. Virkan dar biyoboni Hijoz chi kornamoi nishon dod?

NANIMANCHA

Dar Revdod jomashuyzanake bud. Nanimancha nom dukhtare dosht, ki khona ba khona gashta pushoki chirkin megundosht va badi shustan onro ba sohibashon ovarda medod. Vay haft dahro pur karda ba hajdah qadam monda boshad ham, shavhar

nakarda bud, hol on ki dukhtaroni chordah-ponzdahsolaro bavoyarasida medonistand va ba shavhar medodand. Nanimancha khudash shavhar kardan namekhost, zero az yakka mondani modari piri dardmandash andesha dosht va modarash ham az hamin tarsida dukhtarashro majbur namekard. Zanak barvaqt

beva monda, dar chilsolagi az mehnatu mashaqqati zindagi pir gashta bud va ham tez-tez bemor meshud. Du bor du sagirro yofta khonadomod kardani shud, lekin dukhtarash onhoro rad kard. Agar khostgore mebaromad, ki rozi meshud, ki mo-

dararusi oyandaashro ba khonai khud baradu poyad, Nanimancha shoyad holo shavhardor mebud, ammo chunin khostgore hanuz nabaromada bud. Dukhtarak ba chehra zebo nabud, lekin dil kash bud, paykari rekhtai mavzune dosht. Mardon ba vay bo

chashmi havas menigaristand, javonon gap mepartoftand, ammo Nanimancha az jumlai dukhtarone bud, ki maqoli «Dast rasonu ba balo mon» dar haqqi onho gufta shudaast. Vay baboloi chaqchaqiyu sergayrati shattoh ham bud, balo bud, bo zaboni tundash ba yak gap du gap megardondu ba kulukhandoz sang meandokht. Dar khonavodai garibashon mardina nabud, lekin ba joi mardina Nanimancha bas bud, vay kori javon mardiro mekard.

Modaru dukhtar pushoki Revakhshiyon va Virkanro ham meshustand. Ruze az ruzho pushoki shustai onhoro ba joi Nanimancha modarash ovard. Hangome ki zanaki nimjon va khastahol bukhchai vazninro ba zamin guzoshta az daruni on pushoki padaru pisarro mebarovard, Revakhshiyon ba vay rahmash omad va pursid:

CHaro bukhcharo khudat bardoshta gashtai, dukhtarat kujost?

Zanak javob nadoda ba zamin nigarist, obi ba chashmi chuki dai kamnurash omadaro bo nugi sarpechi daridaash pok kard.

CHi khabar? Magar ba Nanimancha hodisae ruy dod? – ba khavotir aftod piramardi rahmdil.

Hodisa guftiyu mondi, javob dod zanak va davomi sukhanashro bo dushvori ba zabon rond: – In gapro ba kas gufta nameshavad, lekin ba tu meguyam, tu odami bokhiradi, rozi kasonro ifsho namekuni. Dukhtaram… dujon shudaast. Zan dar in jo boz girist.

SHarmandaam man, dodar. Ba murdanam sad bor roziyam, lekin ajal ham ba man mekhandadu maro namegirad. . . .

– Az ki? Az kadom zinogari nokas boshad?

– Man chi donam? Vay nameguyad. «Napurs, ayb ba khudam»,

-meguyadu digar gap namezanad… Homilagiash malum… SHarm karda az khona namebaroyad.

Revakhshiyon andeshamand shuda, digar pursukov nakard, ba muzdi jomashui nim galber jav barovarda doda, zanakro guselond. Rozi gamangezi zanak dili piramardro siyoh kard. Va in faqat az rohi rahmdili nabud, balki vajhi digare ham dosht.

CHande pesh Virkan az padarash khosta bud, ki Nanimancharo ba zanii u khostgori kunad. Gufta bud: «Modarashro ham ba khona meoram, ochayu dukhtar khizmati ruzgori turo ham mekunand». Ammo Revakhshiyon in gapro hatto shunidan nakhost, qatiyan rad kard. Vay az kheshii jomashuyzanaki darbadar or mekard. Holo piramard az khayoli on ki bo rad kardani khohishi pisarash az gayri ikhtiyori khud yak daraja sababgori badbakhtii dukhtarak va modari u shudaast, aziyati vijdon mekashid.

Virkan az shikor bargasht. Revakhshiyon rozro ba dilash gunchonida natavonista ba vay guft:

– Jomashuyzanak omada bud, giryonu nolon. Dukhtarash az kadom yak zinogari nokas obistan shudaast.

Virkan yakbora dar joi nishastaash bezobita shud, chashmonashro kalontar kushoda, suy padarash khamida pursid:

– Obistan?

– Ore, – az bezobita shudani pisarash taajjub karda javob dod Revakhshiyon.

Virkan barkhost, andeshamand qadame chand dar rui havli gasht, labi juy dikak nishasta dar obi on dast shust, boz khest, murgoni sayd kardaashro az joe, ki guzoshta bud, biduni zarurat bardoshta, ba joi digar guzosht: sipas bargashta nazdi padarash nishastu guft:

– Man… Padari kudakash manam.

– Tu? – piramard ba shunida bovar kardan namekhost.

– Ore, padar, man.

– Tu chi kor kardi, lanati? – shurid Revakhshiyon. – Agar in roz oshkor shavad, turo ba dor mekashand, uro sangsor mekunand!

– Orom bosh, padar, Nanimancharo ba zani megiram. Aknun tu ne gufta nametavoni. Kayhost, ki dustash medoram.

Revakhshiyon yakbora dam furu bast, hej naguft. Fasli kharbuzapazi bud. Virkan az polizcha, ki padarash dar hayoti pushti bomi khonaashon koshta bud, du kharbuzai kalonro kanda ovarda ba khurjin andokht, boz du noni tobagi va az chorto murgi titav, ki on ruz sayd karda bud, dutoyashro andokht va khurjinro ba kitfash girifta ravon shud.

 Nimvayrona kulbai shustagarzanak dar kanori deha ba labi childirobai soy meistod. Modaru dukhtar az boloi tavorai pastaki khasin Virkani khurjin bar dushro, ki kalonkalon qadam partofta ba sui dari havlichai onho meomad, dida hayron shudand: pisari Revakhshiyon pesh az in ba khonai onho hej nayomada bud. Nanimancha boshad, ba boloi hayratash bedastu po ham shud. Virkan niz har duro medid va az onho chashm nakanda khandon meomad. Nanimanchai beqaror surkh shud, safed shud va nihoyat sarosemayu haroson khudro ba daruni kulba girifta dari onro pushid.

Modarash avval az in holu harakati vay taajjub kard, soniyan sababashro ba farosat daryoft. Nakhustin bor daryoft va ba khud larzid.

– SHod bosh, khola! – in nidoi javonmard zanakro ba khud ovard. (Sugdiyon hanuz «salomalaykum»-i arabiro namedo nistand, ba joi salom «SHod bosh» yo ki «Hush bosh» meguftand.

 Kadbonu ba sufachai zeri darakhti piri sershokhu bargi zardolu pustak andokht. Virkan dar on nishast.

– In kamak savgotiro bigiru az imruz maro farzand bigu, – javon ba khurjini dar labi sufa guzoshtaash ishora kard.

– Dukhtaratro bikhon.

Ammo az zanak peshtar khudi Virkan ba dukhtarak ovoz dod.

– Baro, Nanimancha, man peshi tu omadam. Kason dui moro ba ham payvastan nakhostand, Hudoyon payvastand. Tu baroi man pahlavonpisare khohi ovard.

Vah, chi surure az in sukhanon bar sinai Nanimancha rohyoft, chi rushnoie ba dilash toft! Vay guyo az gayb ovozi farishtai surushro shunid, ki az tolei firuz va istiqboli rakhshonash bashorat medod. Dilshikastagi, tarsu vahmi badnomi, gami bekasi va bepanohi, ki vaqthoi okhir pas az malum shudani obistaniash joni uro dar shikanjai azob andokhta budand, ba yak bor nopadid gashtand. Vay dast ba shikami yak qadar baromadaash, – khayolan ba kitfi kudaki hanuz  ba olam nayomadaash nihoda, khushbakht va rizomand, hamchun kase, ki garki orzui shirine boshad, bo chashmoni namgirifta ba durodur menigarist va devori khona ham guyo ba in durnigarii u mone nameshud. Gar dar in dam nazari Virkan ba vay megaltid, chi malohati dilraboe dar vay medid va shoyad ba khud meguft, ki arusash voqean zebost, nozanin ast.

Alhaq, shodiyu khushbakhti hatto bezebro zebo va pirro barno megardonad. Faqat Virkan dar javobi davatash az kulba chunin ovoze shunid:

– Namebaroyam! Birav!

Ammo in ovozi noz bud, na qahr. Virkan khandidu boz guft:

– Hub, barovu khudatro ba man binamoy, bad meravam.

Modar ham dukhtarashro sado karda:

– Baro! Az ki sharm medori? On vaqt, ki bo in javon khilvat mekardi, sharm nadoshti va aknun medori? Baro zudtar, behayo, mehmonro paziroi kun! – guft, lekin khudash dahonashro bo nugi ostin pushonda tabassum mekard; guftorash bashunidan sarzanish bud va ba fahmidan navozish.

Badi andak fursat Nanimancha az dari kulba namoyon shud; ruyashro bo bandi dastash panah karda bud, pahlunoki dar dami dar istod. Virkan ba nazdash raft, ohista dast ba kitfash guzosht, arus kitf junbonda dasti uro dur kard:

domod dar hole, ki labkhand mekard, ovozashro qasdan durushttar namuda guft:

– Ba man nigar, dukhtarak! Teztar ana on titavhoro par bikan va kabob bikun, ki man gurusnaam.

Nanimancha ham aknun khandida, surkh shuda, yak nigohi sharmzadai gurezon ba rui Virkan afkandu bo jadal sui sufra ravon shud…

 SAVOL VA SUPORISH: 

  1. Dar borai Nanimancha va oilai u malumot dihed.
  2. Simoi botini va zohirii Nanimancharo sharh dihed.
  3. Mashguliyati asosii Nanimancha az chi iborat bud?
  4. Modari Nanimancha ki bud va bo kadom khislathoi khosi khud farq mekard?
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