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SOHTORI DOHILI VA QABATHOI ZAMIN

Tarkibi dokhilii Zamin az moddahoi gazi, moe va sakht iborat yofta, se qabatro tashkil mekunad: litosfera, mantiya va hasta (yadro) (rasm  29). In qabatho bo tarkibi moddi va khususiyotashon az ham farq mekunand. Tahqiqoti Za­min dushvorihoi ziyod dorad. Ammo olimon dar holi hozir bo kandani chohho ba chuqurii 10 km rasidaand va tahqiqi khususiyoti qabathoi dokhilii Zaminro idoma medihand.

Rasmi 29. Sokhti dokhilii ZaminBa gayr az in, bo istifoda az mavjhoi seysmiki tahqiqi chukurihoi to in vaqt nomalumi Zamin, baroi ba dast ovardani malumothoi daqiq idoma dorand. Dar natijai zaminlarza va tarkishhoi suni lappishhoi gunotun paydo meshavand. Fishori dokhili dar qabathoi dokhilii Zamin mavjhoi daroz va arniro ba vujud meorad. In mavjho dar qabathoi chukuri Zamin bo surati gunogun rui medihand. Rukh dodani chunin lappishho az on shahodat medihad, ki qabathoi dokhilii Zamin holati sakht va moe dorand.

Qishri Zamin dar yakjoyagi bo qismati boloii mantiya qishri sakhi Zamin – litosferaro ba vujud meorad. Gafsii on az 5 to 80 km. ro tashkil medihad.

Dar on sharoit baroi hayoti organizmhoi zinda mavjud ast. Do solhoi 60 umi qarni XX litosfera va qishri Zaminro sinonimho mehisobidand. Dar holi hozir boshad sobit shudaast, ki qismati boloii litosfera qishri zamini buda, dar chuqurii 50 km dar zeri uqyonus va 100 km dar zeri qitahoi khushki qabati Mohorovich joygir gardidaast. Dar in qabat mavjhoi seysmiki bo surati az 5 to 8 km/soniya meguzarand.

Zilzilaamvoj – larzishhoi sakhte, ki dar zamin pahn shuda, sozandai manbai zaminlarza, tarqishho va berun shudani vulqonho shuda metavonad.

Qabathoi dokhilii Zamin
Qabathoi dokhilii Zamin

Mantiya – dar miyoni qishri zamin va yadro joygir shudaast. Dar zeri li­tosfera joygir tuda, mantiya to jarfnoi 2250-3000 km raftanash mumkin ast. Dar mantiya harorati baland mushohida karda meshavad. Tamomi moddaho dar shakli gudokhta hastand. Mantiya ba boloi, miyona va poyoni taqsim meshavad (ras. 30).

Hasta (yadro) – qismati az hama buzurgi dokhilii Zamin ba shumor meravad. Hasta az moddahoe iborat yoftaast, ki doroi khususiyoti metalli meboshand.

Radiusi hasta 3500 km ro tashkil medihad. Harorati on boshad ba 4000- 5000°S merasad.

Tarkibi dokhilii Zamin va ravandhoi dar on ba vuqu omada, tasiri ziyod ba shaklgirii atmosfera va gidrosferai Zamin rasonidaand.

Omuzishi tarkibi dokhilii Zamin ba mo ba savohoi ziyode, ki baroi hayoti inson dar rui Zamin zaruriand, posukh medihad:

  • Oyo kandanihoi foidanok kofiand va ba okhir namerasand?
  • CHaro zaminlarzaho doyr megardand va chi tuna meshavad onhoro peshgui kard?
  • Harorat dar qari Zamin chi 1una ast?
  • CHaro baze qitahoi Zamin baland va bazeashon past meshavand?
  • Oyo qitaho harakat mekunand?
  • Otashfishonii vulqon chi guna ba amal meoyad?

Dar paragrafi oyanda shumo malumoti ziyodi shavqovar oidi litosfera va ravandhoi dar on ba vuqu omada daryoft mekuned.

Savol va suporishho

  1. Qishri zamin chist?
  2. Sokhtori dokhilii zamin az kadom qabatho iborat meboshad?
  3. Dar borai tahqiqoti navi olimon oidi sokhtori dokhilii Zamin malumot omoda kuned

 

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