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SOHTI SIYOSI, IQTISODI VA IJTIMOII JUMHURII TOJIKISTON

Hamon tavre ki az unvoni davlat, yane Jumhurii Tojikiston barmeoyad, shakli idorakunii Tojikiston shakli jumhuriyavi meboshad. SHakli idorakunii jumhuriyavi chunin tarzi tashkili hokimiyati davlati meboshad, ki dar on maqomoti olii hokimiyati davlati tavassuti intikhobot tashakkul meyoband.

Alomathoi asosii shakli idorakunii jumhuriyavi az inho iboratand:

  • – ba muhlati muayyan intikhob shudani Sarvari davlat va digar maqomoti markazii hokimiyati davlati;
  • – tajziyai hokimiyat ba maqomoti qonunguzor, ijroiya va sudi;
  • – javobgarii huquqii Sarvari davlat dar holathoe, ki qonun peshbini kardaast;
  • – hatmi budani ijroi qarorhoi hokimiyati olii davlati baroi hamai digar maqomoti davlati;
  • – hifzi afzaliyatnoki manfiathoi shahrvandoni davlat;
  • – masuliyati baynihamdigarii shakhs va davlat.

CHunonki az mundarijai in alomatho malum meshavad, shakli jumhuriyavii idorakunii davlat dar tarikhi bashariyat az hama peshqadam ast. Jumhurii Tojikiston barobari ba dast ovardani istiqloliyati davlati shakli idorakunii prezidentiro tavassuti raypursii umumikhalqi 6-umi noyabri soli 1994 bo qabuli Konstitutsiyai Tojikiston maqul donist.

mirvboge-ru_17-jpg17SHakli idorakunii prezidentiro az mazmuni meyorhoi zerini Konstitutsiya fahmidan mumkin ast: dar moddai 64-umi Konstitutsiyai JT navishta shudaast, ki «Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston Sarvari davlat va hokimiyati ijroiya (Hukumat) ast».

YAne Prezidenti kishvar dar yak vaqt ham Sarvari davlat va ham Raisi Hukumat meboshad, ki chunin holat tanho ba jumhurii prezidenti khos ast.

Dar kishvari mo Prezident tavassuti intikhoboti umumi va mustaqim, bo tarzi barobar va ovozdihii pinhoni az jonibi tamomi khalq ba muhlati haft sol intikhob meshavad. In tarzi intikhobot niz ba shakli idorakunii prezidenti khos ast.

Jihati seyumash hamin ast, ki Hukumat purra ba Prezident tobe buda, az faoliyati khud ba u muntazam hisobot medihad. Gayr az in, tibqi moddai 69-umi Konstitutsiya Prezidenti JT Sarvazir va azoi Hukumatro ba vazifa tain va az vazifa ozod mekunad. CHunin vaziyat niz dar davlathoi shakli idorakuniashon prezidenti vujud dorad. Hususiyathoi nomburda az on guvohi medihand, ki shakli idorakunii JT, yane shakli jumhurii prezidenti, ba sharoiti kununi va durnamoi peshrafti Tojikiston khele muvofiq ast.

Jihati az hama muhim dar in shakli idorakuni ba shokhahoi mustakil taqsim shudani hokimiyati davlatist. CHunin tajziyai hokimiyati davlati ba demokratikunonii hayoti jomea va ishtiroki vasei mardum dar amali gardonidani hokimiyat sharoiti musoid faroham meorad. Gayr az in, chunin sokhti davlatdori bo prinsipi davlati ijtimoii huquqi budani Tojikiston muvofiqat mekunad.

Dar jumhurii mo hama shaklhoi molikiyat, az jumla molikiyati khususi inkishofi ozodona dorad. Ammo iqtisodi bozorii mo ba ijtimoiyoti kishvar nigaronida shudaast. Dar qismi duyumi moddai yakumi Konstitutsiya Tojikiston davlati ijtimoi elon gardidaast. Davlathoe, ki khudro ijtimoi elon kardaand, kushishi ziyode mekunand, ki baroi rushdi sohahoi gunoguni hayoti ijtimoivu iqtisodi va farhangi, inchunin baroi peshrafti sohahoe, ki ba sharoiti zist va nekuahvolii mardum dakhl dorand, tadbirhoi amali andeshand. Makhsusan, sohahoi taminoti ijtimoi, tandurusti, nafaqavu sugurta, naqliyot va aloqa, maorif, behdoshti muhiti zist bo sharoiti zindagii mardum robitai bevosita doshta, gamkhorii hamajonibai davlatro taqozo mekunand.

Dar Tojikiston az soli 1994 injonib bo vusat yoftani ravandi qonunguzori va ustuvor shudani qonuniyat, faoliyati mutadili maqomoti hokimiyati davlati va az hama muhimash – poydor shudani sulhu suboti umumi poyahoi jomeai shahrvandi guzoshta shuda istodaand. Boyad guft, ki jomeai shahrvandi in jomeai odamoni ozod buda, onho az hama hukuqhoi ijtimoivu iqtisodi va siyosi bo imkoniyathoi barobar istifoda mekunand va mansubiyat ba najodu millat va etiqod farqe nadorad.

Prinsiphoi muhimi jomeai shahrvandi – kafolati hifzi huquqhoi shakhsiyat, dakholat nakardani davlat ba hayoti shakhsii shahrvandon, ozodii sukhan, aqida va matbuot, inchunin khususiyati demokrati doshtani hokimiyat ast. Zindagi dar chunin jomeai ozodu peshrafta az qadimulayyom ahli ilmu adab va olimonro ba khud jalb kardaast. Hanuz dar YUnonu Rimi qadim faylasufoni mashhur Aflotun va Siseron oid ba bartariyati in tarzi zindagi aqidaho bayon karda budand. Mulohizai olimoni peshinro khulosa karda, ba tavri umumi chor unsuri jomeai shahrvandiro judo kardan mumkin ast. Inho – khirad, ozodi, nekuahvoli va adolat meboshand.

Hususiyathoi jomeai shahrvandiro Prezidenti Tojikiston muhtaram E.SH.Rahmonov hangomi sukhanroni dar jalasai SHuroi jamiyatii Jumhurii Tojikiston 11-umi marti soli 2002 khele aniq va mukhtasar bayon kardaand, ki in khususiyatho – molikiyati khususi, demokratiyai siyosi, madaniyati demokrati va oromivu subot dar jomea ba shumor meravand.

Dar sharoiti imruzai inkishofi Jumhurii Tojikiston bisyor unsurhoi jomeai shahrvandi ba nazar merasand. CHunonchi, huquqhoi fitrii inson muvofiqi moddai 5-umi Konstitutsiya dakhlnopazir elon shudaand. Gayr az in, davlat huququ ozodihoi inson va shahrvandro na faqat etirof, balki rioya va hifz menamoyad.

Gunogunshaklii molikiyat, ozodii faoliyati iqtisodi va inkishofi munosibathoi bozori dar asosi raqobati solim jihati muhimi tashakkuli jomeai shahrvandi ba hisob meravad. Dar moddai 12-umi Konstitutsiya navishta shudaast, ki «asosi iqtisodii Tojikistonro shaklhoi gunoguni molikiyat tashkil medihad». Dar kishvari mo hama navhoi molikiyat, az jumla molikiyati khususi, huquqi barobari mavjudiyat dorand.

YAke az khususiyathoi asosii jomeai shahrvandi – dar asosi raviyahoi gunoguni siyosi va mafkuravi inkishof yoftani hayoti jamiyati meboshad. Muvofiqi moddai 8-umi Konstitutsiya hej yak mafkura, az jumla mafkurai dini, ba sifati mafkurai davlati etirof nameshavad. In aqida chunin mani dorad, ki dar intikhobi mafkura, payravi kardan ba in yo on nazariyavu aqida va talimoti siyosi har shahrvandi Tojikiston komilan ozod ast. Inchunin, har shahrvand huquqi komil dorad, ki ba kadom dinu mazhabe, ki mayl dorad, payravi namoyad.

Dar 15 soli okhir dar Tojikiston hizbhoi siyosi, junbishhoi ommavi, tashkilothoi gayridavlati va ittihodiyahoi jamiyati, ittifoqhoi kasbi va ejodi, sozmonhoi khayriya va muassisahoi khususi khele ziyod tashkil yoftaand. Faoliyati ozodonai ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va ishtiroki faolonai onho dar hayoti siyosi va idorai davlati yake az sharthoi muhimi jomeai shahrvandi va davlati huquqbunyod ast. Dar Tojikiston dahho sanadhoi huquqi qabul shudaand, ki baroi faoliyati ommai vasei mardum dar sohahoi gunoguni hayoti jamiyati sharoit faroham meorand.

Ozodii sukhan va matbuot hamchun vositai muhimi tashakkuli afkori jamiyati az khosiyati demokrati doshtani davlati Tojikiston guvohi medihad. Alhol dar mamlakati mo barobari matbuot va nashriyahoi davlati, inchunin, dahho ruznomavu majallahoi khususi, televizion va radiohoi gayridavlati faoliyat mekunand. Dar moddai 30-yumi Konstitutsiya zikr shudaast, ki ba har kas ozodii sukhan, nashr, huquqi istifodai vositahoi akhbor kafolat doda meshavad.

Meyori digari konstitutsioni – man budani senzurai davlati va taqib baroi tanqid kafolati davlatii ozodii aqida ba shumor meravad.

Hamin tavr, sokhti siyosii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba talaboti nizomi demokratii davlatdorii muosir sozgor buda, durnamoi inkishofi davlat va jomeai Tojikistonro tamin mekunad.

Sokhti iqtisodi Iqtisodiyoti Jumhurii Tojikiston ba shaklhoi gunoguni molikiyat asos yoftaast.

Dar moddai 12-umi Konstitutsiyai JT gunogunshaklii molikiyat hamchun asosi iqtisodiyoti Tojikiston etirof shudaast. Tibqi qismi duyumi hamin modda davlat faoliyati ozodi iqtisodi, sohibkori, barobarhuquqi va hifzi huquqii hamai shaklhoi molikiyat, az jumla molikiyati khususiro kafolat dodaast. Mazmuni in meyori konstitutsioni chunin ast, ki yagon shakli molikiyat az nigohi qonun nisbat ba shakli digar bartari doshta nametavonad. Baroi rivoji shaklhoi gunoguni molikiyat az jonibi parlamenti kishvar sanadhoi ziyodi meyorii huquqi qabul shudaand, ki bo tatbiqi onho sohahoi gunoguni iqtisodiyoti kishvar ba tavri mutadil taraqqi mekunand.

Qonunhoi amalkunanda ba har shahrvandi Tojikiston huquq dodaast, ki sohibi molikiyat boshad va molu mulkashro ba meros guzorad. Bekor kardani huquqi shakhs ba molikiyat man karda meshavad.

Dar in bora dar moddai 32-yumi Konstitutsiyai mamlakat chunin meyor vujud dorad: «Hej kas haq nadorad huquqi shakhsro ba molikiyat bekor yo mahdud kunad. Molu mulki shakhsro baroi ehtiyojoti jamiyat dar asosi qonun va rozigii sohibi on bo pardokhti arzishi purraash davlat girifta metavonad».

CHunonki malum ast, Jumhurii Tojikiston asosan davlati kishovarzi buda, mahsuloti asosii  on az zamin ruyonida meshavad. Dar bisyor davlathoi jahon zamin ba molikiyati khususii shahrvandon doda shudaast. Dar Tojikiston boshad, zamin dar barobari sarvathoi zerizamini, ob, fazo, olami nabototu hayvonot va digar boigarihoi tabii molikiyati istisnoii davlat ba shumor meravad.

Ammo davlat kafolat dodaast, ki mardum az zamin va digar boigarihoi tabii pursamar istifoda barad. Masalan, muvofiqi Qonuni JT «Dar borai ijora» shahrvandon metavonand bo rohi ba ijora giriftani zamin onro korkard namuda, vazi iqtisodii khudro behtar namoyand. Gayr az in, baroi afzun namudani istehsoli mahsuloti kishovarzi va istifodai oqilonai zamin farmonhoi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston az soli 1995 va soli 1997 dar borai judo namudani mutobiqan 50 va 25 hazor gektar zamin baroi khojagihoi yorirasoni shakhsii shahrvandon intishor gardidaand va in iqdomi Sarvari davlat ba islohoti sohai kishovarzi va zamindori ibtido guzosht.

YAke az shaklhoi asosii amaligardonii huquqhoi iqtisodii shahrvandoni Tojikiston faoliyati sohibkori meboshad. Sohibkori faoliyati mustaqilonai muvofiqi qonun baqaydgiriftashudae meboshad, ki baroi muntazam ba dast ovardani foida az istifodai molu mulk, istehsol va furushi mol, ijroi kor yo khizmatrasoni ravona karda shudaast.

Sohibkori dar kishvari mo muvofiqi qonunhoi amalkunanda, az jumla Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai himoya va dastgirii davlatii sohibkori dar Jumhurii Tojikiston» az 10 mayi soli 2002, metavonad bo istifodai mehnati kiroya va be istifodai on, bo tasisi shakhsi huquqi va be tasisi on amali gardonida meshavad.

Hamai shahrvandoni Tojikiston, inchunin shakhsoni khoriji va beshahrvand, tashkilothoi tijorati va gayritijorati, inchunin tashkilothoi khoriji ba faoliyati sohibkori mashgul shuda metavonand.

Sohibkor dar peshburdi faoliyati iqtisodi komilan ozod ast. U huquqi mustaqilona ba muomilot barovardani molhoi istehsolkarda va badastovardaashro dorad. Dar munosibat bo davlat sohibkor tanho dar asosi shartnoma faoliyat doshta metavonad. Kam kardani bekori va ba vujud ovardani joyhoi kori dar sohahoi gunogun – sokhtmon, sanoat, kishovarzi va khizmatrasoni, inchunin, ba vujud ovardani raqobati molhoi vatani bo molhoi khoriji samthoi asosii faoliyati sohibkori dar Tojikiston meboshand. Boyad guft, ki dakholati maqomoti hokimiyati davlati ba faoliyati sohibkoron khele mahdud ast. Hususan, ba sohibkoron dodani dastur baroi ijroi in yo on navi kor va khizmatrasoni, inchunin, muayyan kardani narkhho ba molhoi furukhtashavandai sohibkoron man karda shudaast.

Sokhti ijtimoi Sokhti ijtimoii Jumhurii Tojikiston az prinsipi davlati ijtimoi budani on barmeoyad. Dar in khusus dar moddai yakumi Konstitutsiya gufta meshavad: «Tojikiston davlati ijtimoi buda, baroi har yak inson sharoiti zindagii arzanda va inkishofi ozodonaro faroham meorad».

Dar davlati ijtimoi gamkhori ba sohahoi muhimi marbut ba faoliyati ommai vasei mardum dar maddi avval ast. In sohaho az on jihat muhimand, ki shahrvandon har ruz bo onho sarukor megirand, masalan, sohahoi nigahdorii tandurusti, maorif, hifzi ijtimoii aholi – nafaqa, sugurta va gayra.

Faroham ovardani sharoit baroi tahsil imkon medihad, ki navrasonu javonon novobasta az vazi ijtimoi ba omuzish jalb karda shavand. Dar nizomi maktabhoi oli vobasta ba talaboti iqtisodi bozori va vazi iqtisodii tabaqahoi gunoguni jomea

shaklhoi roygon va shartnomavii tahsil ba roh monda shudaand. Javonon dar masalai intikhobi shakli tahsil komilhuquq meboshand. Dar guruhhoi shakli tahsilashon roygon kharojoti tahsilro khudi davlat pardokht mekunad. Davlat baroi guruhhoi muayyani shahrvandon istifodai roygoni khizmatrasonii tibbiro muqarrar kardaast. Nafaqakhuron, ishtirokchiyoni JBV, guruhhoi muayyani mayubon va yatimon az khizmatrasonii tibbi ba tavri imtiyoznok istifoda mekunand.

Masalai tabaiyat yo khud shahrvandi ba robitai huquqii inson bo davlat aloqamand ast. In robita dar majmui huququ vazifa va masuliyati hamdigarii onho ifoda meyobad. Muvofiqi moddai 2-yumi Qonuni konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai shahrvandii Jumhurii Tojikiston» shakhse shahrvandi Jumhurii Tojikiston ba hisob meravad, ki az ruzi qabuli Konstitutsiya shahrvandi Jumhurii Tojikiston meboshad yo in ki mutobiqi hamin qonun ba u shahrvandii Jumhurii Tojikiston doda shudaast. SHahrvandii Jumhurii Tojikiston bo rohhoi zerin ba dast ovarda meshavad: az rui tavallud, az rui tartibi baqaydgirii on, dar natijai qabul shudan ba shahrvandi, dar natijai barqaror shudan ba shahrvandi va bo rohi intikhobi shahrvandi.

Boyad guft, ki dar Tojikiston shahrvandii yagona vujud dorad va mansubiyati shahrvandi Tojikiston ba shahrvandii davlati digar etirof karda nameshavad. YAke az nishonahoi asosii shahrvandi JT doshtani shinosnoma meboshad. SHinosnoma sanadi muhimest, ki shakhsiyati shahrvandro tasdiq mekunad.

Hama shahrvandoni Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki ba sinni 16-solagi rasidaand, huquq dorand, ki sohibi shinosnoma shavand.

YAke az khususiyathoi insonparvaronai qonunguzorii amalkunandai mo in ast, ki ba shahrvandoni Tojikiston, ki dar khorija koru zindagi mekunand, masalai qat gashtani shahrvandiro ravo namebinad. SHahrvandone, ki dar khoriji kishvar istiqomat dorand, boyad dar namoyandagihoi konsulii Tojikiston az qayd guzarand. Inchunin, ba shahrvandoni khorijie, ki giriftori vayronkunii huquqi inson shudaand, davlat panohgohi siyosi doda metavonad.

Boyad takid kard, ki shahrvandon dar masalai tarki shahrvandi komilan ozodand, vale az hududi mamlakat baromada raftan hanuz manoi tark kardani shahrvandiro nadorad. Dar Tojikiston halli masalahoi shahrvandi bevosita ba salohiyati Sarvari davlat guzoshta shudaast. Majmui korhoro oid ba masalai shahrvandi komissiyai makhsus hal mekunad, ki dar nazdi Prezidenti kishvar tasis doda shudaast.

Boyad guft, ki asosi ijtimoii davlatro guruhhoi gunoguni ijtimoi – korgaron, kishovarzon, hunarmandon, khizmatchiyoni davlati, sohibkoron, tojiron, khizmatchiyoni harbi, nafaqakhuron, kudakonu navrason, javonon va gayra tashkil medihand. Tabaqahoi nombarshuda yake nisbat ba digare afzaliyat yo mahdudiyat nadorad. Vazi huquqii onhoro qonunhoi amalkunanda tanzim mekunad.

Har yake az sohahoi ijtimoii Jumhurii Tojikiston – maorif, ilm, nigahdorii tandurusti, farhang, hifzi ijtimoi va gayra tavassuti qonunhoe faoliyat mekunand, ki munosibathoi muhimtarini hamin sohahoro faro megirand. CHunonchi, baroi tanzimi munosibathoi sohai maorif Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai maorif», baroi tanzimi munosibatho dar sohai farhang Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai farhang» va baroi tanzimi munosibathoi sohai nigahdorii tandurusti boshad, Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai hifzi salomatii aholi» qabul karda shudaand. In qonunho va sanadhoi digari huquqie, ki sohahoi gunoguni ijtimoiyoti davlatro ba tanzim medarorand, dar majmu siyosati ijtimoii Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikistonro muayyan mesozand.

Savolho:

  1. SHakli idorakunii Jumhurii Tojikiston chi guna ast?
  2. Alomathoi shakli idorakunii jumhuriyaviro nombar kuned.
  3. Mundarijai shakli idorakunii prezidentiro az kadom meyorhoi Konstitutsiya fahmidan mumkin ast?
  4. Davlati ijtimoi chi gunna khususiyatho dorad?
  5. Gunogunshaklii molikiyat dar kadom moddai Konstitutsiya zikr shudaast?
  6. Prinsiphoi jomeai shahrvandiro nombar kuned.
  7. Dar Jumhurii Tojikiston hayoti jamiyati dar asosi kadom raviyaho jarayon megirad?
  8. Ba fikri SHumo, ozodii sukhan va matbuot chi zarurat dorad? 9. Mazmuni moddai 12-umi Konstitutsiyaro sharh dihed.
  9. Molikiyati istisnoii davlat gufta, kadom navi molikiyat dar nazar doshta meshavad?
  10. Masalahoi shahrvandiro kadom sanadi huquqi tanzim mekunad?
  11. Samthoi faoliyati sohibkoriro nombar namoed.
  12. SHakhs dar chandsolagi huquqi giriftani shinosnoma paydo mekunad?
  13. SHinosnoma chi guna hujjat ast va vazifaash az chi iborat meboshad?
  14. Davlat ba kiho panohgohi siyosi doda metavonad?

 

 

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