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SOHTI HUJAYRAVII ORGANIZMI RASTANI

SHinosoi bo asbobhoi kalonnishondihanda

Rastaniho organizmhoi zindaand. Baroi durust donistanu dark kardani ravandho yo hodisahoi baroi hayotguzaronii rastaniho hatman zarur meboyad bo sokhtori dokhilii uzvhoi rastani az naz- dik shinos shavem.

Pomidori surkhtobi nimkhom, tarbuz, limu yo sebi muloimro pora (yo dukafon) kuned. Magzi in mevaho az katakchaho (kovokihoi) ni- hoyat khurd-khurd iborat ast. In kholigiho hujayrahoand. Agar onhoro dar zeri asbobhoi kalonnishondihanda — purbin yo mikroskop (zar- rabin) binem, baralo aniqtar ayon meshavand.

Purbin asbobi odditarini kalonnishondihanda ast. Qismi aso- sii on shishai purbin meboshad, ki du tarafash barjasta buda, dar chanbarak ustuvor karda shudaast Oe. Purbin ashyoro az 2 to 25 ma- rotiba kalon nishon medihad. Purbinro ba dast girifta onro ba ashyoi tahqiqshavanda chunon nazdik meovarand, ki aksi on harchi ka- lontar va ravshantar namoyon gardad.

soxti-hujayra

Mikroskop asbobi purbinshakle ast, ki aksi ashyoro sadho va hatto hazorho marotiba kalon nishon medihad. Kashfu takmili avvalini mik- roskop dar asri XVII ba vuqu omadaast. Kashshofi mikroskope, ki ashyoro taqriban 270 marotiba kalon nishon medod, olimi hollandi Antoni van Levenguk bud. Dar soli 1665 boshad, olimi anglis R. Guk dar zeri mikroskopi khud ikhtirokardaash buridai nihoyat tunuki pukro guzoshta, mushohida kard, ki on az katakchahoi (pufakchahoi) nihoyat khurd- khurdi ba orukhona shabohatdoshta iborat ast. U onhoro hujayra nomid. Agar purbin vobasta ba imkoniyatash ashyoro 2-25 marotiba kalon kunad, mikroskopi maktabi onro to 200 marotiba, mikroskopi biologi (rav- shani) boshad, to 3600 marotiba kalon inikos mekunad. Mikroskophoi elektronie, ki dar solhoi 30-umi asri XX ikhtiro shudaand, aksi ashyo- ro dahho va sadho hazor marotiba kalon nishon medihand.

Qismi asosii mikroskopi ravshani, ki shumo bo on dar maktab mashguliyat meguzaroned, az shishai purbin iborat buda, on ba nay- chai binish yo tubus (tubus kalimai lotini buda, manoyash “naycha” ast) guzoshta shudaast 13 . Dar qismi boloi naycha okulyar, ki az chan- barak va du shishai purbin iborat ast, joy giriftaast. Nomi “oku- lyar” az kalimai lotinii “okulus” girifta shuda, manoyash “chashm” meboshad. Hangomi tavassuti mikroskop didani ashyo, chashmro to haddi darkori ba okulyar nazdik mebarand.

Dar qismi poyoni tubus obektiv joygir shudaast, ki az chanbarak va yakchand shishai purbin iborat ast. Nomi “obektiv” az kalimai lotinii “obektum” girifta shuda, manoyash “ashyo” ast.

Bo yorii mikroskop hujayrai tamomi uzvhoi rastaniro didan mumkin ast. Baroi tayyor kardani preparat (buridai tunuki yagon uzvi rastani) az yagon uzvi rastani bo tegi tez porchai tunukero burida megirand. Ba lavhachai shishagini toza yak qatra ob chakon- da, porchai buridaro ba on guzoshta boloyashro bo shishai ruypushi nafis mepushand. Agar az kanorai shishai ruypush ob damida ba- royad, onro bo obchinak mejabband. Hamin tavr, preparat tayyor meshavad va onro dar zeri mikroskop didan mumkin ast 14 .

Dar vaqti bo mikroskop kor kardan rioyai chunin qoidaho hatmist: poyai mikroskopro ba tarafi khud nigaronida, az kanori miz 5-10 sm dur guzored. Tavassuti oyinacha rushnoiro jonibi surokhii miz- chai ashyoguzor ravon kuned.

Preparati tayyorkardashudaro dar boloi mizchai ashyoguzor guzosh- ta, onro bo du siqqonak mahkam kuned.

Tubusro bo yorii vint ba poyon ohista harakat doda, ba prepa- rat to 1-2 mm nazdik bared.

Ba okulyar nigohkunon tubusro to ravshan namudor shudani aksi ashyo ohista bolo bardored,

Pas az mushohida kardani preparati tayyorkardashuda khulosaho- yatonro dar daftaraton qayd karda, sipas mikroskopro nagzakak toza karda dar gilofash guzored.

  1. Kadom asbobhoi kalonnishondihandaro medoned?
  2. Purbin chi guna sokht dorad va on ashyoro chand marotiba kalon nishon medihad?
  3. Avvalin mikroskopro ki ikhtiro kard?
  4. Sokhti mikroskop chi guna ast?
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