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SISTEMAI FAYLII MS DOS

Faylho. Informatsiya dar diskhoi magniti, optiki, kompaktdiskho va digar barandagon dar shakli faylho (Files) nigoh doshta meshavad. Fayl yak qismi sathi disk meboshad, ki ba on nomi muayyane doda shudaast va dar on yagon miqdor informatsiya nigoh doshta meshavad (Rasmi 4).

Dar faylho namudhoi gunoguni informatsiya, az qabili matni programmaho, matni hujjatho, grafiku rasmho, musiqi va gayraho mahfuzand. Az hamin sabab ham, faylho ba gayr az nomi asosiashon boz nomi ilovagi dorand.

Qismi asosii nomi fayl az qismi ilovagii on bo alomati nuqta judo karda meshavad. Qismi ilovagii nomi fayl dar borai namudi informatsiyai dar fayl mahfuzbuda malumot medihad.

Nomhoi asosi va ilovagii fayl bo yorii harfhoi khurd yo kaloni alifboi lotini, raqamho va alomathoi zerin sokhta meshavand:

Nomi asosii fayl boyad az 8 alomat va nomi ilovagii on az 3 alomat ziyod nadoshta boshad.

MISOL:

Baze nomhoi ilovagii faylho hamchun standarti jahoni qabul shudaand:

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .TXT boshad, on goh in namud fayl yagon informatsiyai matniro dar bar giriftaast. CHunin faylhoro faylhoi matni menomand. Matni onho metavonand bo harfhoi alifboi lotini, rusi, tojiki va gayraho navishta shuda boshand.

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .COM yo .EXE boshad, on goh in namud fayl programmaero dar bar giriftaast, ki onro bevosita ijro kardan mumkin ast. In namudi faylhoro faylhoi programmavi yo ijroshavanda menomand.

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .BAT boshad, on goh in khel fayl komandahoi sistemai operatsionii MS DOS-ro dar bar giriftaast va onro fayli komandavi menomand.

fw.exe Dushanbe.txt – Nomi asosii fayl Nomi ilovagii fayl Nomi asosii fayl Nomi ilovagii fayl

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .BAS boshad, on goh in khel fayl matni programmaero dar bar giriftaast, ki on dar zaboni algoritmii Beysik tartib doda shudaast.

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .PAS boshad, on goh fayl matni programmaero dar bar giriftaast, ki on dar zaboni algoritmii Paskal tartib doda shudaast.

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .ASM boshad, on goh in khel fayl matni programmaero dar bar giriftaast, ki on dar zaboni algoritmii Assembler tartib doda shudaast.

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .C boshad, on goh fayl matni programmaero dar bar giriftaast, ki on dar zaboni algoritmii Si tartib doda shudaast.

Agar nomi ilovagii fayl .IAK boshad, on goh in khel fayl nuskhai ehtiyotii digar fayl ba hisob meravad. Masalan, faylhoi Link.txt va Link.iak az hamdigar bo nomi ilova-

giashon farq mekunand. Binobar in fayli Link.iak nuskhai ehtiyotii fayli Link.txt shumurda meshavad.

Faylho ba gayr az nomhoi asosi va ilovagiashon boz kharakteristikahoi zerinro sohiband:

Hajmi fayl. Hajmi faylho bo miqdori baytho chen karda meshavand.

Tarikhi sokhta shudani fayl.

Vaqti sokhta shudani fayl.

Odatan kharakteristikahoi faylho bo hamrohii nomhoi asosi va ilovagiashon dar disk ba qayd girifta meshavand.

Katalogho. Nomi faylho va kharakteristikahoi onho dar joyi makhsusi sathi disk sabt karda meshavand, ki onro katalog yo direktoriya menomand.

Agar nomi fayl dar yagon katalog ba qayd girifta shuda boshad, on goh meguyand, ki fayl dar dokhili in katalog joygir shudaast. Dar har yak disk yakchand katalog joy doshta

metavonad, lekin har guna fayl bo yak nom dar yak katalog tanho yak marotiba vokhurda metavonad. Baroi dar yagon katalog nigoh doshtani nuskhai fayl, onro bo digar nom sabt

kardan zarur ast.

Hamai kataloghoi disk, ba gayr az katalogi asosii on, nomi khususii khudro dorand. Ruykhati in nomho dar yagon katalogi digar ba qayd girifta meshavad. Agar nomi katalogi X dar katalogi Y ba qayd girifta shuda boshad, on goh X zerkatalogi Y nomida shuda, Y boshad, katalogi volidayni nomida meshavad.

Nomi katalogho ba misli nomi asosii faylho sokhta meshavand va onho niz boyad az 8 alomat ziyod nadoshta boshand. Ilova bar in boyad zikr namud, ki katalogho faqat nomi asosi dorand, chunki dar onho faqat yak namudi informatsiya nigoh doshta meshavad va zaruriyat ba guzoshtani nomi ilovagi namemonad.

Dar har yak disk yak katalogi makhsus mavjud ast, ki onro katalogi asosi yo reshavi menomand. Dar katalogi asosi faylho va digar katalogho kataloghoi darajai yakum, joygir karda meshavand. Dar kataloghoi darajai yakum boshad, faylho va kataloghoi darajai duyum joygir karda meshavand. In ravand muvofiqi maqsad yo khohishi istifodabarandai MEH metavonad yakchand marotiba takror yobad. Bo

ziyod shudani miqdori katalogho dar disk sokhtori darakht- shakli katalogho paydo meshavad (Rasmi 5). Istifodabarandai kompyuter dar har yak lahzai vaqt bo

yake az kataloghoi disk saru kor dorad. In guna katalogro katalogi jori yo kununi meguyand.

Azbaski faylhoro dar kataloghoi gunogun joygir menamoyand, binobar on ham bazan koftukobi onho ba mushkiliho ovarda merasonad. Baroi ba osoni az katalogho

yoftani faylho mafhumi «Roh ba fayl»-ro istifoda mebarand. Roh ba fayl az paydarpayii nomi katalogho yo alomati «..» (du nuqtai paydarpay), ki az hamdigar bo vositai alomati «\» judo karda shudaand, iborat meboshad. Roh ba fayl ba kompyuter rohkhat medihad, ki koftukovi fayl yo zerkatalog az kadom katalogi disk sar meshavad va bo kadome az onho ba okhir merasad. Katalogi okhirin katalogest, ki dar dokhili on zerkatalog yo fayli zaruri joygir shudaast.

Agar dar ibtidoi roh alomati «\» vokhurad, on goh koftukovi fayl az katalogi asosii disk va dar aksi hol, az katalogi jori sar meshavad.

Rasmi 5. Sokhtori darakhtshakli katalogho va faylho dar disk

MISOLHO:

  1. \Format.exe koftukovi fayli Foqmat.exe az katalogi asosii disk sar meshavad. Fayli Foqmat.exe dar khudi katalogi asosii disk joygir shudaast.

 

  1. \Lex1\Lex1.txt roh az katalogi asosii disk sar meshavad va ba fayli Lex1.txt mebarad, ki on dar dokhili katalogi Lex1 joygir shudaast. Katalogi Lex1 boshad, dar katalogi asosii disk ba qayd girifta shudaast.
  2. Windows\Winwoqd\Wq.com roh az katalogi jorii Windows sar meshavad va ba fayli Wq.com mebarad, ki on dar dokhili katalogi Winwoqd joygir shudaast. Katalogi Winwoqd boshad, zerkatalogi katalogi Windows ast.

Agar dar roh nomi katalog vokhurad, on goh in voridshaviro az katalogi volidayni ba katalogi mazkur ifoda menamoyad. Hangomi dar roh vokhurdani alomati «..» boshad,

baraks voridshavi az zerkatalog ba katalogi volidayni ast.

MISOL:

Lex1\..\..\Windows\Win.txt roh az katalogi jori Lex1 sar mashavad. Azbaski dar roh alomathoi «..» vomekhurand, pas in manii avval ba katalogi volidaynii Lexicon va bad ba katalogi asosi vorid shudanro dorad. Pas az on roh ba katalogi Windows mebarad va az on fayli Win.txt ro meyobad.

Ba gayr az mafhumi «Roh ba fayl» boz mafhumi «Roh ba katalog» vujud dorad. «Roh ba katalog» niz aynan ba misli «Roh ba fayl» navishta shuda, tanho dar intihoi roh nomi kataloge nishon doda meshavad, ki ba on dokhil shudan zarur ast.

MISOL:

Farz mekunem, ki sokhtori darakhtshakli katalogho namudi dar rasmi 5 ovardashudaro doshta boshad, on goh:

  1. rohe, ki az katalogi asosii disk sar meshavad:

\Lexicon roh ba katalogi darajai yakum mebarad;

\Lexicon\Lex1 roh ba katalogi darajai duyum mebarad;

\Windows roh ba katalogi darajai yakum mebarad;

\Windows\Winwoqd roh ba katalogi darajai duyum meba- rad.

  1. rohe, ki az katalogi kununii News sar meshavad:

..\Lexicon roh az zerkatalog ba katalogi volidayni mebarad;

..\Lexicon\Lex1 roh az zerkatalog ba katalogi volidayni va bad ba katalogi darajai duyum mebarad;

..\Windows\Winwoqd in roh niz ba katalogi darajai duyum mebarad.

CHunon ki qayd karda shud, faylho dar diskethoi andoza va kharakteristikahoi gunogundoshta sabt karda meshavand.

Muvofiqi diskethoi istifodashavanda dar kompyuterho diskdonhoi muayyan khizmat merasonand:

diskdon baroi disketho A: va B:

diskdoni diski namudi vinchester C:

diskdon baroi kompaktdiskho D:

Agar diskdon diskdoni jori naboshad, on goh baroi kofta yoftani faylho va kataloghoi lozimi dar ibtidoi roh nomi diskdon niz qayd karda meshavad.

MISOL:

  1. A:\News katalogi nishondodashuda az diskete kofta meshavad, ki on dar diskdoni yakum guzoshta shudaast;
  2. I:\Windows\Win.exe fayl az diske kofta meshavad, ki on dar diskdoni duyum guzoshta shudaast;
  3. C:\Lexicon\Lex1\Lex1.exe fayl dar diski vinchester kofta meshavad.

Diskdoni jori gufta diskdonero menomand, ki bo on kompyuter bevosita hamin lahza saru kor dorad.

Hangomi ibtidoi kori kompyuter, dar ekran davatnomai sistema ba namudi C:\> paydo megardad. In chunin mano dorad, ki diskdoni diski vinchester jori buda, katalogi asosii on katalogi jori ast. Agar sistema az disket dokhil karda shavad va dar ekran davatnoma dar namudi A:\> paydo gardad, on goh diskdoni yakum va katalogi asosii disket, ki ba in diskdon guzoshta shudaast, jori hisob karda meshavand.

Savolho:

  1. Fayl chist?
  2. Faylho chi guna nomguzori karda meshavand?
  3. Qismi ilovagii nomi fayl chi vazifa dorad?
  4. Harakteristikahoi asosii faylho kadomhoyand?
  5. Katalog chist?
  6. Katalogho chi guna nomguzori karda meshavand?
  7. Zerkatalogho az kataloghoi volidayni chi farq dorand?
  8. Dar yak disk chandto katalogi reshagi vujud doshta metavonad?
  9. Katalogi jori gufta kadom katalogro menomand?
  10. Roh ba fayl va roh ba katalogro chi khel mefahmed?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Dar daftar 20togi nomhoi faylho va kataloghoro navised.
  3. Dar daftar 10to misoli roh ba fayl va 10to misoli roh ba katalro biyored.

 

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