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SIYOSATI GARAV (Nizomnoma Dasturamal)

Malum ast, ki amvoli garav yake az namudhoi pahngardidai taminoti bargardidani qarzi Bonk i ba hisob meravad. Dar amal tatbiq gardidani garav dar tajribai munosibathoi qarzi – mavjudiyati mekhanizmi makhsusi istifodabarii onro dar nazar dorad. Az in ru Bonkhangomi peshnihodi mahsulothoi qarzi dar radifi tahlili vazi moliyavi, qobiliyati sarivaqt bargardonidani qarz va sarchashmahoi avvalindarajai pardokhti qarzi Bonk i ba taminoti garavii mizoj tavajjuhi makhsus zohir menamoyad.

siyosati garavDar amal tatbiq namudani kor bo garav dar Bonk dar asosi omuzishi tajribai Bonk hoi tijoratii peshsafi Rossiya, Qazoqiston va yakchand Bonk hoi tijoratii Avrupo, inchunin bo nazardosht ba talaboti qonunguzorii JT, Dasturamali №177-i BMT, Dasturamali №181-i BMT va tavsiyahoi auditoroni shirkathoi baynalkhalqii auditorii «Grant torton», mavodhoi mashvaratii kumitai Bazeli oidi nazorati faoliyati Bonk  ba roh monda shudaast.

  • SHartho 

Siyosati garavii Bonk- in hujjati dokhili sistemavii Bonk  buda strategiyai Bonk-ro oidi tashkili sistemai kafolati sarivaqt bargashtani qarz va tanzimi hamai muammohoe, ki bo taminoti qarz aloqamand meboshad inikos menamoyad.

Siyosati garavii Bonk ilova ba siyosati qarzii Bonk  ast, ki prinsiphoi asosi va ravandhoi tashkili kor bo taminoti garaviro ifoda menamoyad.

Siyosati garavii Bonk dar asosi sharthoi taminnoki va bargardonidan dar vaqtash tartib doda shudaast:

Siyosati garavii Bonk va digar tartibothoi Bonk, ki bo amvoli garav (guzaronidani sanjish, narkhguzori, monitoring, baqaydgiri va furushi amvoli garav) aloqamand hastand mutobiqi talaboti qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston tartib doda shudaand.

Qoida va tartiboti amiqi amaligardonii amaliyothoi garavi dar Dasturamalho va Nizomnomahoi makhsusi dokhilisistemavii Bonk ovarda shudaand.  

  • Maqsadho

Tavassuti siyosati Garavii mazkur va tashkili sharoithoi zaruri baroi amaligardonii on Bonknaqsha dorad ba in maqsadho noil gardad:

a) Jori namudani strategiya va maqsadhoi siyosati qarzii Bonk  baroi ba dastorii daromadi maksimali dar surati mavjud budani khavfi minimali.

b) Jobajoguzorii talabothoi tavozuni (sbalansirovannikh) nisbati sifatu tarkibi chorabiniho dar chorchubai kor bo garav baroi bavujudorii tartibote, ki darajai khavfi talafoti qarziro dar surati sarfai minimali tamin menamoyad:

v)Tashkili sanduqi garavii bosifat, pardokhtpazir va guruhbandishuda. (diversifisirovanniy).

g) Hamohansozi dar tashkili kollektive, ki az kormandoni balandikhtisos-narkhguzoron (mutakhassisoni kasbi va kormandone, ki qobiliyati tahlili chuquri bozori dorand), baroi tashkili sanduqi garavii bosifat va pardokhtpazir guruhbandishuda iborat meboshand.

Baroi rioyai chunin shartho va noil gardidan ba maqsudu-hadafhoi khud Bonk dar chorchubai qonunguzorii amalkunandai Jumhurii Tojikiston faoliyat mebarad, inchunin bahri dar amal tatbiq namudani barnomahoi mushtarak uhdadorihoi dar nazdi hamkoroni vatanivu khoriji budai khudro ijro menamoyad.

  • Vazifaho. 

Bo maqsadi dar amal tatbiq namudani Siyosati garavii mazkur Bonk baroi halli in masalaho kushish menamoyad: taminoti kredit az hisobi manbahoi voqeii duyumindaraja bahri ruypush namudani qarz;

  • Past namudani khavfi ijro nagardidani uhdadoriho az tarafi qarzgirandagon dar nazdi Bonk tavassuti barasmiyatdarorii bosifat va bosavodonai Garav az jihati huquqi:
  • Muayyan namudani strategiya, rushdu inkishof va amaligardonii faoliyati Bonk dar doirai taminoti qarzho:
  • Dar amal tatbiq namudani usulhoi taftishoti amvoli bagarvguzoshtashuda:
  • Paydoishi sarivaqtii asoshoi poyonravii khususiyathoi shumoravi va sifatii amvoli ba garavguzoshtashuda yo in, ki digar tagyirotho:
  • Muayyan namudani talabot nisbati sokht, tarkib, va sifati taminoti garav, jobajoguzorii nomgu va namudi taminoti amvoli ba garavguzoshtashavanda:
  • Tartib va bavujudorii sistemai standartii bahisobgirii natichahoi kor bo garavho:
  • Dar amal tatbiq namudani monitoringi vazi amvoli garav:
  • Tashkili malumoti bazavii sokhtori bozorii namudhoi asosii amvole, ki ba garav girifta meshavand:
  • Dar amal tatbiq namudani usulhoi tahlil va bahoguzorii taminoti garavi:
  • Faoliyati bosamari chorabinihoi bahoguzori:
  • Takmili ikhtisosi doimii mutakhassisoni kor bo garav:

BOBI 2.    JIHATHOI ASOSII SIYOSATI GARAVII BONK

2.1. Mafhumi umumi

SHarti zarurii peshnihodi hamai namudhoi qarzho dar Bonk  mavjudiyati taminot (garav), yane kafolati sarivaqt va purra ijro gardidani uhdadoriho az tarafi qarzgirandagon ba hisob meravad.

SHartnomai qarzi to darajae boyad tamin gardad (taminot bo garav, zamonat va gayra), ki sathi pardokhtpazirii qarzgir ba on javobgu boshad.

Amvoli garav hamchun omili asosi, boyad nisbati rohhoi ehtimolnoki bargardidani qarz ba tavri amiq dar amal tatbiq gardad va nishondihandadhoi shumoraviyu sifatii vositai garav boyad az rui vazifahoe, ki onho ijro mekunand muayyan karda shavand:

Dar shartnomai qarzi-garavi vazifahoi zerinro boyad ijro namoyad:

  • Garav – sarchashmai duyumindarajai bargardonidani qarz:
  • Garav – havasmandii qarzgir bahri bargardonidani qarz;
  • «Garav – sarchashmai malumot oidi vazi kununii garavdeh;
  • Garav – manbai malumot oidi vazi tijorati qarzgir – garavdeh (agar qarzgir va garavdeh yak shakhs boshad);
  • Garav – omili mahdudkunandai afzoishi taminoti qarzi kreditori; 

Garav naboyad az qobiliyati pardokhtpazirii mizoj bolo guzoshta shavad.

Havfi qarzi boyad novobasta az mavjudiyati miqdor va sifati taminoti garav bahoguzori gardad. YAgon namudi qarz naboyad tanho bo nazardoshti taminoti garav doda shavad. Sarchashami avvalindarajai bargardidani tijorati mizoj qarz mahsub meyobad. 

2.2. Zaribi ruypushi garav

Bo maqsadi pushonidani kharojothoi Bonk bo talafothoi kamtarin, ki bo monitoringi qarzu garav, sitonidan va furushi amvoli garavi aloqamand ast, arzishi barhamdihii (pardokhtpazirii) taminot boyad mablagi uhdadorihoi taminot bo garav inchunin  5% ziyodtar az hajmi kreditro ruypush namoyad. Arzishi barhamdihii (pardokhtpazirii) garav baroi hisoboti Zaribi pushonidani garav zarur meboshad(ZPG). Dar navbati khud ZPG sarchashmai asosii kifoyagii taminoti qarz bo garavro ifoda menamoyad. ZPG ba tavri zayl hisob karda meshavad:

ZPG – zaribi pushonidani garav

Majmui garavi qarz – in hamai amvolhoe, ki ba sifati taminoti garavii kredit guzoshta meshavad.

Arzishi barhamdihii majmui garavho – in mablagi barhamdihii arzishi hamai amvolhoest, ki ba sifati taminoti garav guzoshta meshavad.

Arzishi barhamdihii bahoguzorii obekt – in arzishi obektest, ki on dar bozor dar holati zaruri favran furukhta meshavad.

Dar doirai siyosati garavii mazkur:

Arzishi barhamdihi = Arzishi bozorii amvol kh Zaribi pardokhtpazirii amvol (Zaribi pardokhtpaziri nigar.qismati 2.4.)

Zaribi pushonidani garav vobasta az namudi mizoj va muhlati kredit metavonad tagyir yobad. Dar jadvali zerin talabothoi minimali nisbati buzurgii ZPG bar tamin budani kredithoe, ki dar sistemai Bonk doda meshavand ovarda shudaast. 

Talbothoi minimali nisbati buzurgii ZPG

Jadv.1

№№

 

Muhlati kredit Namudi mizoj Buzurgii ZPG Ezoh:
1 To  1 sol Nav Na kam az  1,50  
Takrori Na kam az 1,35  
2 Az 1 to 3 sol Nav Na kam az 1,65 Bo sharti aznavbahoguzorii harsolai amvoli garavi.
Takrori Na kam az 1,45
3 Az 3 to 5 sol Nav Na kam az  1,75
Takrori Na kam az 1,50
4 Ziyoda az 5 sol Nav Na kam az 2,00
Takrori Na kam az 1,60

*Ezoh: Bonk  dar davomi 2 soli avali faoliyatash, bo maqsadi jalbi mizojoni boetimod va hamzamon baroi raqobatpaziri dar bozori qarz, metavonad ZPG-ro az buzurgii muqarrargardida pastar amali namoyad.     

2.3. Namudhoi taminot

Bahri dar amal tatbiq namudani Siyosati mazkur dar Bonk namudhoi zerini taminot kabul karda meshavand.

Garav – usuli tamin namudani uhdadorihoest, ki dar surati az tarafi qarzgir ijro nagardidani on Bonk  huquq dorad az hisobi furushi amvoli ba garav guzoshta shuda ijroi in uhdadorihoro ba amal barorad.

Amonat (Zaklad) – namudi garavest, ki  amvoli ba garav guzoshta shuda dar ikhtiyori garavgir (Bonk ) guzoshta meshavad.

Zamonat (Poruchitelstvo) – usuli taminoti uhdadorihoi Qarzgir dar nazdi Bonk  meboshad, ki Zomin bahri sarivaqt ijro gardidani uhdadaorihoi qarzii Qarzgir bapurragi va yo qisman dar nazdi Bonk  javobgu hisobida meshavad.

Kafolati Bonki – usuli taminoti uhdadorihoi Qarzgir dar nazdi Bonk  ast, ki Kafil (Bonk , muassisai qarzi yo shirkati sugurtavi) bo darkhosti Qarzgir mutobiqi sharthoi khattii uhdadorihoe, ki Kafil dodaast mablagi puliro bo talaboti khattii Bonk  oidi pardokhti on ijro menamoyad. 

2.4. Namudhoi obekthoi garav (amonat-zaklad). Ruykhati namudhoi afzaliyatnoki taminot bo garav.

Ba sifati taminoti garavii qarz Bonk metavonad amvoli manqul va ham gayrimanqulro mutobiq ba Kodeksi Grajdanii CHumhurii Tojikiston qabul namoyad, ki mutobiq ba qonunguzorii JT bo istifodai Zaribhoi pastkunandai arzishi bozori az tarafi Garavdeh musodira megardad (Zaribi bozorgiri).

Zaribi pardokhtpazirizaribi poyonkunandai arzishi bahoguzori buda zaruriyati to kadom andoza poyon kardani arzishi bahoguzorii (bozori) vositai garavro muayyan menamoyad, ki dar on muhlati furushi vositai garav havasmandii Qarzdihandaro kone megardonad. Zaribi pardokhtpaziri bo maqsadi tamin namudani zararhoi nazarrase, ki bo khurdashavii vositai garav, pastshavii sifati on va tagyiryobii arzishi bozorii on aloqamand meboshad amal mekunad.

 Zaribi pardokhtpaziri baroi har yak namud va zernamudi amvoli garavi bo Qarori Rayosati Bonk  muqarrar karda meshavad va boyad na ziyoda az 75% (K≤ 0,75) az arzishi voqeii bozorii amvolro tashkil namoyad (ba gayr az vositahoi pulii dar pasandoz buda va yo amonatho).

Hamin tavr arzishi garavii majmui garav (taminot) az hajmi mablagi krediti dodashavanda az 2 barobar ziyod shuda nametavonad.

Ruykhati namudhoi afzaliyatnoki taminot bo garav.

     jadvali.2

Vositai garav Buzurgii zaribi pardokhtpaziri Ezoh
  Amvoli gayrimanqul:
  O  Obekthoi fondi istiqomatii  amvoli gayrimanqul, manzilhoi istiqomati, khonaho, khujraho va gayraho.

 

  (vobasta az darajai pardokhtpaziri, mutobiq ba meyorhoi muqarrar namudai Bonk ), inchunin ba qismati 3,3 nigar.
  – dar markazhoi nohiyavi, shahri va viloyati to 0,75
  – dar digar nuqtahoi aholinishin to 0,6
  Obekthoi gayriistiqomati

(istehsoli, tijorati, anborkhona va gayra)

 
  –  dar markazhoi nohiyavi, shahri va viloyati to 0,75
  –  dar digar nuqtahoi aholinishin to 0,6
     Amvoli manqul:
  D    Pul;

Vositahoi pulii dar Pasandoz va amonat buda

0,9  
  Masnuoti tillovori (masnuot az sangho va metallhoi qimmatbaho) Na ziyoda az 0,8-0,9 YO in, ki mutobiq ba meyorhoi muqarrar namudai Bonk
  Kogazhoi qimmatnok

Davlati va gayridavlati,

Sahmiyaho dar hamkorihoi shariki va g.

Na ziyoda az 0,6  
       Moshinho, dastgohho, vositahoi naqliyot:    
   –  to 3(se) sol az soli barorish 0,6  
  –   ziyoda az 3(se) sol az soli barorish to 0,5  
  Huquqi istifodabari    
  Huquqi ijorai amvoli manqul va gayrimanqul bar istisnoi qonuguzorii muqarrargardidai JT

 

   
  Molhoi dar gardish buda (mavodhoi gunogun, arzishhoi puli-moli, mahsulothoi tayyor va molho baroi kharidu furush) Na ziyoda az 0,5 Vobasta az arzishi yaklukhti furush
  Amvoli khonagii shakhsoni voqei (audio/video, tekhnikai maishi, mebel, qolinho, tajhizothoi komputeri va g.) Na ziyoda az 0,5 Vobasta az arzishi voqeii bozori bo nazardoshti khurdashaviashon.
  chorvo (chorvoi kaloni shokhdor va yo chorvoi maydai shokhdor) Na ziyoda az 0,5  
  hosili oyandai ziroat (hamai namudhoi ziroathoi khojagii qishloq) Na ziyoda az 0,5  
  Namudhoi digari amvoli manqul Na ziyoda az 0,5  

2.5. Sokht va tarkibi taminoti garav. Guruhbandii taminoti garavi.

Bo maqsadi past namudani khavfi bequrbshavii taminoti garavi, Bonk  taminoti garavii omekhtaro istifoda mebarad to, ki hamzamon imkoniyati guruhbandii taminoti garaviro ba amal barorad.

Sokht va tarkibi taminoti garavi.

jadv.3

Namudi amvol Mahdudiyati majmui nisbii sokhtori umumii taminot, %
1 Amvoli gayrimanqul (binohoi istiqomati va gayriistikomati) Na kam az 75
2 Amvoli manqul Na kam az 25

     Hangomi poyon raftani arzishi amvoli ba garav giriftashuda, talafoti on, zarar yoftan va yo qat gardidani huquqi molikiyatdorii on Bonk huquq dorad az Qarzgir barqaror namudani vositai garav va yo ivaz namudan bo garavi arzanda-ro talab namoyad.

     Huquqkhoi Bonk dar shartnomahoi amvoli garavi va shartnomahoi qarzi ba tavri amiq kayd gardidaand. 

2.6.  Mahdudiyat dar qabuli amvoli garavi

Vositahoi zerin ba sifati garav baromad karda nametavonand:

  • Vositahoe, ki mutobiq ba qonunguzorii amalkunanda az gardish barovarda shudaand (misol, yaroqu asliha, vositahoi radioaktivi va izotopho, mahsulothoi narkotiki va psikhoterapevti va gayraho).
  • Amvole, ki huquqi sokhibi dorad.

(misol, huquqi echodi-avtorskoe prava, huquq ba aliment)

  • Amvoli shahrvandone, ki muvofiqi hujjathoi ijroiyavi va mutobiq ba ruykhati muqarraroti JT sitonida nameshavad;
  • Amvole, ki huquqi idorakunii on bo sababi dar habs budani amvol mutobiq ba qonunguzorii amalkunanda mahdud megardad;
  • Amvole, ki furushi ozodonai on mutobiq ba qonunguzorii amalkunanda man gardidaast, yo in, ki mahdud shudaast (misol, vositahoi sanat, arzishhoi badei, kolleksiyaho va g.);
  • Amvole, ki beishtiroki sohibi amvol niz az tarafi Garavgir idora karda meshavad.
  • Amvole, ki dar ikhtiyori yakchand nafar qaror dorad va berozigii sohiboni digar ba garav giriftani in amvol va yo furushi on mahdud megardad;
  • Amvole, ki quvvai qonunii amalkunanda va yo shartnomahoi bastashudaro dorad, ki bayni Garavdeh va shakhsoni seyum ba istisnoi shartnomahoi ijoravi, lizingi va shartnomahoi ipotekie, ki bahri tamini shartnomahoi amalkunandai qarzii bayni Garavdeh va Bonk ba imzo rasida ba rasmiyat darovarda shudaast.
  • Molhoi dar gardishbudae, ki huquqi shakhsoni seyumro dorad.
  • Amvole, ki dar barobari amvolhoi digari Garavdeh guzaronidani monitoringi on gayriimkon ast;

Barrasii amvoli zerin ba sifati garav tavsiya doda nameshavad: 

Obektkhoi amvoli gayrimanqul:

  • Binohoi muassisahoi mamuri va davlati;
  • Binohoi dini;
  • Quburhoi obguzar, kuprukho, rohho, obanborho va digar inshoothoi muhandisi;
  • Inshoothoi tainoti nomuayyan,
  • Inshoothoe, ki muvofiqi tartiboti muqarragardida kornoshoyam hisobida meshavand (binohoi basadama giriftor shuda, binohoe, ki dar mintaqai noqulay joygir shudaand va gayra);
  • Inshoot va binohoe, ki khudsarona sokhta shudaand va az qaydhoi davlati naguzashtaand;
  • Honahoi istikomatie, ki molikiyati davlat meboshand;
  • Obekthoe, ki dar joyhoi dastnoras joygir shudaand va kharidu furushi onho imkonnopazir meboshad (dehavu qishloqhoe, ki dar balandkuhho joygir shudaand va binohoe, ki rohhoi durusti moshingard nadorand).

Moshinho, dastgohho va tajhizotu vositahoi naqliyoti.

  • Moshinhoi kornoshoyam, dastgohu tajhizotho, khathoi tekhnologi va dastgohhoi tekhnikii tainoti makhsus. 

 Ba sifati taminoti garav chunin amvolhoi manqul baromad karda nametavonand:

  • Amvole, ki muhlati istifodabariash dar davomi faoliyati shartnomai qarzi na ziyoda az 180 ruzro tashkil medihad. (misol: mahsulothoi tezvayronshavanda, mahsulothoi khuroka, mahsulothoi shiri va gushti, mahsulothoi nimtayyor va gayra;
  • Amvole, ki sharoiti makhsusi nigohdoriro talab menamoyad, yane dar surati rioya nakardani in talabotho ba pastshavii sifati mahsulot yo in, ki ba nobudshavii on ovarda merasonad (ba in talabotho- harorati muqarrargardidai binoi nigohdori, istifodai joyhoi makhsusgardonidashuda, sharoithoi makhsusui ravshanidihi, fishori makhsus va gayraho dokhil meshavand), inchunin dar holate, ki sugurtai khavfi talafot/pastshavii sifati tarkibii amvol, ki bo sharoiti makhsusi nigohdori aloqamandi dorad vujud nadorand.
  • Amvoli garavii berun az hududi Bonk joygir buda, ki guzaronidani monitoringi on gayriimkon ast, ki in bar khilofi talabothoi siyosati garavi meboshad.

Inchunin ba sifati garav baromad karda nametavonand:

  • Sanghoi qimmatbaho va javohiroti nodir;
  • Molhoi sanat va arzishhoi badei;
  • CHizhoi nodir;
  • Mahsuli fikri;
  • Namunahoi tajribavii korkardi sanoati.

Mutobiqi qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston zamin ba sifati garav (taminot) qabul karda nameshavad. 

  • Talabothoi asosii nisbati amvoli ba garav guzoshta shavanda (vositai garav).

Amvoli garavie, ki ba sifati taminoti mahsulothoi qarzi az tarafi qarzgirandagon guzoshta meshavand boyad ba chunin talabothoi asosii javobgu boshand:

  • Garavdeh boyad huquqi istifodabarii amvoli garaviro (dar in surat rozigii sohibmulk zarur ast) yo in, ki huquqi sohibii onro doshta boshad, inchunin amvoli garav dar gardishi ozod qaror doshta boshad, yane az shakhsi seyum vobastagi nadoshta naboshad.
  • Amvoli garav boyad bozorgir boshad (zud furukhta shavad va qobiliyati tez ba pul tabdil yoftanro doshta boshad).
  • Amvoli garavi boyad baroi Qarzgir /Garavdeh vositai purarzish mahsub yobad.
  • Bonk boyad imkoniyati nazorati vositai garaviro, inchunin dar holati zaruri furushi onro doshta boshad. 

Hamzamon talab karda meshavad: 

  • Mavjudiyati hujjathoi aslii tasdiqkunandai huquqi Garavdeh nisbati amvoli garavi;
  • Amvol va huquqi amvoli boyad az huquqi shakhsi seyum ozod boshad;
  • Nabudani uhdadoriho az tarafi Garavdeh dar nazdi andoz va digar uhdadorihoi pardokhtnashudai bujavi, ki ba amvoli garav aloqamandi dorand.
  • Sugurtai amvole, ki vositai garav mahsub meyobad va dar holati zaruri tibqi talabothoi Siyosati Garavii Bonk mutobiq ba qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston az tarafi Garavdeh/Qarzgir dar amal tatbiq megardad.
  • Huquqi istifodabari ba amvoli dar garav buda boyad dar maqomothoi dakhldor qayd karda shavand, ki huquqi qaydi davlati ba amvoli mazkurro ba vujud meorand;
  • Ba garav guzoshta shudani amvole, ki molikiyati davlati hisobida meshavad, bo qarori maqomothoi davlatii dakhldor amali gardonida meshavad;
  • Nigohdorii Garav va sharthoi zarurii amvoli bagaravguzoshtashuda az tarafi Garavdeh ba amal barovarda meshavad;
  • Imkoniyati muayyan sokhtani arzishi voqeii vositai garav (nisbatan bahoguzorii garav dar mavridi qabuli qaror oidi dodani qarz va hamchunin dar marhilai istifodashavii kredit);
  • Nazorat, ba osoni muayyan namudani mavqei joygirshavii amvoli garav, malumot dar borai huquqhoi khud ba on va sohibshudan ba amvoli bagarav guzoshta shuda;
  • Imkoniyati nazorat nisbati nigohdorii sifati amvoli garav.
  • Garavdeh

Mutobiq ba qonunguzorii amalkunandai Jumhurii Tojikiston Garavdeh shuda metavonand: (KG, md. 364)

  • Hudi qarzgir va inchunin shakhsi seyum.
  • Sohibi amvol yo shakhsi digare, ki ba on huquqi sohibmulki dorad metavonad Garavdeh boshad.
  • SHakhse, ki huquqi sohibmulki ba amvol dorad mutobiqi qismi 2-i moddai 312 KG JT metavonad berozigii sohibi on hamchun Garavdeh baromad namoyad.
  • SHakhse, ki huquqi ba garav guzoriro dorad metavonad Garavdeh boshad.
  • Huquqi Garavro ba ijora dodan yo digar amliyotho tavassuti garav berozigii sohibi on yo shakhse, ki ba on huquqi sohibmulki dorad mumkin nest.
  • Garavdeh berozigii Garavgir huquq nadorad vositai garavro dar yagon amaliyot istifoda barad. Tartiboti mazkur ba avmoli garavi dar gardishbuda vobastagi nadorad. Dar surati kor bo garavi dar gardishbuda Garavdeh huquq dorad, aniqtarash, imkoniyat dorad moli bagaravguzoshtashudaro ba furush barorad va yo sokht va namudi tabii onro  tagyir dihad ba sharte, ki arzish va hajmi umumii on tagyir nayobad. 

BOBI 3. BAHOGUZORII AMVOLI GARAV

3.1. Muqarraroti umumi

Bahodihii amvoli ustuvori garavi, yake az marhilahoi murakkab va purmasuliyati tatbiqi siyosati garavii Bonk mahsub meyobad. Hatogi dar bahodihii garav ba oqibathoi manfi ovarda merasonad, ki in baroi Bonk  va tarafi digar «mizoj» garoni meovarad.

Amvoli garavie, ki baland bahoguzori meshavad, dar holathoi buhroni ba talafot ovarda merasonad.

Dar mavridi past bahoguzorii amvoli garav hajmi qarzdihi mahdud megardad va dar navbati khesh ba nagiriftani daromadi dilkhoh musoidat mekunad.

Javoban ba ovozahoi pahn shuda dar khususi on, ki baroi pasttar bahoguzori namudani garav Bonk ho manfiat dorand, ayni zamon Bonk beshtar az hama dar bahodihii voqeii arzishi amvoli garav havasmand ast. Az in lihoz dar in samt Bonk diqqati makhsus doda, baroi baland bardoshtani takhassusi mutakhassisoni bahoguzor, tahlilgaroni bozori namudhoi asosii amvoli garavi va digar kormandoni Bonk, ki ba bahodihii amvoli garavi Bonk  vobastaand musoidat mekunad.

3.2. Bahodihii arzishi. Asos baroi guzaronidani bahodihi, maqsad va natijahoi bahodihi.

Asos baroi guzaronidani bahodihi, in arizai mizoji boetimod baroi giriftani mahsuloti qarzi va khulosai musbii huquqii Bonk az rui majmui hujjathoi garavi ba hisob meravad. Maqsadi guzaronidani bahodihi yo aznavbahoguzori in muayyan namudani arzishi barhamdihii amvoli garavi meboshad. Asos baroi muayyan namudani arzishi barhamdikhi-arzishi bozorii(odilona) – amvol mahsub meyobad.

Bahodihi va aznavbahoguzorii amvoli garavi jihati muayyan namudani arzishi bozori az jonibi bahoguzorandagoni Bonk, hamchunin bahoguzorandagoni mustaqil, ki dar nazdi Bonkijozatnoma dorand (taftishi peshaki baroi tayyorii huquqi va kasbi) ba roh monda meshavand.

Arzishi barhamdihii amvoli garavi tanho az jonibi bahoguzorandagoni Bonk , mutobiqi talabothoi siyosati garavii mazkur, nisbati arzishi bozori dar tanosubi foizi muayyan karda meshavad. Dar natijai bahodihi hisobot tartib doda meshavad, ki az rui mazmun va mundarija boyad ba qonunguzorii amalkunandai Jumhurii Tojikiston dar sohai bahoguzori mutobiqat namoyad.

Harojothoi bahoguzori va aznavbahodihi purra ba zimmai qarzgiranda guzoshta meshavad.

3.3.  Bahoguzorii  pardokhtpazirii amvoli garav

Bonkbo rohi amalikunonii siyosati garavii dar bolo zikr gardida, kushish menamoyad, ki sanduqi garavii bozorgir sozad.

 Dar Bonk  ba sifati garavi asosi, amvoli «pardokhtpazir» qabul karda meshavad (dar navbati avval amvoli gayrimanquli «pardokhtpazir», badan tajhizot, vositahoi naqliyot va hokazo).

«SHartan- pardokhtpazir» amvoli garave, ki tanho ba sifati garav hamchun garavi ilovagi qabul karda meshavad.

 «Pardokhtpaziri» yake az muhimtarin sifathoi amvole, ki hamchun garav va obekti narkhguzorishavanda shumorida shuda, obekt qobiliyati mubaddalshavi ba vositahoi puli be talafot, yane gum kardani arzishi avvala dar muddathoi muayyanro dorad.

Namudhoi asosii amvoli garav (amvoli gayrimanqul, vositahoi naqliyot, moshinaho va tajhizotho) az  nuqtai nazari «pardokhtpaziri» ba se guruhi kalon taqsim karda meshavad:

  1. Amvoli «Pardokhtpazir»
  2. Amvoli «SHartan- Pardokhtpazir»
  3. Amvoli «Pardokhtpazir nabuda» 

Bahodihii pardokhtpazirii amvol az tarafi bahoguzorandagoni Bonk  guzaronida meshavad (shakhs va/yo shakhsoni mutasaddii Bonk , ki narkhguzorii arzishii amvoli garavro meguzaronad).

 Ba sifati nishondihandahoi «pardokhtpaziri» muddati miyonai debocha (ekspozisiya) istifoda burda meshavad (muhlat az sanai peshnihodi obekt baroi furush ba tavri ozod bo arzishi komilan muvofiq (odilona) to muhlati furush) dar mavzehoi aniku muayyan (mahal, nohiya) baroi obekthoi hamon qismati (segment) bozor, ki obekti bahododashavanda va az rui tarkibu tavsif monand meboshand.

      Har yak darajai «pardokhtpaziri»-ro metavon tanosub kardan ba vusatu andozai muayyani diskonti (foizi) garav, ki baroi qoida va tartiboti hisob kardani arzishi «pardokhtpaziranda» imkonpazir meboshad.

Tavsif va nishondihandahoi pardokhtpazirii amvoli gayrimanquli guruhhoi «Pardokhtpazir» va «SHartan- Pardokhtpazir» bo maqsadi garav

Tavsifi pardokhtpaziri Nishondihandahoi pardokhtpaziri
Guruhi pardokhtpaziri «Pardokhtpaziri» «SHartan»-«Pardokhtpazir»
Muhlati miyonai furush (ekspozisiya)-i obekt, mohho 1-3 3-6 6-12 12-18 18-24
Pardokhtpaziri baland miyona pasttar az miyona past Pasttar az past
Andozai diskonti (foizi) garav % 25-30 30-40 40-50 Az 50 va pasttar az on Az 60 va pasttar az on
Koeffisenti pardokhtpaziri(Kl) obekt, ki ba arzishi bozorii obekt zarb karda meshavad. 0,75-0,7 0,7-0,6 0,6-0,5 Az 0,5 va pasttar az on Az 0,4 va pasttar az on

Guruhkhbandii moshinaho, tajhizotho va vositahoi naqliyotii  ba guruhi «Pardokhtpazir» va «SHartan»-«Pardokhtpazir» dokhilshavanda vobasta az muhlati  furush va darajai pardokhtpaziri

Tavsifi pardokhtpaziri Nishondihandahoi pardokhtpaziri
Guruhi pardokhtpaziri «Pardokhtpazir» «SHartan»-

« Pardokhtpazir»

Muhlati miyonai furush (ekspozisiya)-i obekt, mohho 1-2 2-4 4-6 6-12 12-24
Pardokhtpaziri baland miyona pasttar az miyona past Pasttar az past
Andozai diskonti (foizi) garav % 25-30 30-40 40-50 Az 50 va pasttar az on Az 60 va pasttar az on
Koeffisenti pardokhtpaziri(Kl) obekt, ki ba arzishi bozorii obekt zarb karda meshavad. 0,75-0,7 0,7-0,6 0,6-0,5 Az 0,5-04 Az 0,4 va pasttar az on

Tadriji (gradasiya) pardokhtpaziri az rui darajabandi qulay, imkon medihad az rui har yak darajai pardokhtpaziri baroi taqozoi meyori muayyani andozai foiz (diskont) va tashkili tartibi hisobkunii arzishi pardokhtpaziri.

BOBI 4. TATBIQI SIYOSATI GARAVI

4.1. Maqomothoi dakhldor. Tatbiqi Siyosati garavi ba Bonk , ki hamai chora va tadbirhoi zaruriro meandeshad, voguzor karda meshavad, Dar navbati khud, Direktori Bonk  baroi dar amal tatbiq namudani in masalahoro ba zimmai sokhtorhoi dakhldor va ayni zamon komissiyai bahoguzori voguzor menamoyad.  Nazorat az boloi kori chunin sokhtorhoi dakhldorro metavonad ba yake az jonishinhoi khud voguzorad.

Sokhtori masuli Bonk , dar masalai amali gardonidani siyosati garavii mazkur Direktori Bonk  buda, korbarii kumitai qarzi va hamai digar sokhtorhoi Bonk ro nazorat mebarad, ki vazifai asosiashon hamkori bo yakdigar dar guzaronidani  amaliyotho meboshad.

4.2. Vazifahoi kumitai karzi

Kumitai qarzii Saridora va Kumitai qarzii qismhoi digar sokhtorhoi Bonk , ki dar asosi Nizomnoma «Dar borai Kumitai qarzii Bonkamal mekunand, hayati idorakunanadai Bonk  hisob meyobad.

Kumitahoi qarzi dar hududi salohiyathoi khud, dar vaqti barrasii darkhosthoi mizojon uhdadorand, ki taminnokii qarzho, koeffisienti bozorgirii odilona nisbati garavhoro ba nazar girad va qarori khudro barorad.

Raisoni kumitahoi qarzi va Rohbaroni digar sokhtorhoi Bonk baroi ijro nashudani qoidahoi nizomnomai mazkur shakhsan javobgari mebarand.

BOBI 5. IDORAKUNI VA NAZORATI SANDUQI GARAVI

5.1. Gunshavi (konsentratsiya) va meyor

CHorabiniho oidi idorakunii sanduqi garavi baroi ba dast ovardani  bosuboti va meyori foidai peshguishavandai qobili qabul  bo nazardoshti khavfi qarzi ravona shudaand. Dar ravandi idorakunii sanduqi garavi boyad ba gunshavii (konsentrasiyai) on (sanduqi qarzi) az rui in yo on alomat (namud, mavqei jugrofi, soha va gayraho) roh doda nashavad va baroi guzaronidani chunin  siyosati garavi musoidat namud, ki on  oqibathoi noguvori mavjudiyati gunshaviro  (konsentrasiya)  kam namoyad.

Bo in maqsad  tavsiya doda meshavad, ki meyorhoi zerin baroi sanduqi garavii Bonk , ki ba onho bo nazardoshti holati voqeii baamalomada metavonand isloh darovarda shavand, rioya karda shavand:

Gunshavii (konsentrasiyai) sanduqi garavi,  meyor az rui tarkib va darajai pardokhtpazirii amvoli garav

Namudi amvol Mahdudiyat az rui vazni qiyosii umumii sokhtori taminnoki , % Ezoh:
Az rui tarkib Az rui darajai pardokhtpaziri
Pardokhtpazir SHartan- Pardokhtpazir
1 gayrimanqul Na kam az 75 Na kam az 80 Na ziyoda az 20 Dar tarkibi amvoli garavi har yak mizoj
2 manqul Na ziyoda az 25 Na kam az 70 Na ziyoda az 30

Meyorhoi zikrgardida tavsiyadihanda buda, voqean metavonand nisbatan ba sanduqi garavii umumi, vobasta ba zaruriyat va muvofiqi maqsad budani tijorat tagyir yoband.

Meyorho metavonand tagyir yoband, vobasta ba khususiyat va natijahoi tatbiq, hamchunin bo nazardoshti khavfi taminnoki.

5.2. Usulhoi nazorat                                  

            Dar Bonkdu namudi nazorat, ki dar vaqti omuzish, maqul donistan, va digargunii shartu sharoiti qarzdihi qabul shudaast.

Muvofiqi sokhtori amalkunandai idorakunii Bonk , nazorati ijroishi shartho va talabothoi siyosati garavi, ba zimmai Bek-ofishoi sokhtorhoi dakhldori Bonk ,  az on jumla ba SHubahoi qarzdihi,  va ba auditoroni dokhilii Bonk  voguzori karda shudaast.

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