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SHAVKATI BUHOROI

Ba khud kardam guvoro talkhii ayyomro, SHavkat,

Ba shirini Dahoni morro tungi shakar karDam.

YAke az sukhanvaroni boistedod, navpardozu borikandesh Muhammadishoq SHavkati Bukhoroi ast, ki dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik maqomi shoista dorad. U taqriban solhoi 20-umi asri XVII dar khonadoni sarrof (zarshinos), ki baso ilmdustu ikhlosmandi sheru adab budaast, ba dunyo omadaast. Az in ru, SHavkat hamai ilmhoi jorii zamonro komilan az khud menamoyad. Inchunin, nozukihoi kasbi padarro ham khele khub meomuzad. Dere naguzashta SHavkat hamchun yake az shakhsiyathoi ilmiyu adabii zamoni khud shinokhta meshavad. U makhsusan ba sheru adab tavajjuhi beshtaru khubtar doshtaast.

Muhammadishoq SHavkati Bukhoroi baze ishoraho dorad, ki guyo az jonibi goratgaron zarari baso sakhti moddi niz didaast va yake az sababhoi tarki diyor namudani shoir guyo hamin amali nojavonmardonai baze az muosironi u budaand. SHavkat dar yak qasidai khud meguyad :

CHudo zi silsilai dustoni khud shudaam,

Havo shavad, chu judo gasht nola az zanjir.

Matoi khonaam azbas tamom gorat yoft,

Kasham ba safhai devori khona naqshi hasir.

Avvalin shahre, ki SHavkat dar on rakhti iqomat meafkanad, Hiroti bostoni budaast, zero dar in bora chunin ishora menamoyad:

Rang az guli zamini Hirot ast fikrro,

Hudro nametavon ba zamini digar kashid.

SHoir dar in shahr az jonibi hokimi on Safiqulikhoni SHomlu qadrshinosiho dida, ba in lahzai ruzgorash niz baze ishorahoi jolib mekunad:

Tarki Vatan namudamu qadram azim shud,

Gavhar zi favti suhbati daryo yatim shud.

Bad az chande SHavkat ba Mashhad rui niyoz ovarda, az tarafi vaziri Huroson-Mirzo Saduddin Muhammad iltifoti farovon mebinad.

CHunonchi:

…Hud maro kardi zi barqi lutfi khud garmi sukhan,

Arzi holi kheshro kardam ba gustokhi ado.

CHugzi bepar budam in dayri kharobobodro,

Az du dasti tarbiyat dodi maro boli humo.

Andalebi doshtam, ammo zabonam guncha bud,

Sokhti az khushnasimiho maro dostonsaro.

Vale badho SHavkati Bukhoroi az Mashhad ba Isfahon meoyad, ki on ba soli 1678 ittifoq aftodaast. Hamchunon az baze ishorahoi shoir barmeoyad, ki u azmi Hinduston niz kardaast, vale in qismati masala chandon ravshan nest, zero dar ashori SHavkat ohanghoi pushaymoni az in safar niz ba nazar merasand, chunonchi u meguyad:

Nasibam az safari Hind gayri mehnat nest,

Kase zi mori siyohi rahash salomat nest.

Ba buriyoi vatan mekunam shakarkhobi,

Ba makhmali siyohi Hind khobi rohat nest.

YO khud dar joi digar:

Zi bas buvad safari Hind surmai ovoz,

Sado ba raftani rangi hino nameboshad.

Ba hamin tariq, poyoni ruzgori shoir niz dar Isfahon guzashta, SHavkat taqriban miyoni solhoi 1107-1111 (solhoi 1695-1699) dar hamon jo az in olam guzashtaast. Mazorash dar atrofi shahri Isfahon voqe meboshad.

Ejodiyoti SHavkati Bukhoroi

Az zikri mukhtasari zindaginomai SHavkat barmeoyad, ki u az Bukhoro baromada digar ba vatanash naomadaast. SHoir tamomi umr dar garibi zista dur az diyor olami foniro tark kardaast.

Bo vujudi azobhoi garibi, SHavkati Bukhoroi tavonistaast az khud merosi boe boqi guzorad. U dar ejodi bade bo takhallushoi «Nozuk» va «SHavkat» sher guftaast. SHoyad dar ogoz «Nozuk» takhallus karda, badtar «SHavkat»-ro takhallusi khesh qaror doda boshad.

Merosi adabii Muhammadishoq SHavkati Bukhoroi, ki ba sifati devoni ashor to ba imruz mahfuz mondaast, az gazaliyot, qasoid, ruboiho, mufradot, ashori parokanda va muqattaot iborat meboshad. Dar devoni shoir gazal pesh az hama mavqei avvalindaraja dorad, ki to 744 gazalro ba u mansub medonand.

Mavzu, mazmunu mundarijai gazaliyoti shoir asosan janbahoi ijtimoii zindagi, hayot, noadolatihoi ruzgor, shebu farozhoi olam, pechidahoi dunyoi moddi, nooromiyu bedodgarihoi muhiti ijtimoi, garibiyu ranjhoi musofirat, nodoriyu tangii maishi, bevafoii umr, dunyo, munofiqii zimomdoroni vaqt, makru hillahoi zohirbinon, tangnazarivu gammozii odamoni noaql va gayra meboshad. Muhim on ast, ki dar hamin zamina mavzuhoi ishqi va oshubhoi qalbii inson, shuru valvalahoi botini, ehsosoti nozuki odami va gayra bayon shudaast. YAne mavzuhoi ishqi jiloi avvalindaraja nadorand va beshtar ohanghoi shikvoiyu hasbiholi ba joi avval omadaand.

Boyad guft, ki mavzuhoi ijtimoi aslan baroi gazal garoniho pesh meorand, vale shoir tavonistaast, ki dar bayoni chunin mavzuho hunari khudro nishon bidihad:

Kujo az modari ayyom osoish havas boshad?

Paridanhoi rangam junbishi gavhora bas boshad.

Guli jamiyati ravshandilon az rishtai oh ast,

Bayozi subhro sheroza az tori nafas boshad.

Ba zohirbini azbas kor uftodast mardumro,

Agar qaddi kase kutoh boshad, nimkas boshad.

Hadaf dar gazali mazkur ganimat shumoridani umr, ehtiyotkori, mazammati zohirbinivu kutohnazari ast. Dar in sher tabiri khalqii «odamu dam» ba kor girifta shudaast.

YO khud dar gazali digar meguyad:

Subhi piriho rasidu ahdi khursandi namond,

Handai dandonnamoro ustukhonbandi namond.

Mevaho chun nakhli tasvirash ba shokhi hayrat ast,

Nakhli mijgonro bahore az barumandi namond.

Ay, ki dori mushti khokamro ba kaf, posash bidor,

Bod purtund ast, to az dast afgandi, namond.

YUsufi moro zi bas gashtand ikhvon rohzan,

Zodgohi Misri mo juz nomi farzandi namond.

Bar sari bolini in mushti giyoh, ay barqi noz,

Omadi ruze, ki moro bo tu khursandi namond.

CHun tazarvi barq az garminafasho sukhtem,

Murgi mo, SHavkat, ba domi orzumandi namond.

Dar gazali bolo asosan hasbi hol ba tasvir omadaast. On to andozae yakjoya bo falsafai zindagi khele sozgor va baso jolib bayon shudaast. Zero ovoni piri bo guseli hameshagii ahdi barnoi pesh omada, ba on monand ast, ki agar kafi khok mavridi vazidani bod afkanda shavad, shoyad ba zamin hej narasad. Az tarafi digar, to darajae avzoi tarikhii zamon niz muvofiqi murodi dili insonho nest, zero holat ba on ovardaast, ki barodaron rohzanu khasmand va talmehan ishora ba barodaroni YUsuf (a.) niz shudaast.

Inchunin, dar markazi hadafi ejodkor, agar khele jiddi zehn monda shavad, pay burdan oson ast, ki ohangi yasu noumedi dar simoi oshiq- qahramoni liriki baso qavi sado medihad. Az in ru, barobari guzashtani ahdi barnoi, khursandi, barumandi, shodiyu nishot bahori umr niz az dast raho meshavad.

Muhtavoi hadafi shoir pahlui khele nozuki digar ham dorad. YAne shoir ba in vosita insonhoro hushdor medihad, ogoh menamoyad, ki dar guzashti umr, sipari gardidani ayyom dar gaflat namonand. Pas qazovathoi adib mohiyati akhloqiyu tarbiyavi niz dorand.

Bo nazardoshti khususiyathoi shakli gazali zikrshuda muraddaf (kalimai namond radifi soda), muqaffo: khursandi, ustukhonbandi, barumandi, afgandi, farzandi, orzumandi buda, qofiyahoi mazkur mutlaq meboshad, zero pas az harfi ravi-«d», harfi vasl-«i» omadaast. Dar kalimahoi qofiya juzvi «-andi» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «d» ravii mutlaq, harfi «i» vasl, harfi «n» qayd meboshad. Azbaski harfi ravi – «d» bo harfi digar («i»-vasl) chaspidaast, chunin qofiyaro qofiyai mutlaq menomand. Az nigohi vazn boshad, gazal dar bahri Ramali musammani maqsur ejod gardidaast, ki afoili on chunin ast:

YAne foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilon meboshad.

Dar gazaliyoti SHavkat ishqi haqiqi-irfoni, ilohi niz maqomi makhsus dorad. Dar chunin gazalho ishq nerui purtavontarin va jovidonavu muqaddas ast:

SHer ram mekunad az shurishi devonai ishq,

Didai dev buvad shami parikhonai ishq.

Kufru islom dar in roh du naqshi qadam ast,

Qaba sangest zi devori sanamkhonai ishq.

YO khud dar gazali digar:

Dar on sahro, ki vahshat rahravonro rohbar boshad,

Savodi manzil az chashmi gizolon shukhtar boshad.

Talabgori Hudo az kheshtan gofil nameboshad,

Ki tori joda solikro ba rah maddi nazar boshad.

Rohi muqaddasot – tariqati solik sui marifati suluk roh ba sui jovidon ast, ki dar gazaliyoti ishqii SHavkati Bukhoroi tasvir shudaast.

Dar gazaliyoti shoir khislathoi hamidai inson: vafodori, rostqavli, javonmardi, insondusti, ilmdusti, adolatkhohi, judu sakho, olihimati, durandeshi, diljui, halolkori, poki, sadoqat, lutfu ehson, halimiyu mehruboni, mehnatdustivu khoksori va gayra sidqan vasf meshavad. Baraks, khislathoi razila misli: makru durug, qatlu gorat, kutohnazarivu insonbadbini, kibru takabbur, khudkhohivu havobalandi, firebgarivu haromkhuri, mansabparastivu rishvasitoni, bevafoivu benomusi, kutohandeshivu sukhanchini, nopokivu beadolati va gayra bo tamomi juziyot mahkum karda meshavad. CHunonchi:

Hirad osuda az bazmi muhabbat barnamegardad,

Kase az beshai sheron salomat barnamegardad,

Dami tegi ajalro shohrohi ofiyat donad,

Dili devonai mo az shahodat barnamegardad.

Hadaf az beshai sheron parvarishi nafsi hayfonist, ki kase bo on ru biyovarad, hatman pushaymon khohad shud. Hamchunone ki aqlu khiradi inson dar nazdi ishq notavon ast va gayra.

YO khud az gazali zerin, ki adib qiyosi soddalavhonaero tanqid karda, nigohi purgarazro peshravi mardum naboyad kard meguyad, zero dar khonai oina chi qadar odamon qadam zanand ham, besado meboshad. Ba hamin monand dar in gazal namunahoi sershumore payopay ovarda meshavad, ki andeshai muhokimashavandaro, yane fikri asosii shoirro taqviyat mebakhshand:

Nadoram imtiyoz az sodagi az dust dushmanro,

CHarogi korvon kardam tasavvur chashmi rohzanro

Kase ogah zi raftori sabukruhon namegardad,

Sadoi po naboshad khonai oina raftanro,

YAk nuktai muhimro metavon takid namud, ki in hama tanho ba vositai aqidahoi panduakhloqii adib mavridi arzyobi qaror giriftaand:

Bakhti bad khohad zi dushman khuni mo,

Tegi mo bas tolei vojguni mo.

Oftobi khoksori gashtaem,

Naqshi po kavkab, zamin garduni mo.

Aksaran chunin andeshaho bo mavzuhoi ishqi hamroh meoyand va ba in vosita shoir ba oshiqon niz pand medihad. Ba in mani dar in gazali ishqi omadaast:

Kard husni gulrukhon komil dili devonaro,

Partavi sham otashi manzil buvad parvvonaro.

Nest sohibkhonai mo gofil az mehmoni khud,

Az nigohi mizbon boshad havo in khonaro.

Sakhtii ayyom shud rohi najotam z-in muhit,

Osiyo boshad pule az khud guzashtan donaro.

Baski belalash sharobam otashi halkardaast,

SHulai javvola donam gardishi paymonaro,

Qomati kham nafsi pironro zi hasti mone ast,

Halqai dum gashta zanjir in sagi devonaro.

Honai tanro qiyomi bandagi dorad ba po,

YAk qadi odam buvad devor in koshonaro.

Narm kun dilro, firebi nemati alvon makhur,

Ord kun dar osiyoe noni pukht in donaro.

Aslan gazali mazkur ishqi boshad ham, hadaf dar yak bayt bayon shudaast va abyoti digar (bajuz matla) komilan masoili ijtimoist, ki dar nazari khonanda olami manavii shoirro bo javloni andeshahoi u muarrafi mesozad.

Gazal muraddaf nest, muqaffost va khele ommafahmu soda ast. Az nigohi vazn dar bahri Ramali musammani mahzuf (maqsur) ejod shudaast, ki afoili on chunin ast:

YAne zeboi farahi dil va sham boisi nurbakhshii koshonai parvona ast. Nohamvorihoi hayot boisi hushyorshavihost va in ba on monand ast, ki donai gandum on vaqt ba maqsad merasad, ki az osiyo guzarad va gayra.

SHavkat niz jahonro bo didai botin mebinad va dar ayni zamon didai zohirro vositae mehisobad, ki tavassuti on ba olami voqei, havodisu ruydodho saru kor girad. Haqu botil, khubu bad, rostu durug, foidanoku befoida, ziyonovaru beziyon, ravo yo noravo budani onro boyad didai botin qazovat bikunad:

Ba nuri dil furugi mohu khurshed andake boshad,

Baroi chashmi botin chashmi zohir aynake boshad.

Buvad sohibdilonro bahra az ogohii gaflat,

Ba bolidan badanro khobu bedori yake boshad.

SHavkati Bukhoroi, ki khud bisyor safarho kardavu azobi gurbatro umre chashidaast, jonibdori garibi nest va dar Vatan budanu dustdori Vatan shudanro nasihat mekunad:

Har kas, ki raft az vatan, az umr bar nakhurd,

Firuza chun judo zi Nishopur gasht, murd.

Ba nazari shoir, navmedi boisi ruhaftodagiyu shikastagist va shakhs naboyad ba yasu noumedi ru biyorad. Ba in mani u meguyad:

Dar shomi gami khesh maro subhi umed ast,

Gar naqshi nigin tira buvad, nom safed ast.

SHavkati Bukhoroi pand medihad, ki sirri dilro naboyad ba har kas qoil shud. Zero asror az yak dahon, ki berun shud, pahn meshavad va az in ru, on naboyad ba kase gufta shavad. Az tarafi digar, inson boyad khudro az tama va tamakori nigoh dorad. Inchunin, misraho agar juft shavand, baytro tashkil medihand va shoir misrahoro dar alohidagi ba lab monand mekunad. YAne hamin ki du misra ba ham chaspad, bayt hosil meshavad. Maqsadi shoir az bahamoii misraho va ba ham omadani labho pushida nigoh doshtani dahon ast:

Ba har kas vo makun, band az zaboni arzi matlabho,

Ba dandoni tama zinhor maksho uqdai labho.

Siyahbakhti charogi ahli dilro mekunad ravshan,

Zi mushki sudai shab toza gardad dogi kavkabho.

Kunad fayzi khamushi sohibi devon sukhanvarro,

Ba ham oyad du misra, chun ba ham meovarad labho.

SHavkati Bukhoroi dar gazaliyoti khesh olihimmati, nazarbalandi, betamai, khudshinosi barin sifathoro targib namuda, jiddu jahd va sayu taloshro sababhoi rasidan ba in va yo on maqsad mehisobad:

Muramu to nakunad minnati charkham pomol,

Par barovardamu az dasti Sulaymon raftam.

CHun manero naguzorand zi kaf ahli karam,

Naqdi himmat shudam az dasti karimon raftam.

Bod khokam ba sar, otash ba dilu ob ba chashm,

Ki zi tavfi dari sultoni Huroson raftam.

SHoiri tavono SHavkati Bukhoroi hatto az baze sifathoi qalam shikva mekunad, ki qalam ba harfi har kas gush medihad va ba amru farmoni har kas sar menihad.

YO khud baroi shoir sarfi behuda dar muqoisa bo daromadi bemasrif, yane daromade, ki ba khotiri gunkuni girdovari karda meshavad, barobar meboshad.

U meguyad:

CHun qalam angusht nagzoram ba harfi hej kas,

Nesti kam az kharji bejo peshi man dakhli bajo.

SHoir baroi ba dast ovardani rizqu ruzi, komyob shudan az hayot, khush guzaronidani umr sayu kushish va safar kardanu jahon didanro tavsiya menamoyad:

Ba geti to ba kay mahbus boshi, sayri olam kun,

Buvad yak jo nishastan, to kamar zeri zamin budan.

YAne ba aqidai SHavkati Bukhoroi, shakhse, ki ba joe safar namekunad, misli mahbus ast, ki ba juz joi zistash joero namebinad. Dar in munosibat insonro ba khurshed nisbat medihad, ki kase az insonho ba oftob gufta nametavonad biguyad, ki imruz birav va yo fardo rav. Hurshed az sababi payvasta dar safar budanash sakhovatmandu nafrasoni hama kas va har chiz ast. Az in ru, shoir safarro targibu tashviq menamoyad.

Hunari shoirii SHavkati Bukhoroi makhsusan dar ejodi gazal ba nazar merasad. Hatto khudi shoir hunarmand va ustod budani kheshro hanuz dar ruzgorash his karda budaast. Zero dar yak qator sherhoi khud ba in masala ishorahoi sershumor dorad. SHavkati Bukhoroi to andozae khudro khotimatushshuaro nom mebarad va dar ishora ba in masala meguyad:

Meshavad mahbus chun gul manii rangin zi man,

Hamchu man, SHavkat, kujo harfofarin paydo shavad?!

SHavkati Bukhoroi shoirest, ki komilan dar sabki hindi gazal surudaast va umuman dar in sabk ejod kardaast. Malum ast, ki yake az khususiyathoi sabki hindi bo nazardoshti inkishofi navhoi sheri on ast, ki gazal nisbat ba digar anvoi adabi rushdi beshtar doshtaast. Zero tarkibi asosii devonhoi shoironi dar in sabki adabi ejodnashudaro agar varaqgardon namoem, mebinem, ki asosan hamai onho ba gazal ru ovardaand. Az in ru, SHavkat niz asosan gazal ejod namudayu mahz dar in janr quvvaozmoi kardaast. Hatto iftikhoroti shoirii uro khudash dar ejodi gazal medonad.

SHavkati Bukhoroi bo ishora ba in mani joe meguyad:

Lazzat zi vorasidani sheram barad adu,

Angusht chun nihad ba hadisam, asal khurad.

SHavkat hatto shoironi nisbatan mashhuru shinokhtai sabki hindi:

Nozimu Nosirali va Soibro dar sathi khub qabul namekunad va ejodiyoti onhoro az ashori khud pointar mehisobad. Albatta, in qazovat muboligavi boshad ham, yak andoza behuda nest. CHunonchi meguyad:

Bo pareshonikhtiloton oshnoi mushkil ast,

SHona javri arraro az bahri gesu mekashad.

Nozimu Nosirali, Soib nadorand in namak,

SHavkati nozuksukhan mu az dili mu mekashad.

SHoir in jo hunari nozuksukhaniyu adoi shirini ejodii khudro mavridi bayon qaror dodaast. Az tarafi digar, albatta hunari u dar ejodi bade barobari Soib naboshad ham, dar har surat gazali bohunarona meguyad. Ba nazari SHavkati Bukhoroi, sheri u sukhani muqarrarivu oddi, ki doroi vaznu qofiya va radif boshad, nest, balki on porae az dili ejodkor ast. CHun dar urfiyat farzandro joni shirin meguyand, pas ba nazari in shoir niz sher farzandi ejodkor ast. Ba in mani u meguyad:

Zi baski manii u lakhti dil buvad, SHavkat,

CHu sherhoi tu bishkoftand, khun omad.

Holati ejod az nigohi SHavkat muhlati tulonii umri ejodkor ast. YAne sheri khub sozgor omadani on bo ruzgori voqeist. U agar sheri asil ejod kunad, avval namunai nasrii onro ejod karda, pas onro ba rishtai nazm mekashad:

Kori oson nabuvad manii ravshan bastan,

Nasr to nazm shavad, ob guhar megardad.

Durust ast, ki u dar ejodi gazal asosan ba Tolibi Omuli payravi kardaast va dar irtibot ba in farmuda ishoraho niz dorad. CHunonchi:

Host to ravshan kunad SHavkat charogi tabro,

Ravgani mani zi khoki Tolibi Omul kashid.

Ba nazari SHavkati Bukhoroi, ejodi sher ru ovardani ejodkor ba olami zeboi, ba dunyoi sernakhatu rangini hayot, jahoni guvorovu ruzgori shirin niz hast. Maqsadi adib dar in holat bori estetiki kashidani sukhanvari, mohiyati zeboiofarii kalomi badei meboshad. CHunonchi, dar in bayt guftaast:

Peshi mo fikri sukhan sayri guliston kardan ast,

Lafzro az rangi mani gul ba domon kardan ast.

Dar har surat sheri SHavkati Bukhoroi asosan sheri hikmat, sukhani andarzogin, kalomi pandunasihatist:

Nashai fikram digar, SHavkat, ba mavji hikmat ast,

Hishti khum boyad ba magzi fikri Aflotun zadan.

Kalimaho, vojaho, tabiru iborahoe, ki SHavkat ba kor mebarad, dar alohidagi qarib ki mushkili nadorand va ommafahmu oddiand. Onho tanho dar matn mohiyatan murakkabu mushkmilfahmtar meshavand:

Karda nazzorai rui tu zi bas hayronam,

Obi oina ba doman chakad az mijgonam.

Dar in bayt kalima, iborai dushvorfahme nest. YAne hamai kalimaho az nigohi manii lugavi hej mushkilie nadorand. Ammo mazmuni bayt to andozae dastnoras ast, zero kalimaho dar matn jilvahoi gunoguni manoi giriftaand. Maqsad hijron ast. Nazzorai ru, hayron budan kinoya az ba yod ovardani chehrai mahbuba buda, obi oina, chakidan ba domon, az mijgon nola az firoqu hijron ast. Obi oina – suzishi dil, ba mijgon omadani ashk – huznu gussa va nola buda, ba domon aftodani on – benatija, besamar somon yoftani kori oshiq ast va gayra.

Umuman SHavkati Bukhoroi shoiri khub ast va makhsusan dar ejodi gazal tabi nisbatan sarshortar dorad. Omuzishi ejodiyoti SHavkati Bukhoroi tahqiqu farogirii juze az tafakkuri badeii khalqi tojik dar asri XVII, khudshinosi va tarikhi niyogon dar on ruzgoron ast. Az tarafi digar, ganovati tarkibi leksikii zaboni tojiki ba hunari sukhansanjii hammillaton dar in asr ba shumor meravad.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Ovoni tifli va javonii SHavkati Bukhoroi chi guna guzashtaast?
  2. Sababi jaloi diyor namudani SHavkat dar chist?
  3. Merosi adabii SHavkati Bukhoroi az chiho iborat ast?
  4. Mavzu, mazmun va mundarijavi goyavii gazaliyoti SHavkatro bayon kuned.
  5. Gazali «Subhi piriho rasidu ahdi khursandi namond» ba kadom mavzu bakhshida shudaast?
  6. Mazmun va mundarijai gazali «Dar on sahro, ki vahshat rahravonro rohbar boshad»-ro bayon kuned.
  7. SHavkat dar ejodi gazal ba kadom shoironi guzashta tavajjuh zohir kardaast?
  8. Maqom va poyai shoirii SHavkat dar tarikhi adabiyot az chi iborat ast?
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