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SAMTYOBI DAR NAQSHA VA MAHAL

On joero, ki zindagoni va yo mushohida mekunem, mahal menomand. Mahal vobasta ba pastu balandii sathi Zamin .hamvor, teppanok va kuhsor meshavad.

Ufuq va tarafhoi on. Agar mo ba mahali baland baromada, ba atrof nazar andozem, chunin menamoyad, ki guyo osmon ba sathi Zamin rafta merasad. Inro ufuq menomand. Hatero, ki osmon zohiran bo yak khati muayyan ba sathi Zamin rafta payvast meshavad. khati ufuq meguyand. Ufuq chor taraf dorad va bo harfhoi L11 (SHimol). J (Janub), 111 (SHarq) va G (Garb) ifoda karda meshavad. Dar naqshabardory onhoro tarafhoi asosi meguyand. Bayni tarafkhoi asospro tarafhoi mobaynii ufuq menomand (rasmi 8). Odatan onkhoro ba tavri zerin ifoda menamoyand: SHimolu SHark(SH.SH.). SHimolu Garb (SH.G.). Janubu SHarq (J.SH.) va Janubu Garb (J.G.) (rasmi 9).
kompasMuayyan kardani samti ufuq lar mahal. Dar mahal muayyan karda tavonistani samti ufuq baroi har yak shakhs zarur ast. Donistani on ba shumo imkoniyat medihad, ki agar ba joe safar kardani boshed, ba osoni va zudi rohgum nazada rased. Baroi in boyad avval donist, ki dar mahal samtro az rui chy muayyan mekunand. Ruzona samtro az rui oftob, qutbnamo, alomathoi mahal, usturlobi oftobi, shabona boshad, az rui sitoraho va qutbnamo aniq mekunand. Az in cho aniq namudani tarafhoi ufuqro dar mahal samtyoby meguyand. Baroi yoftani on pesh az hama dar kadom taraf voqe budani SHimolro boyad donist va muayyan kard. Onro ba vositai qutbnamo, sitorai qutb, shokhi darakhton. solkhalqai kundai darakhton, soyai ashyo muqarrar menamoem. Bad az on ki SHimolro muayyan kardem, az rui on digar samghoi ufuqro niz muayyan mekunem. Bo in maqsad rost istoda, ba SHimol menigarem. Dasti rosti mo sam I n SHarq, dasti chapi mo samti
Garb va pasi sari mo samti Janubro nishon medihad.

Tirezai sinfi shumo ba kadom tarafi ufuq nigaronida shudaast? Ruyatonro ba tireza gardonda, muayyan kuned, ki dari sinf, takhtai sinf va mizi muallim az tereza dar kadom samt joygir shudaand?

Muayyan kardani samthoi ufuq dar hayot ahamiyati kaloni amali dorad. Donistani on ba havopaymoyon, bahrnavardon baroi dar havo aniq parvoz kardan va dar uqyonusu bahrho shino namudan imkoniyat faroham meovarad. Sayyohon samtn harakati khudro aniq menamoyand.

Azimut va muayyan kardani on dar mahal. Hamai ashyovu obekghoi sathi Zamin nisbat ba samti SHimol bo kunjhoi gunogun joygir shudaand. Az in jo kunji bayni samti SHimol va samti obekti dar mahal voqegardidaro azimut menomand. Buzurgii kuiji on dar doirai ruy qutbnamo bo daraja ifoda shudaast. Dar doirai Qutbnamo onro az 0 (SHimol) Daraja cap karda, ba tarafi
rost muvofiqi gardishi kharakati akrabaki soag hisob mekunand (rasmi 10). Dar in surat ashyoe, ki bevosita dar SHimol mushokhida karda meshavad, azimuti on ba 0 barobar ast. Aknun muayyan namoed, ki kunji azimuti ashyoe, ki dar SHarq, Janub va Garb voqe gardidaand. ba chand barobar ast?

Dar mahal baroi muayyan namudani azimuti voqeii in yo on chiz yakchand amalro boyad ijro kard. Pesh az hama sspoyaro guzoshta, ba on lavhahoro mustahkam namuda, bad qutbnamoro dar boloi on guzoshta ba tarafho muvofiq menamoem. Baroi in qutbnamoro tavre davr mezanonem, ki nugi kabudi aqrabak harfi ”SH” va nugi surkhi on kharfi “J”- ro nishon dihad. Sipas az surokhii nishongiraki qutbnamo 5a chize, ki azimuti onro dar mahal muayyan mekunem, nigoh karda, halqai qutbnamoroto on dame tob medihem, ki surokhii nishongirak ba samti ashyoi dar mahal voqebuda muvofiq shavad. On joe, ki khati az nishongirak ba samti chize, darakht yo imorat va gayra ravonashuda jadvali qutbnamoro meburad, buzurgii azimuti obektro muayyan mekunad. Az rui azimut harakat niz mekunand. Baroi harakat kardan avval qutbnamoro ba tarafkhoi ufuq muvofiq mekunem, yane qutbnamoro to nugi kabudash SHimolro nishon dodan dazr mezanonem. Bad dar rui qutbnamo donai gugirdro meguzorem, on buzurgii azimutro nishon medihad.

Samthoi ufuq az rui naqsha muayyan karda meshavand. Odatan onro az rui tirchae, ki dar tarafi chapi naqsha kashida shudaast, muayyan mekunand. Bo in maqsad naqsharo ba nazdi khud guzoshta, dar on tircharo meyobem. Nugi tircha bo qarfi “SH” ishora shudaast, ki samti SHimolro nishon medihad, qismi poyoni on Janub meboshad. Dar in surat tarafi rosti tircha samti SHarq va tarafi chapi on samti Garbro ifoda menamoyad. Inro donista az nuqtahoi gunoguni naqsha tamomi tarafhoi ufuq va samti joygirshavii obektkhoro muayyan kardan mumkin ast.

Obekt ru ba kadom tarafi ufuq voke gardida boshad, hamon tarafi ufuqro nombar menamoem. Dar qismi shimolii naqsha joygir shuda boshad – shimoli, dar janub – janubi, dar garb boshad garbi va dar qismi sharqiash boshad – sharqi meguem.

Hangomi muayyan namudani samthoi khathstoi kaj (masalan, majroi daryo, rohi piyodagar) onhoro shartan ba porchahoi (qismathoi) po taqsim mekunand. Dar on joe, ki samt digar meshavad, tarzi samtyobi dar hamin nuqtaro ba kor mebarand.

Savol va suporish

CHy guna joyro mahal, meguem? Ufuq chist? 3. Kadom khathoro khati ufuq meguyand? 4. Samtyobi dar mahal chy mani dorad? 5. Kadom tarafhoro tarafhoi asosi meguem? 6. Baynn tarafhoi asosiro chy isguyand va bo chy ifoda mskunand? 7. Samthoi ufuqro dar mahal chy tavr muayyan mekunand? 8. Tarafhoi ufuqro dar naqsha chy tavr muayyan mekunand? 9. Azimut chist va az rui on chy tavr harakat mekunand? 10. Dar maydonchai maktab az rui azimuti 450 -50 qadam, az rui azimuti 600 – 80 qadam harakat kuned. Dar okhiri har yak fosila ba kadom ashyo vomekhured, dar daftaraton navised.

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