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SHAMSUDDIN SHOHIN

SHamsuddin Muhammad makhdumi SHohin soli 1859 dar Bukhoro, dar oilai mullo Amoni Hatloni tavvalud shudaast. Mullo Amoni Hatloni dar ovoni javoni baroi ilmomuzi ba Samarqand omada, badi du soli tahsil azmi Bukhoro namuda, dar in markazi ilmiyu adabii Movarounnahr madrasaro khatm mekunad. Pas az khatmi madrasa Mullo Amon chand muddat dar yake az madrasahoi Bukhoro mudarrisi ham kardaast. SHohin badho dar masnavii «Tuhfai duston» gamkhorii volidaynashro dar borai khud az zaboni padarash chunin yodovari mekunad:

Agarchand umram ba haftod raft,

Kununam gami piri az yod raft.

Padar chun ba modar surud in kalom,

Ba tahsili ilmam namud ehtimom.

SHamsiddin SHohin hangomi maktabkhoni takhminan dar hasht yo nuhsolagi ba sher guftan shuru kardaast. Inchunin, u dar khushnavisi mahorati tom doshta, badi khatmi maktab padarash in hunari SHohinro dida, vayro peshai mirzoi meomuzonad. Hattoton nozukihoi in pesharo ba SHohin yod medihand. U tuli du-se soli shogirdi tarzi khatnavisi va inshoro khub yod megirad. Badtar dar sinni 15-16- solagi SHohin baroi tahsili ilm ba madrasa dokhil meshavad.

Padaru boboyoni SHohin az toifai ahli fazlu adabi Hatlon budaand. Badtar padari SHohin ba Samarqand va az on jo ba Bukhoro meoyad, ki maqsadash tanho tahsili ilm budaast. Az rui ishorai sarchashmahoi in asr, SHohin farzandi khurdtarini khonadon meboshad va az baze ishorahoi shoir malum meshavad, ki dar khonadoni onho dukhtare ham ba dunyo omada budaast. Zero SHohin vafoti khoharzodahoi khudro dar yak qitai tarikh ishora mekunad:

Tarikhi favti har du zi SHohin bikhostand,

Masumavu Muazzama guftu kashid oh.

In jo moddai tarikh 1300 meshavad, ki ba soli 1883 melodi barobar ast.

Bad az khatmi madrasa SHamsuddin SHohin chand gohe imomati niz mekunad. SHoir dar «Tuhfai duston» 87sol umr didani padarashro takid kardaast. Tamini ruzgor pas az vafoti padarash bar uhdai u meaftad. Dar in ayyom yake az shaykhoni Bukhoro – Abutohir Zariri Juybori ba shoir hamatarafa yori merasonad. Ba in mani SHohin meguyad:

SHukri Hudo, ki chun padar az man kanora just,

SHud iltifoti khojai ofoq yovaram.

Vale bad az chande Zariri Juybori niz vafot mekunad va SHohin dar in bora niz dar yak tarjebandash, ki ba nomi qozikaloni Bukhoro – Badruddin navishtaast, meguyad:

On ki budi maro ba joi padar,

Rakht barbast az in sarocha badar.

Man dar in kunji uzlat az gami u

CHun sipande, ki sukht dar mijmar.

Man yatimu tui karim, zi lutf Barmador az yatimi khesh nazar.

Dar har surat qozikalon niz ba shoir to ba hadde yorii moddii kheshro dareg nadoshtaast, zero baze ishorahoi SHohin ba on guvohand. Ammo kasbi imomati SHohinro qone kunonida nametavonad va u dar baze sherhoi khud in holro sharh dodaast:

Sohibo, gar nakunad arzi man ejobi malol,

Az imomat qadare sharh diham surati hol.

Haftae nest, ki andar pai nashe naravam,

To sari pushta zi masjid manu qavm az dunbol.

Az sari kucha gar ovozi muazzin oyad,

Ba umedi khabari murda kunam istiqbol.

Gah zanad khanda ba man khodimu gah kadbonu,

Gah nihad tana ba man sufiyu gah oqsaqol.

Hukmi har masala guftam chi savobu chi khato,

Noni har moida khurdam chi haromu chi halol!

Nest sure, ki dar u man naravam chun luli,

Nest suge, ki dar u man naravam chun gassol.

Har chi hosil shavad az murdavu az zinda maro,

Be tavaqquf ravad az dast chu ob az girbol.

Z-in hama bori gamu gussa, ki dar dil doram,

Sinai man shuda chun muhrai nushbi hammol.

Az in sher malum megardad, ki ruzgori SHohin az nigohi moddi chandon muvofiqi maqsud nabudaast. Az in ru, dar in kasb chandon ziyod mashgul nashudaast. Badtar az soli 1885 sar karda chand gohe yake az muqarraboni darbori amir meshavad.

Abdulahad ba khizmati mirzoi SHohinro pazirufta, u dar darbor hamchun khushnavisi mashhur va khattoti nomi malum megardad. Parvonachii darbor – Abdulqodir shoiri javonro hamajoniba mesanjad. YAne na tanho kasbi uro, balki ilmu donish va fazilatu istedodi SHohinro pay burda, vayro hamchun farzandi khud ehtirom menamudaast. Hatto bo dakholati parvonachi SHohin dar sitoishi Abdulahad qasidaho niz menavisad. In holat hasudoni SHohinro bedortar menamoyad va onho ba shoir fishor meovarand. Az tarafi digar, bo farmoni amir Abdulqodiri parvonachi hokimi SHerobod tain karda meshavad va u az Bukhoro meravad. Darboriyon az fursat istifoda namuda ba SHohin sakhttar hujum mekunand. In ast, ki parvonachi Abdulqodir bo bahonai himoyai SHohin ba u dukhtarashro khonador menamoyad. Domod shudan ba hokimi SHerobod SHohinro az hamlai hasudon to andozae emin megardonad. Az tarafi digar, amir Abdulahad niz ba SHohin az nazdik shinos gardida, donishu mahorati shoirro his namuda, mekhohad uro hamsuhbati bevositai khud namoyad. Amir chunin ham kard va hatto dar safarhoyash SHohinro bo khud girifta meburd.

Dar in miyon zavjai shoir vafot mekunad va in musibat ba SHohin tasiri sakht menamoyad. Az tarafi digar, SHohin baze nuqsonhoi mushohidakardai khudro mekhohad, ki tavvasuti pandu andarz bevosita ba khudi amir rasonad. Binobar in u asari «Tuhfai duston»-ro menavisad va mekhohad ba in vosita baze nuqsonhoi jiddiro nishon bidihad. Ammo in ba amir Abdulahad pisand nameoyad.

Kame peshtar az in SHohin dostoni «Layli va Majnun»-ro talif namuda bud. Muvofiqi akhbori sarchashmaho, shoir in dostonashro dar vafoti zavjai khud-dukhtari Abdulqodiri parvonachi ejod kardaast. Sanai talifi dostoni «Layli va Majnun» soli 1305 (1887-1888) buda, asar zohiran ba amir Abdulahad ehdo shudaast. Az baze fakhriyahoi SHamsiddin SHohin barmeoyad, ki u baso oqilu farzona, donishmandu zaki, fozilu dono budaast:

Man az in voqea bishkuftamu guftam, ki manam,

Istiqomatchii darbori shahanshohi jahon.

CHun shunidand hadisi man az jumla kase,

Natavonist namudan ba kamolam kitmon.

Alhaq, az khalqi jahon gui fatonat burda,

Har ki shud khodimi in borgahi fayzrason.

Albatta, SHohin darborro az rui zarurat «borgahi fayzrason» meguyad.

Agar ejodiyoti SHamsuddin SHohin nozuku daqiq omukhta shavad, pay burdan dushvor nest, ki az ogozi solhoi 90-umi asri XIX dar lirikai u ohanghoi shikoyati, maylhoi khele qavii tanqidi quvvat giriftaand. Namunai chunin ohanghovu maylho, ki boz tobishi fakhriyavi niz giriftaand, gazali zerini SHohin shuda metavonad:

Sukhan har on chi ki khushtar buvad, manash guftam,

Guhar har on chi ki behtar buvad, manash suftam.

Vale chi sud, ki umram ba gunchagi bigzasht,

Ba bod raftamu chun gul ba bog nashkuftam.

Nadidam in hama hosil zi ruzgori vujud,

CHuz in qadar, ki ba shomi adam furu khuftam

. Nabasta surati jamiyate ba khud SHohin,

Zi tundbodi ajal chun gubor oshuftam.

Albatta, in besabab nabud. SHoir dar in davra ba asari olamshumuli Ahmadi Donish «Navodir- ul-vaqoe» oshnoi paydo namuda bud. Mutoliai asar tafakkuri siyosii adibro qavitaru girotar namud. Jurati SHohin az talifi «Tuhfai duston» taqviyat paydo menamoyad. U hatto bevosita ba khudi amir murojiat namuda meguyad:

Tu bishnav manoram sukhan dar surush,

Ki az ahdi peshin baroyad khurush.

Gahe madh, gah pand guyam turo,

Rahi rasmi neki bijuyam turo.

Va gar harfi talkhe ba majuni pand,

Sirishtam chu Sabri Saqutar ba qand.

Ba nafash nigar, ne ba talkhii on,

Ki talkh ovarad sudu shirin ziyon.

Gar az pand kholi buvad madhi shoh,

Masal osmonest kholi zi moh.

CHunin tarzi tahavvuli fikri amirro vodor namud, ki dar khususi in shoiri javon andeshai digar doshta boshad. In tarzi bayoni andesha miyoni shoiru shoh mukholifati fikrro tezond. SHoyad yake az sababhoi notamom mondani masnavi niz hamin nizoi shoir bo shoh boshad.

Bo vujudi in hama SHohin az ejodi adabi dast nakashid. Tanho inro ham his kard, ki tavassuti hikmatu pand, mavizotu andarz aqidai in amironi jahilro tagiyr doda nameshavad. Binobar hamin ham SHohin asari digari khud – «Badoe-us-sanoe»-ro talif namud.

Mo oshnoii komil paydo namudani Ahmadi Donishro az yak masnavii khurdi u, ki dar okhirhoi umrash navishta bud, pay burda metavonem. Zero SHohin az madhu sanoi salotin va amiron sakht mutaassir gardida, pushaymonii khudro chunin izhor kardaast:

Du-se ruz juyoi ehson shudam,

Saroyandai madhi dunon[1] shudam.

Biburdam ba oroishi nazm ranj

V-az on kardam ofoqro pur zi ganj.

Harero Maseho nasab rondame, Suro[2]

Surayyo[3] laqab khondame.

Sagero, ki joma daridi ba dev,

Farishta az u dargirifti girev.

CHunon barzadam sirati mardumi,

Ki gui nazoda juz u odami.

Kamole, ki az har fan omukhtam,

Ba tavsifi bedonishon sukhtam.

Ba podoshi on nuqtahoi baland,

Ba po qaydam uftod, dar halq band.

Turushjabhagon sirka angekhtand,

Sirishtandu dar komi man rekhtand.

Naguftand, k-in rindi shirinzabon,

Tabarzad[4] ba mo karda bud armugon.

Ba lavzinaash[5] sir chun afkanem.

CHaro shiri sofi ba khun afkanem?

SHohin nimahoi avvali solhoi navadum ba darbor sakhttar jalb karda shuda bud. Uro dar har yak safari duru nazdiki khesh amir hamroh meburd. Bar boloi in shoir ba bemorii sil mubtalo gardida bud. Bore dar yake az safarhoi amir, ki SHohin bo shoh hamroh bud, holash khele bad meshavad. In safari navbati ba Qarshi bud. Amir uro dar Qarshi guzosht va SHohin soli 1894 dar hamon jo vafot namud. Oromgohi shoir dar shahri Qarshi voqe gardidaast.

[1]     Dunon- nokason

[2]     Suro – qabati pasti zamin

[3]     Surayyo – sitorai parvin

[4]     Tabarzad – nabot

[5]     Lavzina – halvo.

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