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SAYIDOI NASAFI

Dar fikri dona murchae bud darguzar,
Omad ba sheru guft, ki: Ay Rustami zamon!
Az ittifoqi murchagon gofili magar
V-arna charo haqir shumoriyu notavon?
(Sayidoi Nasafi)

Tarchumai hol

saydoi-nasafiNasaf mulki obode bud. Dar on diyor az kasbhoi hunarmandi peshai bofandagi rivoj dosht. Bofandagon, ki baroi mardum libosvorihoi arzonbahoe tayyor mekardand, dar on ruzgor sohibizzat budand. Kasbi bofandagi mehnati dushvorro talab mekard. Besabab nest, ki khalq bo dili purdard dar borai sakhtiyu dushvorihoi bofandagi surudho ejod kardaast:

Dilakam zardob shud az chaq-chaqi bofandagi,

CHashmakam purob shud az rishtahoi kandagi.

Az sahar to shom pochak mezanam dar chah-chahak,

Qomatam dar tob shud az koru bori zindagi.

Mirobid Sayidoi Nasafi baroi tamini ruzgori khesh payvasta nozukihoi kasbi merosii bofandagiro meomuzad va dar barobari kasbomuzi Sayido dar maktab niz tahsil mekard. In bud, ki tadrijan khatu savod barovarda, ejodiyoti peshiniyonro meomukht. Ashori Sadi, Husravi Dehlavi, Hasan, Hofizu Kamol va bisyor digaronro hifz mekard va khud niz ahyon-ahyon sher meguft. Muhabbat ba merosi manavii guzashtagon, sanati voloi sukhanvari, hunari notakrori har yak ejodkor uro kayho maftun namuda bud. Hamin dilbastagi uro vodor sokht, ki rohi Bukhororo pesh girad. U ba Bukhoro omada, tahsili olii khudro dar madrasai Labi Havzi Nodir – devonbegi peshi olimonu donishmandoni buzurgi zamon davom medihad.

Pas az dars Sayido beshtari vaqti khudro baroi omukhtani ashori peshguzashtagonu muosironash sarf namuda, nozukihoi kalomi bade, sirri hunari ejodro meomukht. Ilova bar in, ba tabaqahoi hunarmandi jomeai onruzai Bukhoro payvasta dar irtibot bud. Az miyoni toifai mazkur dustoni ziyode paydo mekunad va on yoronu dustonash dar mavridhoi zaruri va Sayido yorii moddi merasonand, to ki u tahsilashro davom bidihad. CHun vazi zindagi imkoniyat dod, ki Sayidoi Nasafi tahsili madrasaro bomuvaffaqiyat ba anjom rasonad va dar ayni zamon mahorati sukhanvariyu nuktasanjii khudro takmil dihad. Besh az in dar hayoti adabii shahr shirkat varzad.

Sonitar hayoti oilavi Sayidoi Nasafiro majbur mesozad, ki dar ruzgori javoni peshai bofandagiro davom bidihad. U dar gazali «Mekunam bofandagi» az nojurihoi ahdi khud shikoyat menamoyad:

Dar bahor az foqa rangi zafaron boshad maro,

Poraho bar dush az bargi khazon boshad maro.

Bahri ruzi mekunam bofandagi chun ankabut,

Hona hamchun dorboz az resmon boshad maro.

Gashtaam az foqa hamchun tiri bepar gushagir,

Honahoi khushku kholi chun kamon boshad maro.

CHun falak az mehru mah bar sufra doram noni qoq,

Ruzu shab sharmandagi az obu non boshad maro.

Sayidoi Nasafi bo maqsadi rahoyobi az mushkiloti ruzgor bo baze sohibmansaboni zamonaash Hojidodkhoh va Rahimbi YUz nazdiki paydo mekunad. SHoir hatto bakhshida ba hokimoni davr Abdulazizkhonu Subhonqulikhon va Ubaydullohkhon bo niyati daryofti inomu ehson chandin sherho menavisad. Sayidoi Nasafi ashori hadafnoki madehavii khudro kamarzish donista, ba in vosita az miyoni sarvatmandonu sohibmansabon digar muttakojuivu murabbikobi namekunad, zero ba u asrori darboru darboriyon to andozae oshkor megardad, ki zimomdoroni davr kamkhiradu bedonishand. Az in ru, dur budan az eshonro avlotar mehisobad. In ast, ki Sayido meguyad:

Dar ahdi mo rivoj ba ahli hunar namond,

Imruz obruy ba lalu guhar namond.

Az hej khonae nabaromad sadoi jud,

Dar ruzgori mo zi karimon asar namond.

Garduni sifla behunaronro rivoj dod,

Azbaski etibor ba sohibhunar namond.

Hol on ki ashori Sayido hanuz dar zamoni khudi u na tanho dar sarzamini Movarounnahru Huroson,hatto dar qalamravi Eronu Hinduston pahn gardida bud. SHoir ba in mani meguyad:

Ba mulki Isfahonu Hind mekhonand ashoram,

Zi Turkistonamu hargiz nadoram etibor in jo.

CHun zimomdoron az ahli sheru adab, ilmu farhang qadrshinosi namekardand, bisyore az farhangiyoni zamoni shoir jaloi diyor karda budand va beshtari onho ba sarzamini Hind meraftand. SHoir ba holati mazkur chunin ishora menamoyad:

Hamrahon raftandu man po dar vatan doram hanuz,

Takya chun surat ba devori badan doram hanuz.

Az yak taraf, zafi pirivu durii roh va az tarafi digar, bebizoatiyu tangdasti ba Sayido imkoni safar kardanro namedod, ki azmi safari Hindro ikhtiyor bikunad:

Az tihidasti chu sarvi bog poyam dar gil ast,

Rakht mebandam, agar zodi safar boshad maro.

Kushishu takopuhoi Sayido benatija poyon yoft va in holatho shoirro ruhan aziyat medod. In bud, ki shoir rahoi az in holati peshomadaro dar gushanishini, kanorajui paydo kardan khost va in rohro niz pesh girift. Muddate uzlatshini namud.

Gushanishini ahvoli Sayidoi Nasafiro boz ham vaznintar, holoti ruhii uro zaiftar namud. CHunonochi, shoir meguyad:

On ki megiryad ba holam, chashmi khunini man ast
V-on ki bardorad Saram az khok, bolini man ast.

In bud, ki shoir az rui ehtiyojoti ruzgor boz ru ba miyoni mardum meorad va galati khudro fahmida dar yak muddati kutoh isloh menamoyad:

Hosil nashud zi gushanishini murodi man,

Hudro zi khona bar sari bozor mekasham.

U na tanho azobi ejodiro az sar meguzarondu toqat menamud, balki mehnati jismoni-bofandagi mekard va dar in roh khudro ba Farhodi kuhkan hamsangu monand medonist. Ba in mani ishora namuda meguyad:

Ba zuri dastu bozu mekhuram, ay Sayido, ruzi,

Maro chun kuhkan khuni jigar boshad beh az shiram.

Az baze tasvirhoi ijtimoii shoir bisyor lahzahoi ruzgori uro metavon peshi nazar ovard, ki baroi barqaroru purra namudani zindaginomai Sayido yori merasonad. Masalan, ba in tasviri ijtimoii shoir agar tavajjuh karda shavad, ahvoli ijtimoii adib boz ham ravshantar megardad:

Vidoash karda meraftam ba khona,

Tavajjuh zad qadam bar ostona.

Dare didam ba nokomi kushoda,

Ba roham didai vo istoda.

Figon nogah zi qufli dar baromad,

Ki : «Imshab turfa duzde bar sar omad.

Qavichangol gurge tezkhashme,

Ba bozu filzuru tangchashme.

Sari uro zi dor andeshae ne,

Ba gayr az duzdi uro peshae ne».

Man on jo to sahar dar khobi rohat,

Kushoda duzd in jo dasti gorat.

Daruni khonaam juz buryo ne,

Ba zeri poy gayr az naqshi po ne.

Zi beasbobiyam dar sina chok ast,

Matoi khonai man obu khok ast.

CHi guyam man ba rui khonai khud,

SHudam sharmanda az koshonai khud.

SHudash toroji u kunji faromush,

Zi dasti duzd gashtam khonabardush.

Turo bod, ay falak, davron musallam,

Ba yak shodi kuni omoda sad gam.

Dar in jo asosan vazi khonavodagii shoir, ahvoli ijtimoii Sayido rui tasvir omadaast. Zimni on norizoii shoir az nizomi davlatdorii sohibdavlatonu mansabdoroni davroni khud hatto bo qavitarin ohanghoi etirozi mushohida karda meshavad. Hususan, berhmiyu jafopeshagii duzdon, ki onho az nizomi sustii davlatdoron istifoda burdaandu zarrae tarsu haros nadorand, khele khub ba tasvir girifta shudaast.

Poyoni umri Sayidoi Nasafi niz dar Bukhoro guzashtaast va u takhminan soli 1711 dar hamon jo vafot kardaast.

Merosi adabii Sayido

Osori adabii Sayidoi Nasafi, ki «Kulliyot»-i uro faroham ovardaast, doroi 8500 bayt meboshad. Dar osori mahfuzmondai shoir joi avvalro gazal ishgol menamoyad, ki miqdori on 4600 bayt ast. Mukhammas boshad pas az gazal dar joi duyum buda, 1050 baytro tashkil medihad. Ejodi onho niz khele hunarmandona ast.

Inchunin, Mirobid Sayidoi Nasafi ba hunarmandon, namoyandagoni hunarhoi mukhtalif yak silsila sherho bakhshidaast. Sayido chand masnavii digar niz dorad, ki hajmi onho az 16 to 68 baytro dar bar megirand. YAke az chunin masnavihoi u «Dar mazammati duzde, ki khonai shoirro gorat kardaast»-nom dorad, khele jolib buda, dar barobari arzishi adabi – estetiki ahamiyati ijtimoiyu sharhiholi niz dorad.

Digar az asarhoi Sayido, ki to ba hadde shuhrati ejodii shoirro tamin mekunad, «SHahroshub»-i shoir ast, ki u ba ejodi in asari khud, az yak taraf, ananai adabiro davom doda boshad, az tarafi digar, avzoi hunaru farhangi zamoni khud, rivoji kasbu hunarho va tarzi zindagii muosironi kheshro ba tavri badei bayon kardaast. In asari Sayidoi Nasafi oid ba hunaru peshai 212 nafar hamzamononi u va juziyoti hunariyu khususiyathoi digari faoliyati mardumi mehnatkash malumot medihad. Az jumla, doir ba namoyandagoni kasbu korhoi mukhtalifi davr: zargaru bofanda, kulolu muzaduz, devorzanu kabobpaz va gayra vasfu tavsifhoi rangin ba nazar merasad. Tedodi ashori mazkur niz baso jolib buda az yak to se-chor baytro faro megirad.

SHerhoi ba hunarmandon bakhshidai Mirobid Sayidoi Nasafi az nigohi istifodai avzon niz gunogun buda, az «SHahroshub» bo on farq mekunand, ki dar ashori ba ahli hunar ikhtisosdoda hajvu hazv khele maleh dida meshavad.

Masnavii tamsilii Sayido, ki «Bahoriyot» yo «Hayvonotnoma» nom dorand, shuhrati shoirro dar ejodi in navi adabi tamin menamoyad.

Mavzu va munDarichai gazaliyoti SayiDo

Gazal dar osori adabii Sayido maqomi avvalindaja dorad. Mavzui gazaliyoti u hamono ishqu oshiqi, dustdorivu muhabbat, ehsosoti qalbi, shuru isyonhoi botinii insonho va gayra buda, in janbai ananavii mundarijavii gazaliyoti shoir ast. Hunari Sayido dar surudani mavzuhoi ijtimoi-sityosi, tarbiyavi-akhloqi, jamiyati-insondusti, fardi-sharhiholi va monandi inho niz hast. Albatta, janbahoi mavzui mazkur bo ohanghoi ijtimoi – siyosi hanuz az Sadii SHerozi shuru shuda bud. Sayido mavzuhoi hasbihol va umuman adolati ijtimoiro ba balandtarin nuqta rasonida tavonist va dar hamin zamina tozakorihovu navovariho kard. Tanqidi noadolatihoi zamon, nobasomonihoi davr, khorivu beqadrii inson, zikri nodoriyu benavoi, kambagalivu bechoragi, himoyai ahli mehnat va fuqarovu darmondagon, tanqidi ahli husud, zolimon, sohibmansaboni berahm, riyokoronu chopluson, zohidoni zohirbin, tasviri ahvoli badi khesh, mazammati bukhlu kinavarzi va gayra niz asosi mundarijavii gazalhoi Sayidoro tashkil medihand.

Sayido hatto gazalhoe ham dorad, ki saropo arzishi sharhiholi dorand:

Bo ki ravshan sozam ahvoli dili afgori khesh,

To ba kay chun sham suzam bar sari bemori khesh?

Bahri osoish gar az gamkhona sar berun kunam,

Meniham chun soya pahlu bar tahi devori khesh.

YUsufi man az kharidoron kasodi mekashad,

Bar dukon otash zanam az sardii bozori khesh.

Bar sari man osiyo gardad, tahammul[1] mekunam,

CHun namebinam kasero zeri gardun yori khesh.

Bar badan az nolai jonkoh doram rakhnaho,

Bastaam chun nay kamar, umrest bar ozori khesh.

Az balandu pasti olam gasht suhon komyob,

Hasm[2] mebolad ba khud az vazi nohamvori khesh.

Sayido, boshad kudurat[3] ruzii sohibhunar,

SHokhi gul az poy natvonad kashidan khori khesh.

Holati mazkur, yane janbai tamoman voqeii tasvir bakhshidan ba gazal yake az khizmathoi Sayido dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik ast.

Inikosi zamon, vaziyati siyosi – ijtimoi Dar gazaliyoti SayiDo.

Oid ba mavzui mazkur Sayido asari judogonai khud – «Bahoriyot» yo khud «Hayvonotnoma»-ro navishtaast.

Guzorishi masalai mazkur dar gazaliyoti shoir purvusattar meboshad.

YAne az doirai mavzuhoi ishqi ru ovardan ba ruzgori ijtimoii inson va jamiyat yake az khususiyathoi gazaliyoti shoir ba shumor meravad:

Nigahi masti tu khuni dili ahbob khurad,

Tegi bedodi tu az farqi ajal ob khurad.

Az jahon gum shuda mehri padaru farzandi,

V-arna Rustam zi chi dode sari Suhrob khurd.

Qatrai may sari Mansur barovard ba dor,

Voi on kas, ki hama umr mayi nob khurad.

Har ki bo dushmanii khalq ravon ast chu bahr,

Zud boshad, ki sari khesh chu girbod khurad.

Sayido, pechishi on zulf ba on rukh zi chi rust,

Muy bar shulai otash chu fitad, tob khurad.

Mavzui gazali mazkur asosan adolati ijtimoi buda, shoir dushmanoni khalqro hushdor medihad, ki az ohi mazlumon hazar kunand va agar nakunand, onhoro marg intizor ast. Sayido besarusomonihoi jamiyatro dar mansabtaloshivu jahonparastii muosiron mebinad va az in ru, ba himoyai mardumoni oddi ovoz baland mekunad:

Dar taloshi saltanat aftodaand az poy khalq,

Toj agar in ast, olam sarnagun khohad shudan.

Az in sabab, u az gami khalq, az holi mardumoni oddi dilkhunu jigarkabob ast va figonu nolaash tanho bahri behbudii ruzgori bechoragonu darmondagon meboshad:

Ashki man gar inchunin, k-az dil burun khohad shudan,

Doghoi sinaam girdobi khun khohad shudan,

Dar gazaliyoti Sayido ohanghoi khele amiqi falsafi, bo mazmunhoi ijtimoi dar goyati hunarivu jiloi tozai khayolbofi rui kor omadaand. CHunonchi:

Nafsi sarkashro musakhkhar aqli purtadbir kard,

Sag chu shud devona, uro metavon zanjir kard.

Bemurabbi zeri gardun mutabar natvon shudan,

Mohi navro rafta-rafta charkh olamgir kard.

Bo buzurgoni jahon gustokh budan khub nest,

Okhir in beizzati bar Kuhkan tasir kard.

Beibo natvon ba bazmi tundkhuyon po nihod,

Bemuhobo takya natvon bar dami shamsher kard.

To ba poi khum naraftam sogaram yori nadod,

Dastgiri bo mani aftoda ruhi pir kard.

Meravand ahli tama dar bazmho devonavor,

Metavon darhoi mehmonkhonaro zanjir kard.

Qomati khilvatshinon mekunad kori kamon,

Metavon misvoki zohidro nishoni tir kard.

Vodii devonagi joi farogat budaast,

Hobi rohat poi mo dar khonai zianjir kard.

Sayido, muzdi hunarvar merasad dar khurdi kor,

Ruzii Farhodro gardun zi jui shir kard.

Gazali zikrshuda mohiyati amiqi pandu andarzi, nasihati – tarbiyavi doshta, olami sabab – olami insonho khele nozuku hunarmandona mavridi tasvir qaror giriftaast va gazal az ogoz to anjom (bayt-bayt) irsoli masal ast.

Gazal doroi qofiyavu radif buda, qofiyahoi on bo harfi ravi «r» ba itmom merasad, ki shakli on muqayyad ast va radifi gazal sodda meboshad.

Gazal chun muhtavoi akhloqi dorad, dar bahri Ramali musammani maqsur ejod shudaast va afoili on chunin ast:

– V – – / – V –        – / – V –      – /    – V ~

yane: foilotun, foilotun, failotun, foilon.

YO khud gazali digari shoir, ki az nigohi mazmunu muhtavo, mohiyati qavitari ijtimoi doshta, hasbi holi shoir va holati qahramoni liriki az ogoz to anjomi gazal davom mekunad, ki az tangii maishi va benavoi ba sari shoir omadaast:

Murgi bebolu pare didam, dilam omad ba yod,

Nolai chugze shunidam, manzilam omad ba yod.

Az firebu vadahoi u shudam rozi ba marg,

SHab hama shab dastu tegi qotilam omad ba yod.

Dar taloshi bahr chun girdob sargardon shudam,

Hasrati labhoi khushki sohilam omad ba yod.

Sar nazad az kishtzori umri man gayr az sipand,

Sukhtam chun mazrai behosilam omad ba yod.

Sayido, didam ba khok aftoda bargi lolaro,

Tegi nohaq khurda saydi bismilam omad bayod.

YAne intihoi maqsadi adib himoyai adlu dod va tanqidi noadolatihoi zamoni shoir niz meboshad.

Gazal khele hunarmandona buda, doroi qofiyai mutlaq va radifi murakkab ast. YAke az vazifahoi radif dar in gazal takidi mano niz hast, ki bori goyavii onro dar uhda megirad, zero tangii maishi ba shoir umre ru ba ru budaast.

Az nigohi vazn boshad, gazali mazkur dar bahri ramali musammani maqsur ejod shudaast va afoili on chunin ast:

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yane: foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilon.

Jihati jolibi hunarii gazali Sayido on ast, ki ohanghoi ijtimoi toru pudi gazalro tashkil namuda, ramzi khele balandro ba miyon meorand, ki darki maqsad kame mushkil ham meshavad. Vale jihati digari kharakternoki gazaliyoti in sukhanvar boz dar on ast, ki sar to po gazali u tasvirhoi voqei, juziyoti hayotivu mushakhkhas, vojahoi mamuli, khayolbofihoi ruzgorivu mushohidahoi zindagiro faro megirand. CHunonchi, daleli qazovati mazkur gazali zerin ast:

SHamamu payvasta dar raghoi jonam otash ast,

Dar dahonam mavji obu bar zabonam otash ast.

Zolimon az bekasi vayronaamro sukhtand,

CHugzam az bekhonumoni, oshyonam otash ast.

Bulbulam, ammo maqomi dilnishinam gulkhan ast,

Sabzaam khokistar astu bustonam otash ast.

Az sari kui buton rakhti safar to bastaam,

Mahmili man girdbodu korvonam otash ast.

Ay, ki bo mo mekuni savdo, ba khud andesha kun,

Dar bisotam dudi ohu bar dukonam otash ast.

Suhbati man bemayu bemutrib imshab dar girift,

Hona ravshan mekunam, to mehmonam otash ast.

Nest dilsuze ba mulki sinai man gayri dog,

Sayido, imruz yori mehrubonam otash ast.

Gazaliyoti Sayido boz bo on kharakternok ast, ki aslan hajman kalon nest, 6-7 va 10-12 baytist. Sayido gazale dar hajmi 27 bayt niz dorad.

Istiqloli baytho ahyonan manzur shavand ham, az doirai mavzui markazi judo nest. YAne munosibati Sayido ba siyosatmadoron, hokimon, ahli mansab, tabaqahoi hunarmandon, mehnatkashon, bozorgonon, olimon, shiron, tolibilmonu mudarrison va gayra ba mushohida merasad. Dar gazaliyoti shoir qahramoni diriki – oshiq yo fardi sohibtajriba, khiradmand, ruzgori, mehnatqarin, sohibhunar ast, vale benavo, beqadru manzalat, pursabru purtoqat va boz beshtar az in rostqavl, bovafo, adolatparast, haqiqatkhoh, durandesh, pokizazamiru sofdil, samimivu nekukor meboshad.

U dar gazali zerin meguyad:

Buvad munim azizi kishvaru ozod khor in jo,

Zi sarvi bog ranotar darakhti mevador in jo. Dar ogozi muhabbat oshiq az murdan nayandeshad,

Zanad khudro ba komi sher tifli naysavor in jo.

Hudojuro sarharkhezi shavad afzuntar az piri,

Dar ayyomi khazon guldasta mebandad bahor in jo.

Alamhoi turo fardo guvohonand dar mahshar,

Makun ozurda az khud khotiri laylu nahor in jo.

Zi zahri chashm arbobi tamaro nest andesha,

Kunand in qavm mayli surma az mijgoni mor in jo.

Zi zahri chashm arbobi tamaro nest andesha,

Kunand in qavm mayli surma az mijgoni mor in jo.

Savodi bedi majnun behtar az zanjir Majnunro,

Buvad az dasti giro nozanintar rashador in jo,

Ba berui tavon az ahli dunyo bahrvar gashtan,

Zi tiflon shikvaho dorad darakhti mevador in jo,

Buvad kori tu, yo Rab, dar du olam parda pushidan,

Makun mahjub on jovu magardon sharmsor in jo,

Naboshad rah ba bazmi khilvati mo harzaguyonro,

Sari Mansur sili mekhurad az poi dor in jo,

Zi bazmi sher nabvad bahrae afsurdatabonro,

Buvad kilki sukhanpardoz chun shami mazor in jo.

Ba mulki Isfahonu Hind mekhonand ashoram,

Zi Turkistonamu hargiz nadoram etibor in jo.

Naboshad bo fashu misvoki zohid hej tasire,

Naandeshad kase az kavkabi dunbolador in jo,

Hatu zulfash kamar barbastaand az bahri khuni man,

Hazar kun, Sayido, az ittifoqi muru mor in jo.

Gazali zikrshuda niz ohangi bisyor qavii ijtimoi doshta, shoir shikva az tangii maishi va az noadolatihoi davroni khud dorad. Umuman dar in gazal tanqidu istehzo, mazammatu hijo, shikoyatu norizoi, himoyai adlu haqiqat, rostivu sadoqat, durandeshivu poki, vafodorivu rostqavli, khudotarsivu intikhobi rohi rost va gayraro vasf menamoyad. In janba niz yake az khususiyathoi gazalhoi Sayido ba shumor meravad. YAke az masaalhoe, ki misli khatti surkh az miyoni masaalhoi bayongardida dar gazali bolo meguzorad, himoyai vatan, dust doshtani on, dilbastagii sidqi ba vatan, avlo shumoridani obu khoki on ast. U hatto vatanro az mafhumi zodgoh vasetar marifat mekunad va Turkistonro dust medorad va makonu diyorero bo on barobar namedonad va az in ru, sarfi nazar az qadrshinosiho, ki nisbat ba shoir ravo dida meshud, u khastadilu navmed nameshavad.

Gazali bolo muqavvofu muraddaf buda, qofiyai on muqayyad va radifash murakkab meboshad. Az nigohi vazn boshad, dar bahri Hazaji musammai solim insho shudaast, ki afoili on chuni nast:

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YAne: mafoilun, mafoilun, mafoilum, mafoilun.

Sayido dar ejodi gazal, pesh az hama, az on jihat maqom dorad, ki u in navi adabiro ba hayoti mardum, ba ruzgoru zindagi baso qarinu nazdik namudaast. Az in ru, dar gazalhoi u janbahoi ijtimoi ziyodtar quvvat girifta, yak andoza ruhiyai mardumii sheri Sayidoro tamin kardaast. Dar gazali Sayido to ba hadde avzoi siyosi- tarikhi va ijtimoii zamoni u inikos gardidaast. Az tarafi digar, janbai talimi, pandu andarzi, nasihatiyu mavizati giriftani gazali shoir burhoni poydorii adab ba sunnat va bahrabardori az ananahoi kuhantarikhii sheru adabi tojik meboshad.

[1]     Tahammul – sabr

[2]     Hasm – dushman

[3]     Qudurat – gam, anduh

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