Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / SADONOKHOI KUTOH (HARAKATHO) DAR QOFIYA

SADONOKHOI KUTOH (HARAKATHO) DAR QOFIYA

Dar sistemai qofiyai sheri forsi – tojiki mafhumhoi harf,  harakat va hijo maqomi makhsus dorand. In qoida ba zabonshinosi va shershinosii mo az zaboni arabi omadaast. Dar alifboi arabi mafhumi harf va mafhumi harakat az hamdigar tafovut dorand. Harfho navishta meshavand va shakli muayyan dorand, ammo harakathoro namenavisand, faqat hangomi khondan talaffuz menamoyand.

Gohe harakathoro dar mavridi zaruri meguzorand. In harakatho bo nomhoi «zabar» yo «fatha» (a), «zer» yo «kasra» (i) va «pesh» yo «zamma» (u) mamuland. Dar zabonshinosii imruza harakathoro (yane, a, i, u) sadonokhoi kutoh menomand.

Harfho dar yakjoyagi bo in harkatho, yane sadonokhoi kutoh hijoro ba vujud meorand.

kitob

Harfhoi «alif», «vov» va «yo» dar alifboi arabiasosi tojiki ovozi sadonokro medihand va onhoro baroi farq kardan az harakatho sadonoki daroz meguyand, ki «o», «u» («u») va «i» meboshand. Hamin tariq, dar ilmi qofiya h a r f h o (hamsado va sadonokhoi daroz) va h a – r a k a t h o (sadonokhoi kutoh) ishtirok menamoyand.

Mo dar bolo doir ba harfhoi qofiya malumot dodem va baroi har kadomi onho misolho ovardem. Holo dar khususi harakathoi qofiya (sadonokhoi kutoh), nom va mavqei onho dar r e sh a i q o f i ya malumot medihem.

Dar ilmi qofiya sadonokhoi kutohero, ki dar sokhtani reshai qofiya ishtirok menamoyand, h a r a k a t h o i q o f i ya menomand. Aksari donishmandoni ilmi qofiya ba har yak harakat nom nihodaand. Harakathoi qofiya shashtoyand: r a s, i sh b o , h a z v, t a v j e h, m a j r o, n a f o z.

Abdurrahmoni Jomi dar bayte nomi harakathoi qofiyaro chunin ba nazm ovardaast:

Rasu ishbou hazvu tavjeh ast,
Boz majrovu bad az ust nafoz.

Az in harakatho chortoyash dar q o f i ya i m u q a y ya d meoyad (ras, ishbo, hazv va tavjeh) va dutoi digarash (majro va nafoz) ba q o f i ya i m u t l a q taalluq dorad. Ba tavri digar guem, harakathoi r a s , i sh – b o , h a z v va t a v j e h pesh az harfi ravi, ammo harakathoi m a j r o va n a f o z badi ravi meoyand. Nasiruddini Tusi az harfhoi avvali nomi harakathoi qofiya iborai «Rohati man»-ro sokhtaast, ki baroi ba osoni dar khotir nigoh doshtani nomi harakatho ba khonanda yori merasonad, yane az r a s harfi «r», az ishbo harfi alif (yane, «o»), az hazv harfi «h», az tavjeh harfi «t», az majro harfi «m» va az nafoz harfi «n».

Harakathoi qofiya dar alifboi imruza shakli ovozi va harfi nadorand, az in ru, az avval manihoi lugavi va istilohii onhoro sharh doda, sipas dar asosi misolhoi sheri shakl va mavqei onhoro dar reshai qofiya nishon medihem.

  1. Ras kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash ibtidoi chize; chohi kuhna buda, dar ilmi qofiya harakati pesh az t a s i s ro guyand. Ras sadonoki kutohi «a» ast, ki dar reshai qofiya pesh az harfi «o», yane tasis dar nazar doshta meshud. Ras faqat ba harfhoi arabi taalluq doshta, dar navishti imruza ifodai harfi nadorad.
  2. Ishbo kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash ser kardan, pur kardan buda, dar ilmi qofiya harakati hamsadoest, ki dar qofiya ba vazifai d a kh i l meoyad, yane sadonokhoi kutohi «a», «i» va «u», ki dar bayni d a kh i l va r a v i joy giriftaand.

Misol:

Qofiya dar asl yak harf astu hasht onro taba,

CHor peshu chor pas, on nuqta inho doyira.

Harfi tasisu dakhilu ridfu qayd, on goh ravy,

Bad az on vaslu khuruj astu mazidu noyira.

Dar in qita kalimahoi d o y i r a va n o y i r a qofiya, juzvi             «-

oyira» reshai qofiya buda, sadonoki darozi «o» t a s i s, harfi «y» d a kh i l, sadonoki kutohi «i» i sh b o , harfi «r» r a v i i m u t l a q va harfi «a» v a s l meboshad.

Dar kalimahoe, ki ba vazifai qofiya omadaandu dar tarkibashon harakati ishbo dorand, khele kam ast. Masalan:

Kalimahoi «muboraki»-yu «rovaki» qofiya, juzvhoi «-oraki» va «- ovaki» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «o» t a s i s, harfi «r» (dar kalimai «rovaki» harfi «v») d a kh i l, sadonoki kutohi «a» i sh b o , harfi «k» r a v i va harfi «i» vasl ast.

  1. Hazv kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash barobar kardani du chiz boshad. Dar ilmi qofiya sadonoki kutohero (a, i, u) guyand, ki pesh az harfi qayd omada boshad. Misol:

Nabandad to sari nofi zamin sang,

Namonad dona dar nofi zamin tang. (Bozor Sobir)

Dar in bayt (vaznash-Hazaji musammani maqsur) kalimahoi «sang» va «tang» qofiya, juzvi «-ang» reshai qofiya buda, sadonoki kutohi «a» h a z v, harfi «n» q a y d, harfi «g» ravii muqayyad meboshad.

Aksari muhaqqiqoni tarikhi adabiyot dar in aqidaand, ki takrori hazv dar qofiyahoi muqayyad (qofiyahoe, ki dar on harfi ravi bo harfi v a s l nachaspidaast) hatmi, vale dar qofiyahoi mutlaq (qofiyahoe, ki dar onho harfi r a v i bo harfi v a s l chaspidaast) shart nest.

Misol:

Barafkand, ay sanam, abri bihishty,

Zaminro khilati urdibihishty.

Zamin bar soni khunoluda zebo,

Havo bar soni niloluda mushte. (Daqiqi)

Dar in chor misra (vaznash-Hazaji musaddasi mahzuf) kalimahoi «bihishti», «urdibihishti» va «mushte» qofiya, juzvhoi «-ishti», va «-ushte» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «sh» q a y d, harfi «t» ravii mutlaq, harfi «i»-i «bihishti»-yu «urdibihishti» va «e»-i «mushte» v a s l, sadonoki kutohi «i»-i «-ishti»-yu «u»-i «-ushte» hazv meboshand. Azbaski qofiyai in abyot qofiyai mutlaq ast, yane badi harfi r a v i («t») harfi v a s l («i», dar kalimai «mushte» «e» omadaast, harakati h a z v takror nashudaast.

Dar ruboii Habib YUsufi:

Boz o, ki dil az omadanat mast shudast,

Az shavkati tu zuru zabardast shudast.

Dil az tu chi sarbaland gashtast, ki kuh

Dar peshi balandii sarash past shudast.

Kalimahoi «mast», «zabardast» va «past» qofiyai muqayyad, juzvi «- ast»-i harse kalima r e sh a i q o f i ya buda, harfi «s» q a y d, harfi «t» ravii muqayyad va sadonoki kutohi «a», ki pesh az harfi qayd omadaast, h a z v meboshad. Azbaski qofiyai in baytho muqayyad ast, h a z v takror gardidaast.

Takrori h a z v dar qofiya ohangnokii sherro ziyod mekunad, baroi hamin, shoironi tavonoi adabiyoti guzashta va imruzai fors-tojik dar qofiyai mutlaq niz hazvro takror kardaand.

  1. Tavjeh kalimai arabi buda, manoi lugaviash ba sui chize ru ovardan, murojiat kardan meboshad. Dar ilmi qofiya yake az harakathoi qofiyai muqayyadro guyand. Tavjeh sadonoki kutohest (a, i, u), ki dar qofiya pesh az ravii muqayyad omada boshad.

Misol:

Tojikiston, sari har sangi tu bar man Vatan ast,

Bari har buttai khori tu baroyam chaman ast. (Mirzo Tursunzoda)

Dar bayt (vaznash – Ramali musammani makhbuni maqsur) kalimahoi «Vatan» va «chaman» qofiya buda, harfi «n» ravii muqayyad, sadonoki kutohi «a», ki pesh az ravii muqayyad omadaast, tavjeh meboshad.

Muhaqqiqoni ilmi qofiya dar in aqidaand, ki takrori tavjeh dar qofiyahoi muqayyad hatmi, vale dar qofiyahoi mutlaq shart nest. Misol: Az pasi tireza dukhtar megirist,

Navniholi gunchai tar megirist.

Zavqi nojuri muhabbat dar dilash,

Dam ba dam bo suzi digar megirist. (Gulnazar)

Dar in sheri Gulnazar (vaznash – Ramali musaddasi maqsur) kalimahoi «dukhtar»-u «tar»-u «digar» qofiya, juzvi «-ar»-i harse kalima reshai qofiya buda, harfi «r» ravii muqayyad va sadonoki kutohi «a», ki pesh az ravii muqayyad omadaast, tavjeh meboshad. CHi tavre ki mebined, dar in se kalima harakati tavjeh takror shudaast.

Misoli digar:

Dunyo naarzad on ki pareshon kuni dile,

Zinhor bad makun, ki nakardast oqile.

Gar man sukhan durust biguyam, tu nashnavi,

Bejahd az oyina nabarad zang sayqale.

Dar abyoti bolo (vaznash – Muzorei musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf) kalimahoi «dile»-yu «oqile»-yu «sayqale» qofiya buda, harfi «i» (dar qofiyai «sayqale» harfi «a»-i duyum) t a v j e h, harfi «l» r a v i i m u t l a q, harfi «e» vasl meboshad. CHi tavre ki mebined, dar in se qofiya harakati t a v j e h takror nashudaast, sabab on ast, ki t a v j e h bo ravii mutlaq omadaast. Azbaski takrori t a v j e h ohangnokii sherro ziyod mekunad, aksari shoironi guzashta va imruzai adabiyoti tojik dar qofiyai mutlaq niz harakati tavjehro takror kardaand.

  1. Majro kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash pushida, joi ravon shudani ob buda, ba manoi istilohi nomi yake az harakathoi qofiyai mutlaq ast. Dar asl majro sadonoki kutohi «a» meboshad, ki dar qofiyai mutlaq badi r a v i omada, harfhoero, ki ba vazifai v a s l omadaand, ba harfi ravi payvast menamoyad.

SHoyad digar sadonokhoi kutoh, yane harakathoi i, u ba vazifai majro oyand, ammo az misolhoe, ki to imruz dastrasi mo shudaast, malum gardid, ki qarib dar hama mavrid faqat sadonoki «a» ba vazifai majro omadaast. Misol:

Raiyat ba zulmi tu chun olimand,

Zi zulmi tu bar yakdigar zolimand. (Jomi)

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Mutaqoribi musammani maqsur) kalimahoi «olimand»-u «zolimand» qofiya buda, reshai hardu qofiya «-olimand» ast, ki harfi «o» t a s i s, harfi «l» d a kh i l, sadonoki «i» i sh b o , harfi «m» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o, harfi «n» v a s l va harfi «d» kh u r u j meboshand. Takrori majro dar qofiya hatmist.

Nafoz kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash guzashtani chize ba chize, berun shudani tir az nishona, dar ilmi qofiya nomi yake az harakathoi q o f i ya i m u t l a q ro guyand. Nafoz sadonoki kutohest (a, i, u), ki dar qofiyai mutlaq badi vasl omada boshad. Misol:

Gar dil zi gami yor napardokhtanistesh,

Bo u hama vujuh darsokhtanistesh. (az «Al-mujam)

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi maqsur) kalimahoi «napardokhtanistesh» va «darsokhtanistesh» qofiya, juzvi «-okhtanistesh» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «o» ridfi mufrad, harfi «kh» r i d f i m u r a k k a b, harfi «t» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o, harfi «n» v a s l, sadonoki kutohi «i» n a f o z, harfi «s» kh u r u j, harfi «t» m a – z i d, kharfhoi «e» va «sh» n o y i r a meboshand. Sadonokhoi kutohero, ki badi kh u r u j va m a z i d meoyand, niz nafoz menomand. Misol:

In dil, ki ba zulfi dilbare bastemash,

Har chand gusast, boz payvastemash. (Kotib)

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Hazaji musammani akhrabi musammani maqbuzi abtar) kalimahoi «bastemash» va «payvastemash» qofiya, juzvi «- astemash» reshai qofiya buda, sadonoki kutohi «a»-i avval h a z v , harfi «s» qayd, harfi «t» r a- v i i m u t l a q, harfi «e» v a s l, hamsadoi «m» kh u r u j, sadonoki «a»-i duyum n a f o z va harfi «sh» m a z i d meboshand. Takrori nafoz dar qofiyai mutlaq hatmist. Qofiyae, ki dar reshai on harakati nafoz omada boshad, khele kam ast.

Misolho baroi harakathoi qofiya:

1.Misol baroi harakathoi ishbo, majro va nafoz:

YOri mahru moyilastash, Harchi khohad, hosilastash,

  1. Misol baroi harakati hazv:

Gar suzi dilam yak nafas ohista shavad,

Az dudi dilam rohi nafas basta shavad. (Kamoli Isfahoni)

  1. Misol baroi harakati tavjeh:

Hadise az labash guftam, dahoni guncha bo ham shud,

CHu nomi abruyash burdam, az in pushti kamon kham shud.

(Kotibii Turshezy)

  1. Misol baroi majro:

Agar ba davlat ba Rudaki namemonam,

Ajab makun sukhan az Rudaki na kam donam. (Abuziroa)

  1. Misol baroi nafoz:

To kay ba khuni didavu dil parvaremashon,

Az rah burun ravandu ba roh ovaremashon.

(Jomi) Savol va suporishho:

  1. Dar ilmi qofiya harf va harakat az hamdigar chi farq dorand?
  2. Kadom harkatho ba qofiyai muqayyad taalluq dorand?
  3. Misolhoi sheri ovarda, harakathoi qofiyai muqayyadro nishon dihed.
  4. Kadom harakatho badi harfi ravi meoyand?
  5. Dar khususi harakathoi qofiyai mutlaq malumot dihed.
  6. Dar bayti zeri Jomi:

Sabzaho navdamida yor nayomad,

Toza shud bogu on nigor nayomad.

Kalimahoi «yor» va «nigor» ba kadom navi qofiya dokhil meshavand?

  1. Harakathoi qofiya bo kadom nomho mashhurand?
  2. Kadom harakatho pesh az harfi ravi meoyand?
  3. Manohoi lugaviyu istilohii r a s s u i sh b o u h a z v ro gued.
  4. Harakate, ki pesh az harfi q a y d meoyad, chi nom dorad?
  5. Kadome az in harakatho dar sheri forsi-tojiki istifoda nameshavand?
  6. Tafovuti bayni harakathoi i sh b o u m a j r o ro fahmoned.
  7. Harakati dakhil chi nom dorad?
  8. Umumiyat va tafovuti harakathoi ishbo va m a j r o ro fahmoned.
  9. Dar qofiyahoi «gorat» va «ishorat»-i in bayti Hofiz:

Biyo, ki turki falak khoni ruza gorat kard,

Hiloli id ba davri qadah ishorat kard.

sadonoki kutohi «a» i sh b o ast yo m a j r o?

  1. Manihoi lugavi va istilohii h a z v ro gued.
  2. Misoli sherie ored, ki dar on harakati tavjeh omada boshad.
  3. Nafoz chist?
  4. Harakate, ki badi harfhoi khuruju mazid meoyad, chi nom dorad?
  5. In bayti Jomiro azyod kuned va sharh dihed:

Rasu ishbou hazvu tavjeh ast,
Boz majrovu bad az ust nafoz.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

taom

KONI LAZZAT VA HONI NEMAT

In asarro Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh solhoi 1880-81 talif kardaast. Asar az du jild iborat buda, …