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SHABAKAI DARAJADOR (SHABAKAI GRADUSI) VA UNSURHOI ON

Agar ba rui khariga va globus nigarem, dar on khathoero mebinem, ki az SHimol ba Janub va az Garb ba SHarq tul kashida, yakdigarro buridaand. Onhoro dar sathi Zamin baroi muayyan kardani koordinati (arz va tuli) obekthoi geografi istifoda mebarand. Ba in maqsad meridiani asosy (ki qutbi SHimoli va Janubiro payvast mekunad) va khati istiforo dar kharitai nimkuraho va globus bo darajaho ishora kardaand.

qlobusDar natija dar sathi kharitai nimkuraho va globus shabaka hosil shudaast, ki onro shabakai darajador yo ki geografi menomand. On az unsurhoi (qismhoi) zerin iborat ast: qutbho, khati istivo, khathoi muvozi va meridianho. In unsurho nihoyat zarurand. Dar zaminai onho kharitahoi geografi tartib doda meshavand.

Qutbhoi geografi. Du nuqtai kanorii kurai Zaminro, ki az onho mehvari tasavvurii Zamin meguzarad, qutbhoi geografi menomand. Onhoro qutbhoi SHimoli va Janubi meguyand. Dar in jo tarafhoi ufuqdida nameshavand.

Hati istivo. Hati istivo Zaminro ba du hissai barobar taqsim mekunad: Nimkurai SHimoli va Nimkurai Janubi.

Hathoi muvozi. Hathoi muvozi sathi Zaminro bo khati istivo ba tavri muvozi burida meguzarand. Azbaski Zamin kurashakl ast, darozii khathoi muvozi az khati istivo ba SHimol va ba Janub tagyir meyobad. Qimati darozii khathoi muvozi dar du tarafi khati istivo va nazdi kutbho yak khel nest. Binobar in buzurgii darozii kamonn 1° dar khathoi muvozi yak khel nestand.

Meridianho. Meridian az kalimai lotinii “meridianus” girifta shuda, manoi on nisfiruzi meboshad. Baroi on ki samti khati meridian ba samti soyai kutokhi nisfiruzii ashyoi amudi muvofiq meoyad. Az in jo meridianro ”khati nisfiruzi” menomand. On Qutbi SHimoliro bo Qugbi Janubi payvast menamoyad. Hati nisfiruziro az har yak nuqtai sathi Zamin guzarondan mumkin ast. Ammo on khati nisfiruziero, ki kurai Zaminro ba nimkurahoi Garbi va SHarqi judo menamoyad, khati meridiani ibtidoi menomand.

Bar khilofi khathoi muvozi khathoi nisfiruzi yak khel darozi dorand. Darozii khati nisfiruzii kurai Zamin taqriban ba 40 009 kilometr barobar ast. Dar in surat darozii hissai khati nisfiruzi ba darozii kamoni G barobar ast, ki on ba hisobi miyona 111,1 kilometrro tashkil menamoyad (40009:360=111,1 km). Donistani in buzurgy ba mo imkoniyat medihad, ki masofaro dar globus va kharitai nimkurakho bo miqyos muayyan namoem. Agar darozii kamoni khati nisfiruzi az Qutbi SHimoli to khati istivo ba 90° barobar boshad, masofai kamon 9999 kilometrro tashkil medihad (111.1×90=999,0 km).

Savol va suporshp

  1. SHabakai darajador (yo geografi ) az kadom unsurho iborat ast?
  2. Baroi chi khathoi muvozi az jihati darozi bo ham barobar nestand?
  3. Dar rui globus khathoi nisfiruzi va muvozi ba kadom samtho kashida shudaand?
  4.  Buzurgii 10 kamoni arz ba chand kilometr barobar ast, hisob kuned.
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