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Rudaki – OVONI JAVONI

Binobar malumoti Muhammadi Avfi, Rudaki dar 8-solagi Quronro hifz namuda, qiroat omukhta bud va az hamon sin ba guftani sher pardokhta, «maonii daqiq meguft, chunon ki khalq bar on iqbol namudu ragbati u ziyod shudu uro Ofaridgori taolo ovoze khushu savte  dilkash doda budu ba sababi ovoz dar mutribi aftoda bud».85 Albatta, sherhoi sukhanvari fitri va Hudodod  az ibtido purmuhtavo, balandmazmun, amiqmani, suftavu pukhta budaand, ki ba in sabab az tarafi mardum pazirufta meshudaand. Abdulgani Mirzoev menavisad: «Ashori dar on vaqt surudai shoir naboyad az sherhoi oddii davrai bachagii shoir boshand.  Ifodai «maonii daqiq megufta» va dar ayni hol «qabuli om gardidani» ashori Rudaki chunin nishon medihad,  ki vay hanuz dar davrai javoni sanati sherro ba darajai khele baland az khud karda budaast».86

Dar in mavrid beshtar ashori oshiqona, pandu andarzho va baythoi nishotovari u shuhrat doshtaand, zero tazkiraho beshtar hamin guna ashori uro darj menamoyand. Abdurahmoni Jomi dar «Bahoriston» du qitai Ustod Rudakiro ba tarzi zayl meorad: «Va az sukhanoni vay ast dar sifati sharob, qita:

On aqiqin maye, ki har ki bidid,

Az aqiqi gudokhta nashnokht.

Har du yak chavharand, lek ba tab

In biyafsurdu on digar bigdokht!

Nobisuda du dast rangin kard,

Nochashida ba torak- andar tokht!

Va dar nasihat guyad, qita:

Zamona pande ozodvor dod maro,

Zamonaro chu naku bingari, hama pand ast!

Ba ruzi neki kason, guft, gam makhur zinhor,

Baso kaso, ki ba ruzi tu orzumand ast!»

Dar voqe, Ustod Rudaki az khurdsoli, dar barobari aqli raso, zehni giro va khotirai tavono, bo ovozi khushu savti dilkash atrofiyonro

maftun mekard. Bad-in sabab, u dar mutribi aftoda, in hunarro dastavval az sozandagonu navozandagoni khalq omukht. Dere naguzashta in javoni dehotii tashnai donish rohi Samarqandro pesh girift. Dar madrasahoi Samarqand ilmhoi roiji zamonaro omukht. Az osori boqimondai u malum megardad, ki bar  zammi zaboni arabi, dar madrasa   yo   peshi   ustodoni    khususi   falsafa,  hikmat,   tarikh,    fiqh, qonunshinosi, riyoziyot va nujumro ham ba darajai alo omukhta budaast. Mahz dar Samarqand istedodi musiqii Rudaki tavajjuhi ustodi hunari mazkur Abubakri Bakhtiyorro jalb menamoyad. U chand sol tahti tarbiyati in ustodi nomi navokhtani udu rud, barbatu chang va tanburu nayro mashq karda, dar in hunar mohir meshavad. Hudi Rudaki takror ba takror az musiqidoniyash iftikhor karda meguyad:

Rudaki chang bargiriftu navokht,

Boda andoz, k-u surud andokht!

Baze muhaqqiqin dar asosi hamin guna dalelhoi musiqinavozi mohir budani Rudaki aqida meronand, ki guyo takhallusi shoir az nomi asbobi musiqii rud girifta shuda boshad, ki hargiz durust nest. In andesha az navishtai Davlatshohi Samarqandi sar meshavad, ki dar mavridi zikri Rudaki zimnan ishora mekunad: «Vajhi takhallusi Rudaki, guyand, bad-on jihat ast, ki Rudakiro dar ilmi musiqi mahorate azim budavu barbatro (rudi tojikiro ba arabi barbat meguyand-A.A.) neku navokhti va baze meguyand, ki Rudak mavzeest az atrofi Bukhoro va Rudaki az on jost».87

Az in porcha malum megardad, ki Davlatshohi Samarqandi takhallusi Rudakiro, muvofiqi rivoyatho, az nomi tavalludgohi u va yo asbobi musiqi medonad, ki Rudaki dar navokhtani on ustod  bud.  Rudakro tobei Bukhoro donistani Davlatshoh az sababi poytakhti imperiyai Somoniyon budani in shahr va dar   du kanori   yak vodii bepoyon voqe gardidani Rudaku Bukhoro joyiz ast.

Zikri nuktai digare ham zarur ast, ki muallifoni «Kitob-ul-ansob», «Lubob-ul-albob» va baze osori digari tarikhi,    jugrofi,  adabi    va  lugatnomahoi    pesh  az Davlatshoh Rudakro nohiyae az navohii Samarqand ba qalam dodaand. Vale dar borai fikri duvum, ki mayli Davlatshoh, guyo, beshtar bar on ast, hojati bahs nest. Said Nafisi durust menavisad, ki «ammo jihati duvum sustu nodurust menamoyad. CHi agar rudnavoz budaast, meboyist uro  «Rudi» bikhonand, na «Rudaki»,  zero ki  az  «rud» shakli  kutohshuda chun  «Rudak» hargiz dar zaboni mo    mamul  nabudavu dar hech yak az farhangho sabt nagardidaast. Rudi ham ba qiyosi zaboni forsi durust nest, zero zananda va navozandai rudro boyad ba zaboni forsi, on ham dar qarni chahorum   (yane, asri X—A.A.), ki rioyati fasohatu mabodii  zabonro  mekardaand,  «rudsoz»  yo «rudnavoz» va yo «rudzan» guft, na «Rudi» yo «Rudaki»! Ammo in ki baze az mustashriqin    takhallusi uro Rudagi,  bo «kof»-i forsi  navishtaand, khatoe mahz  ast».88

Ozari Begdili niz meguyad: «Dar ilmi musiqi niz mohir budavu barbat neku menavokhta, lihozo takhallus ba «Rudaki» qaror doda».89 Vale hamin qadarash musallam ast, ki takhallusi Rudaki az nomi zodgohi azizi u girifta shudaast.  Gayr  az  in,  zodgohi  Rudaki  bo  hamon  nom  to hol dar darai Kishtudi jamoati Rudakii nohiyai Panjakent mavjud ast. Malumoti mutakhassisoni boqimonda in davoro tasdiq menamoyand, ki dar favq onhoro ovardem.

Azbaski nohiyai Rudak to soli 1929 ba viloyati Samarqand dokhil meshud, onro Avfi («muvallidi u Rudaki Samarqand bud») va digaron Rudaki Samarqand va Ustodi panjrudiro barhaq Samarqandi guftaand. Dar asri XIV Rudakro az tavobei Nasaf donistani Nishotii Nishopuri ishtibohe besh nest. Vaqthoi okhir baze «donishmandon» az mavzei Rudaki jamoati SHingi nohiyai Panjakent budani Ustodi panjrudiro takhmin mekunand, ki gumone botil ast, zero Rudaki SHing dar darai nihoyat balandkuhi dushvorguzar joy girifta, dar hech surat qutbi (markazi!) nohiyae, yane jamoate, budavu shuda nametavonad, ki musovii jamoathoi imruzai Voru, Rudaki va Gusar buda, dar pushti kuhhoi on dara joy girifta boshad. Malumoti Samoni tamoman sobit menamoyad, ki Rudak na deha, balki nomi nohiya, yane jamoat va markazi on qarya— dehai Panj (Banj) buda, az hamin sabab on Panjrudak (Banjrudak) nomida meshudaast. Voqean, kuhansoloni diyor in deharo, ki biduni shakku shubha, zodgoh va oromgohi Ustod Rudakist, Panjrud(ak) meguyandu medonand, ki kasi voqif onro zeri shubha guzoshta nametavonad.

Nohiyai Rudaki asri X dar markazi khud qalai mirnishin, chand maktabu madrasa dosht. Ba sharofati nazdikii Samarqand, dar in jo farovon budani hunarvaru donishmandon musallam ast. Padari Rudaki, ki az tabaai boimtiyoz va shakhsoni obrumandi nohiya bud, ba tarbiyati farzandi zakovatmandash ahamiyat medod. Az in ru, Jafar hanuz dar zodgohash tavonist sohibi malumoti muayyane bigardad. Dar ovoni javoni davlatmand va osuda budanashro khudi Rudaki chunin gushzad mekunad:

Rahi savoru javonu tavongar az rahi dur

Ba khidmat omad nekusigolu nekandesh.

 «Rahi», ki manii khidmatgorro dorad, dar bayti bolo ba manii «kamina»-i imruzai tojikon kor farmuda shudaast.

Albatta, dar in ayyom jushu khurushi faoliyati adabivu mutribii Ustod Rudaki davom mekard. YAne, u chun dehqoni olimartaba ba darbori Nasri I bealoqa nabuda, dar bazmu nishastho va ayshu nushi javonon, dar mahfili ahli zavq, munavvarfikron va taloshhoi ozodikhohona shirkat mevarzid. Haq ba jonibi Holiq Mirzozoda ast, ki hanuz soli 1958 navishta bud: «Rudaki boyad dar Samarqand, ki shahri markazii vodii Zarafshon va markazi duvumi ilmi, iqtisodi, siyosi va farhangii asri H bud, talimu tarbiyat girifta boshad va, ajab nest, ki misli Daqiqi, ki avval dar darbori amironi CHagoniyon budu bad ba doirai adabii Bukhoro raft, Rudaki niz avval dar doirai adabii Samarqand shirkat justa, bad ba doirai adabii Bukhoro davat shuda boshad, zero to ba dast ovardani donishhoi balandi zamonash, to jam kardani tajribai khidmati rasmii doirahoi adabii on davra, to mansubiyat paydo kardan ba tabaqai ahli ilmu adab, ki odatan az namoyandagoni sinfi hokim budand, hej mumkin nabud, ki Rudaki ba darbori Bukhoro kashida shavad. Az darajai shoiru hofizi dehoti va yo shahri yakbora ba darajai shoiri doirai adabii poytakhti Somoniyon va Malikushshuaroi on rasidan mumkin nabud. Rudaki avval boyad dar madoris, dar tarbiyai ashkhosi judogona, dar doirahoi adabi, dar shahrhoi markazi va madani ilmu donishi baland va malakai madanivu adabi hosil karda, bad ba Bukhoro davat shuda boshad. Hullasi kalom, vaqte Rudakiro ba Bukhoro davat kardand (solhoi 900-902 —A.A.), u shoiru donishmandi bavoyarasidagi bud va zaboni arabiro khub medonist».90

Barhaq, Ustod na ba khotiri peshburdi korhoi ejodi va kasbi rizqu ruzi, balki bo niyati khidmat ba millatu mehan, nekusigolu durandesh ba Bukhoro rafta, harakati vatankhohonavu istiqloljuyonai rushanfikronro sarparasti namud. Albatta, in hama dar zamoni Ismoili Somoni surat boyad girifta boshad, ki bar in nukta Said Nafisi va Abdulgani Mirzoev ishora mekunand. Vale A.Tohirjonov izhor menamoyad: «Rudaki, dar voqe, az tarafi Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni, yane na naberai Ismoili Somoni, Nasri II, balki barodari u Nasri I ibni Ahmadi Somoni ba darbor jalb karda shuda bud»,91 ki ahli kitob in du Nasrro yak shakhs pindoshtaand. Dar asl on zamone bud, ki Rudakiro vodosht, to bo iftikhor dar qasidai «SHikoyat az piri» dar khususash biguyad, ki «ruyash ba soni debo» va «muyash ba soni qatron bud»:

SHud on zamona, ki ruyash ba soni debo bud.

SHud on zamona, ki muyash ba soni qatron bud.

Hamchunin, dar qasidai mazkur Ustod Rudaki ba khotir meorad, ki dar hamon davron javoni zeboe bud, ki baroi kanizakoni zeboi turku dukhtaroni anorpistonro romi khud kardan on qadar zaru sim ba kharj medod, ki haddu hisob nadosht. In raftorash goho pinhoni meguzasht,chunon ki khud mefarmoyad:

Hamekharidu hamedod beshumor diram

Ba shahr har ki yake turki norpiston bud.

Baso kanizaki neku, ki mayl dosht bad-u,

Ba shab zi yorii u nazdi jumla pinhon bud.

Ba ruz chunki nayorast shud ba didani u,

Nihebi khojai u budu bimi zindon bud.

Mahz bo zan  ishq varzidani Rudaki ayon ast. Ruboii zayl niz ba hamin mazmun dalolat mekunad:

CHun kori dilam zi zulfi u mond girah,

Bar har ragi jon sad orzu mond girah.

Ummed zi girya bud, afsus-afsus,

K-on ham shabi vasl dar gulu mond girah!

Hangomi pirii khud ham Rudaki meguyad:

YAk su kashamash chodar, yak su nihamash muza,

In murda agar khezad, varna manu chalguza!

Hamai in bar on guvoh ast, ki Rudaki aglabi umri khudro dar nishotu shodmoni guzaronida, az gamu badbakhti emin budaast, chunon ki meguyad:

SHud on zamona, ki u shod budu khurram bud,

Nishoti u  ba fuzun budu gam ba nuqson bud.

Tarikhi mavludi shoir aniq malum nest. Dar manobei khattii qadimi zikr namegardad. Ammo olimoni muosir tarikhi tavalludi Rudakiro az soli 241/855 to soli 244/858 guftaand. Mo soli 244/858-ro qabul karda, az ruyi hamon sol jashni 1100-umin solgardi zodruzi shoirro jashn girifta budem. Dar natija, aknun hamin sol ba haysi soli tavalludi Rudaki qabul shudaast, harchand kase onro ba isbot narasonida boshad ham.

Soli vafoti Ustod Rudakiro Samoni 329/941 qayd kardaast, ki aglabi pajuhishgaron onro paziruftaand, harchand sanahoi 306/916, 330/942, 339/951, 343/955, hatto 407/1016 niz dar manobei khatti vujud dorand. Binobar hamin, alhol solhoi 244— 329 hijrii qamari, ki ba solhoi 858—941 melodi musovistand, chun zamoni zindagii Rudaki qabul shudaand.

Margi shoir baroi farhangu adab, hunar va tarikhi khalqi tojik talafoti buzurge bud. SHoire mefarmoyad:

Rudaki raftu mond hikmati uy,

May birezad, narezad az vay buy!

SHoirat ku, kunun ki shoir raft?!

Nabuvad niz jovidon chun uy!

Hun gasht obi chashm az gami vay,

3-anduhash mum gasht ohanu ruy!

Nolai man nigar, shigift mador

SHav, bishav zor-zoru nol bar uy!

CHand juyi, chun nayobi boz

Az chun u , az zamona dast bishuy!

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