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Risola yo mukhtasare az tarikhi saltanati khonadoni Mangitiya»

Digar az asarhoi Ahmadi Donish, ki dar on afkori siyosivu ijtimoi va maorifparvarii u khele daqiqu amiq bayon shudaast, «Risolai tarikhi»-i mutafakkir meboshad. Risolai mazkur qismati avvali asarest, ki Ahmadi Donish onro tamom karda natavonistaast. Azbaski asar notamom mondaast, muhaqqiqon vobasta ba mazmunu mundarijai on ba in asar unvonhoi «Tarikhcha», «Risola yo khud mukhtasare az tarikhi saltanati khonadoni mangitiya», «Tarjumai holi amironi sangitiya» mondaand. Malum ast, ki risola dar ovoni pironsolii olim talif shudaast, zero tanho nazdiktarin ejodkoron az talifi on khabaror shudaand. In asar taqriban pas az dah soli talifi «Navodir-ul- vaqoe» ejod shudaast. Az in ru, Ahmadi Donish tuli dah sol tavonistaast sokhtori siyosii Bukhoro, amiru amorat, siyosatmadoronu usuli kishvardorii onhoro boz ham chuqurtar omuzad.

mangiti

Ahmadi Donish dar «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» oid ba amorati Bukhoro va tartiboti siyosivu ijtimoii on va iqtisodiyoti kishvar, bo islohot va bartaraf namudani yak qator nuqsonho behbudii onro chashmdor bud. U dar davomi dah soli omuzishi minbada khele fikru aqidai khudro oid ba in masala tagyir dod. Ana hamin janba risolai «Tarikhcha»-ro rui hasti ovard.

Sokhtu tarkibi asar

Aslan Ahmadi Donish risolai «Tarikhcha»-ro ba faslu bobho judo nakardaast. In risola taqriban az nigohi sokhtor chunin ast: muqaddima, qismati asosii asar, ki dar navbati khud az du bakhsh iborat meboshad. Bad az in khotimai risola pesh meoyad, ki muallif andeshahoi khudro natijagiri mekunad.

Mazmuni mukhtasari risola

Dar qismati muqaddimavii risolai «Tarikhcha» andeshahoi Ahmadi Donish hamchun olimi sitorashinos va ham donandai falsafai inkishof baromad mekunad.

Muqaddimai risola va bobhoi minbadavu khulosa ham unvonguzorii makhsus nashudaand.

Mutafakkir Ahmadi Donish dar qismati muqaddimai risola takid menamoyad, ki: «Sababi obodii jahon hayot, ob va adl buvad va boisi kharobii margu beobi va zulm boshad, ki vositai on az olami ulvi shash kavkaband. Vujudiyot az natoiji tabi Oftob va Zuhravu Mushtari va adamiyot az tasiroti Mirrikh va Zuhalu Qamar va Atorud muovini har kadom ast».

Ba nazari Ahmadi Donish, dunyo va jamiyati insoni payvasta dar jarayonu rushd va tanazzulu kharobishavi qaror dorad. U in falsafai inkishofro dar zaminai sayri sayyoraho qazovat menamoyad.

U chunin meshumorad, ki agar 4 va yo 100 sol davrai rushd boshad, hatman boz tanazzul pesh meoyad. Baroi rahoi az in dar har yak davrai muayyan az shohon yo az donishmandon yak yo yakchand guruh ba miyon meoyand, ki onhoro mujaddidi (navkunandai) alf (hazor) yo mia (sad) meguyand. Temur Husayn Boyqaroro, Abdullohkhon va Subhonqulikhonro nishon medihad. Makhsusan, Ahmadi Donish nisbat ba amir SHohmurodi mangiti nazari musbat dorad. Zero barobari sari qudrat omadani in amir dar Bukhoro navkardi sohaho ogoz shudaast. Ahmadi Donish ba SHohmurod bahoi baland medihad.

Dar risola nakhust voqeai siyosi tasviri hukumati Doniyol va faoliyati siyosii ust, ki «Harobii nazmi amorat dar zamoni amir Doniyol va tarzi saltanati amir SHohmurod» unvonguzori shudaast. Nazari Ahmadi Donish ba in amir va usuli mamlakatdorii u manfi meboshad. Ahmadi Donish amir SHohmurodro nuqtai baland donista, tanazzulro az ahdi amir Muzaffar mehisobad. Muallif menavisad: «Az jumlai tadbirhoe, ki amir Muzaffar dar nazmi hukumat nihod, baroi jalbi dilho va jamiyati khalq yake on bud, ki hamai nuqud, diramu dinorro ba niyati gazo va askardori az miyoni khalq bardosht va dar khazina nihod, to agar kasero ba diramu dinor ehtiyoj aftad, boyad, ki sari irodat ba davlatkhona nihad va khidmati amir kunad va zar bibarad. Digar aksar zaminhoi fuqaroro baroi chahorbogi sultoni barguzida bikharad va har jo, ki boge medihand, baroi podshoh mekharidand, to agar kasero ishtihoi anguru anjir, sar dar in darbor nihad»…» Inchunin boz meguyand:

«-Nazmi digare, ki amir Muzaffar dar bobi viloyatdori nihod, raqsi bachagon va qavlu gazali maskharabozon va dorbozii eshon bud, ki dar tamomi solu fasul in sheva dar hamai qalamrav jori bud va shabu ruz ovozi noyu duhul az hama jo baland bud, to khalq gumon kunad, ki hama jo oramidaast.»

Nazari Ahmadi Donish ba amir Abdulahad niz khele bad ast. In amir yagon behbudi baroi kishvar nakard,-« meguyad muallif.

Dar khotimai risola boshad, Ahmadi Donish oid ba zavolyobii amorati Bukhoro sukhan ronda -«Osmon bar sari inho furud oyad!» – meguyad. In az yak taraf, az rui muoinai sitoraho boshad, az tarafi digar, Donish khobhoi didai dustonashro niz chunin tabir mekunad, ki natijai az osmon rekhtani sitoraho, tanho monandi sher, pora – pora gardidani u az az dasti darrandagoni digar va gayri ba in guvoh meboshad.

Boyad guft, ki asari Ahmadi Bonish, hamchunon ki az unvoni on paydost, yane «Risola yo mukhtasare az tarikhi saltanati khonadoni mangiyatiya» tarikhi-adabi buda, dar afkori adabii tojik maqomi arzanda dorad. Az sababi on ki tarikhi asri muallif ast, janbai bisyor qavii publitsisti niz giriftaast. Vale on na publitsistika, balki asari tarikhist, ki az jonibi adibi navisanda va shoir rui kor omadaast. Dar risolai mazkur Ahmadi Donish davlatdoroni kishvarashro bo usuli peshgiriftai davlatdoriashon tasvir menamoyad. Mushohidahoi khudro oshkoru pinhoni bayon mekunad. Tavajjuh tanho ba amir SHohmurod dorad. Amironi digari mangitro khele sakht nakuhish mekunad.

Dar muqobili amir SHohmurod hamon amironi digari in sulola meistand. Masalan, amir Muzaffar va sari qudrat omadani uro sababi badbakhti baroi jomea medonad. Zero u dar fikri behdoshti kori mardum nest. U qudratro vositai behtarini khushguzaronii umr mehisobad. Az in ru, holati kishvarro baso taboh namuda, khalqu mamlakatro ba vartai halokat rasonida bud. Az jumla, sistemai tamoman vayron va benizomi idorai davlat va hokimiyati amir, akhloqi razilai ayonu ashrof va digar tabaqai hukmron, bekhiradi va betadbiri, kutohnazari va beandeshagii nakhustvaziri Bukhoro, akhloqi past va khislathoi manfii khudi amir kishvarro ba girdobi halokatbor andokhta bud.

Umuman, khizmati tarikhii Ahmadi Donish dar on ast, ki u merosi adabi-ilmi va tarikhii milliro baso amiqu daqiq omukhta, hamchun talimdihandai madrasa va fardi az tarikhi islom ogoh ru ba ejod ovardaast. Hususan, tasiri «Badoe-ul-vaqoe» az osori mansuri badei dar ejodiyoti Ahmadi Donish khele farovon his karda meshavad.

Az tarafi digar, se safari u ba Rossiya – ba olami Garb, shinosoii mutafakkir ba simohoi siyosi, harbi, ilmi, farhangi, adabi, inqilobi va digaron rohi zehnii uro ba tafakkuri nav muhokimaronivu natijagirii digar ravshan namud. In ast, ki tozakorihoi mutafakkir niz dar hamin zamina zuhur kardaast. Hamin inqilobi fikri, junbishi zehni, ganovati aqloni uro vodor namudaast, ki tarhafkani jarayoni navi mafkuravi dar tarikhi adabiyotu farhang etirof gardad.

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