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RUSIYA DAR NIMAI DUYUMI ASRI XIX

Sokhti iqtisodii Rasiya. SHikast dar jangi Qrimi solhoi 1853 – 1856 nishon dod, ki Rusiyai yak vaqtho jandarmi Evropabuda ba davlati aqibmonda tabdil yoftaast. Ba in pesh az hama mavjudiyati tartiboti krepostnoyii Rusiya sababgor bud. Inro shohi navi Rusiya Aleksandri II, ki soli 1855 ba takht nishast, khub mefahmid. Binobar in 19 fevrali soli 1861 huquqi krepostnoyiro “az bolo” bekor kard. Badi in Rusiya ba rohi sarmoyadory daromad. Dehkononi az asorati krepostnoyy ozodgardida baroi peshravii sanoat manbai arzoni mehnati kiroya gardidand.

Sarmoyadoron va sohibkoroni Rusiya beshtar korkhonahoi kaloni sanoaty mesokhtand. Dar ibtiloi asri XX korkhonahoe, ki korgaroni onho ziyoda az 500 nafar budand, 50 foizi korgaroni Rusiyaro tashkil mekardand. Az rui markazonidani istehsolot Rusiya dar Evropa ba joi avval baromad. Vale az rui digar nishondihandahoi iqtisody az mamlakaghoi mutaraqqi khele aqib memond.

Dar Rusiya avvalii inhisorhoi sarmoyadory dar okhirhoi asri XIX ba vujud omadaand. Dar natijai surati tezi markazonida shudani sanoat ittihodiyahoi inhisorchiyon ba vujud omadand. SHakli mamuli ittihodiyahoi inhisorii Rusiya sindikatho budand. Soli 1902 sindikat oid ba furushi mahsuloti madankorkuny “Prodamet” tashkil yoft, soli 1904 boshad. sindikathoi “Produgol” va “Prodvagon” ba faoliyat cap kardand. Onho qarib dar tamomi Rusiya ba istehsol va furushi madanu masnuoti madany. angisht va vagon nazorat mekardand.

Dar Rusiya dar in davra maqomi bankho baland shud. Onho baroi sokhtani korkhonahoi nav va vase kardani istehsolot ba sohibkoron pul qarz medodand. Hudashon ham ba sanoat mablag meguzoshtand. Markazonidani sarmoyai banki ba amal meomad. Du banki kalontarin – Banki Baynalkhalqii Peterburg va Banki Rusiyayu Osiyoy va baze bankhoi digar dar taraqqiyoti sanoatu tijorat sahmi kalon guzoshta, onhoro ba zeri nazorati khud darovarda budand. Iihisorhoi sanoati ham kushish mekardand, ki dar sarmoyadorii bonki sahmdor boshand. Hamin tariq, omezishi du namudi sarmoya sanoaty va banki ba amal meomad.

Rusiya tavassuti sarmoyai khud sanoaty peshqadami mamlakatro bunyod karda metavonist. Baroy hamin ba voridshavii sarmoyai khorijy ehtiyoji ziyod nadosht.

Dar kishovarzi mamulan tartiboti feodaliyu krepostnoi vujud dosht. Sarfi nazar az in dar in soha ham badi 19 fevrali soli 1861 ohista-ohista munosibathoi sarmoyadornu sohibkory ba vujud meomadand. Faoliyati khojagii kulakho dar in bora dalolat mekunand.

Sokhti siyosii Rusiya. Dar Rusiya dar sari hokimiyat podshoh va pomeshikon meistodand. Dar idorakunii davlat harbiyon ham maqomi baland doshtand. Sokhti siyosati davlat mutlaqiyati podshohi bud. YAgon maqomote nabud, ki hokimiyati podshokhro mahdud karda tavonad.

Islohoti burjuazii solhoi 60-um – 70-umi asri XIX ba hokimiyati markazii Rusiya tamoman dakhl nakard. Halq misli peshtara az huquqhoi siyosi mahrum bud.

Podshoh Nikolayi II, ki soli 1894 ba joi Aleksandri 2 ba takhti podshohii Rusiya nishast, shohi pomeshikon bud. U mamlakatro beshtar ba nafi onho idora mekard.

Burjuaziyai peshqadami Rusiya ba hokimiyati mutlaqi podshohi mukholif bud, vale az sababi kamshumory, nadoshtani etimodi baland dar bayni omma, nadoshtani tajribai muborizai siyosi va nomutashakkily alayhi hokimiyati mutlaqi podshohi muboriza burda nametavonist. Vay az guzashtkunihoi nochizi podshoh marbut ba demokratikonii hayoti jomea ham rozy bud.

Siyosati khorijii Rusiya. Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX siyosati khorijii Rusiyai podshohi chun dar asri XVII va nimai avvali asri XIX samthoi muayyan dosht. Dar in davra on asosan bar ziddi Turkiya va Eron nigaronida shuda bud. Az hamin sabab dar zarfi kame ziyodtar az 50 sol Rusiya bar ziddi in davlatho chandin marotiba jang kardaast. Rusiyai podshohi mekhost, ki Qafkozro ba dast darorad. Qrimro az oni khud kunad, Bahri Siyohro az Turkiya kashida shrifta, baroi khud ba Bahri Miyonazamin rohi oby kushoyad va dar nimjazirai Balkan mavqei strategi paydo namoyad. Natijai hamin siyosat bud, ki Rusiya Qafqozro ba mustamlikai khud tabdil dod. Agar Rusiyai podshohy dar samti Qafqoz mavqei khudro mustahkam karda boshad, dar Qrim mavqei nochize, ki qablan dosht, dar natijai dar Jangi Qrimi solhoi 1853 – 1856 az Turkiya sakht shikast khurda onro purra az dast dod.

Angliya va Faronsa namekhostand, ki dar shakhsi Rusiya raqibi purzuri zafarmande doshta boshand. Baroi hamin dar Jangi Qrim onho ba Turkiya dasti yory daroz kardand va imkoniyat faroham ovardand, ki Rusiya shikast khurad.

Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX Rusiyai podshohi siyosati khorijii khudro asosan ba Qrim, Balkan, CHin va Osiyoi Markazy jalb namud. Vay misli peshtara niyat dosht, ki Qrimro az Turkiya kashida girad, mavqei khudro dar nimjazirai Balkan mustahkam kunad. Inchunin Osiyoi Markaziro ishgol kunad va dar nazdikii Jopon baroi sipohi khud poygohhoi harby sozad, to ki bad zabtkorihoi khudro az on jo dar SHarqi Dur ogoz namoyad. Az in ru, az CHin baroi az boloi khoki on to nimjazirai Lyaodun sokhtani rohi okhann UKVJD, ki az in davlat ijora girifta bud, ijozat megirad.

Az soli 1847 cap karda Rusiya ba zabti Osiyoi Markazy dast zada, yak guruhi kaloni lashkarashro ba samti Bahri Aral firistod. Lashkari digari Rusiya soli 1853 qalai Oqmasjid (Qizil Urdai hozira)-ro ishgol namud. Vale Jangi Qrim samti siyosati khorijii hukumati podshokhiro tagyir dod. Binoan, to soli 1864 Osiyoi Markaziro ba holi khud guzosht.

Az soli 1864 cap karda to soli 1895 Rusiyai podshohi pasi ham qalamravi khonihoi Qukandu Heva va Amorati Bukhororo zabt karda, ba mustamlikahoi khud tabdil dod.

Hanuz amaliyoti jangy dar Osiyoi Markazy ba anjom narasida budand, ki tavajjuhi siyosati khorijii Rusiya az nav ba Balkan jalb shud. Dar in jo khalqhoi slavyany va khalqhoi digari sokini in nimjazira ba muborizai milliyu ozodikhohii ziddi turkho barkhostand. Mohi apreli soli 1877 Rusiya ba yorii onho shitofta, Dar avvali soli 1878 dar in jo sipohiyoni Rusiya bar lashkari

Turkiya dastbolo shudand va 3 mart soli 1878  mahallai San- Stefanoi nazdikii shahri Konstantinopol Sozishnomai sulhro ba imzo rasonidand. Vale khudi hamon sol Kongressi baynalkhalqii Berlini bo tashabbusi Germaniya. Angliya va Faronsa barpogardida muzaffariyathoi Rusiyaro dar nimjazirai Balkan va Bahri Siyoh ba nesti rasonid.

Badi halli “masalai Osiyoi Markazy” dar okhirn asri XIX – avvali asri XX diqqati siyosati khorijii Rusiya beshtar ba SHarqi Dur jalb shud. In vaqt Rusiya dar nimjazirai Lyaodun shahr – istehkomi harbii Port-Arturro bo suratn tom mesokht va niyat dosht, ki az in jo siyosati istilogaronai kheshro dar SHarqi Dur teztar piyoda kunad. Hamin bud, ki vay bo Joponi imperialistii javon ru ba ru shud. Dar natija jangi solhoi 1904 – 1905-i Rusiyayu Jopon ba amal omad.

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