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RUDAKI VA SOMONIYON

CHunon ki ishora raft, Rudaki dar ahdi Nasri I (864—892) ba   darbori   Somoniyon,   ki  on  vaqt  poytakhtashon   Samarqand  bud,   jalb megardad. Dar ibtidoi ba Bukhoro kuchonidani markaz Rudakiro niz ba on jo ovardand, ki ba in ishorahoi Said Nafisi, Abdulgani Mirzoev, Holiq   Mirzozoda   va   Abdurahmon  Tohirjonov99   sanadi   mutamad meboshand. Vale, az sababi noogohi  az tarikh, muarrikhoni guzashta va muhaqqiqoni muosir hama hamfikrand, ki shuhrati beandozai Rudaki dar zamoni Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni (914—943) intishor dosht. Aksar bar on aqidaand, ki Rudakiro Balami mahz dar zamoni hamin amir ba darbor davat kardaast. In davo az akhboroti Avfi sarchashma megirad, ki menavisad: «Ovozai shoiru mutribi benazir Rudaki ba atrofu aknofi olam birasid va amir Nasr ibni Ahmad as-Somoni, ki Amiri Huroson bud, uro ba qurbati hazrati khud makhsus gardond va korash bolo girift va sarvatu nemati u ba haddi kamol rasid, chunon ki guyand uro dusad gulom budu chahorsad shutur dar zeri bunai u meraft».

In jo suole ba miyon meoyad, ki ejodiyoti Rudaki, ki az soli 867 shuru shuda bud, to in vaqt, dar muddati besh az 45 sol chi qimat dosht? CHi nav meshavad, ki yak mardi taqriban 60-sola, ki to in vaqt chi maqom doshtanash malum nest, ba on guna manzalate, ki Rudaki dosht, sohib megardad? Haminro niz ba khotir ovardan lozim ast, ki Nasri Somoni dar hashtsolagi ba takht nishasta bud. In sanadro N. I. Krimskiy, S. Nafisi, A. Mirzoev va X. Mirzozoda zeri shubha girifta boshand ham, girahro nakushodaand. Abdurrahmon Tohirjonov takhmin mekunad, ki shoyad Rudaki avval ba dargohi Nasr ibni Ahmadi I jalb shuda, ba sababi shuhrati beandoza doshtani shoir dar darbori Nasr ibni Ahmadi II muarrikhonu muhaqqiqon robitai uro bo Nasri I ba etibor nagirifta boshand. In sukhan jon dorad, zero shakhsiyate misli Rudaki bo on fikru aqidaash, ki tajassumkunandai zamon bud, dar on davrai purtalotum va bedorii milli nametavonist dar gushai faromushi qaror girad. Mahz hamin bedorii milli bo tamomi murakkabi ba istiqloliyati mamlakat ovarda rasonda bud. Dar in hodisai tarikhi naqshi Somoniyon buzurg ast. Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni hanuz soli 842 az tarafi padarash hokimi Samarqand tayin shuda bud. Soli 865, badi favti padar, u sardori khonadoni Somoni shinokhta meshavad. Soli 875 khalifai abbosi al-Mutamad Nasrro hokimi tamomi Movarounnahr intikhob namuda, az hamin zamon hokimiyati mustaqili Somoniyon ogoz meyobad.

Nasr baroi ehyoi farhangu muqaddasoti khalqi tojik faoliyati ziyode nishon dodaast. Takya ba guzashta va etibor ba jihathoi khosi manaviyoti khud dar siyosati davlatdorii Nasr mavqei mustahkam doshtaast, ki Rudaki saroyandai in aqida bud. Az in jo khulosai mantiqi barovardan mumkin ast, ki Rudakiro, ki dar ovoni javoni dar Samarqand ilm meomukht, dastavval ba darbori Nasri I ibni Ahmadi Somoni mekashand, ki solhoi 865—892 hokimi Samarqand va Samarqand dar on ahd poytakhti Somoniyon bud. Rudaki to on vaqt hamchun javonmardi sohibistedod dar manzilhoi dehqonon, zamindoronu davlatmandon ba saroyandagi, navozandagi va shoiri mashgul gardida, vaqti khudro beshtar dar majlishovu mahfilhoi adabivu ilmi meguzaronid. Badi in Rudaki bo tashabbusi Abulfazli Balami, ki az soli 892 to soli 938 vaziri Somoniyon bud, ba Bukhoro va poytakhti navi Somoniyon davat karda meshavad. Zimnan qayd kardan lozim ast, ki muhaqqiqoni sobiqi ruzgori Rudaki ba yak nuktai malumoti Samoni tavajjuh zohir nakardaand, ki menavisad: «Az Ismoil ibni Ahmad ibni Aslam al-Qozii Samarqandi rivoyate mavjud ast, ki onro Abuabdulloh Abehamzai Samarqandi, ki az nomi u maro hadisi musannade malum nest, hikoyat mekunad. Va chun az nomi u rivoyatero didam, napisandidam, ki zikrash ovarda nameshavad. Guyand: «Rudakiro miyoni Arabu Ajam nazir naboshad».100  

CHunon ki Samoni mulohiza mefarmoyad, Ismoil ibni Ahmadi Somoni, ki asosguzor va istehkomkunandai davlati Somoniyon budu soli 874 sohibi mamlakati Bukhoro gardid, du bor (solhoi 886 va 888) bo aybi barodarash Nasri I ibni Ahmadi Somoni bo u jangida, zafar yoft, vale barodarash (Nasr)-ro az sari takht naronda, khudro tobei vay elon kard, khub medonist, ki barodarkushi zavol ast, na galaba. Faqat bad az vafoti Nasr Ismoil (soli 892) sarparasti khonadoni Somoni shinokhta shud. U na in ki ba takhti Samarqand nanishast, balki poytakhtro soli 892 ba Bukhoro kuch doda, to soli 907 hukumat rond. Mumkin ast Rudaki hanuz hangomi sayru gashthoi javoniash dar Samarqand ba dargohi Ismoili Somoni roh yofta boshad. Ammo dar zamoni saltanati Ismoili Somoni (892—907) dar darbor budani u yaqin ast.

Takhmini Abdulgani Mirzoev dar khususi on, ki dar ibtidoi vazirii Balami ba darbor jalb shudani Rudakiro tarafdori karda bud, bar asosi takidi Samoni oid ba vaziri Ismoili Somoni budani Balami ba haqiqat tabdil meyobad. Vale dar zamoni hukumati Ahmad ibni Ismoil (907—914), ki musulmoni mutaassibi arabparaste bud, dar mamlakat isyonu shurishho va kushokushu nizoho ziyod gardida, shoyad Ustod Rudaki dar hamin davra, badi khizmati dahsola, az ruyi igvovu dasisai raqibonash az darbor khorij gardida, ba Samarqand va zodgohi khud bargashta boshad:

Rahi savoru javonu tavongar az rahi dur

Ba khidmat omad nekusigolu nekandesh.

Pisand boshad mar khojaro pas az dah sol,

Ki bargardad piru piyodavu darvesh?!

Misrai okhir fikrero talqin menamoyad, ki dar in vaziyat molu doroii Rudaki musodira shuda, az darbor kanor raftani uro shoyad Balami ham, quvvahoi muqobili Rudakiro ba hisob girifta, maslihat doda boshad. Hudi Ahmad ibni Ismoil, ki az nav zaboni arabiro zaboni korguzorii davlati karda bud va ba hama chizi arabi sar kham mekard, kushta shud. Az in jihat, komilan mantiqist, ki badi pasanda shudani on shuru shar, qatli Ahmad ibni Ismoil va ba takhti amiri nishastani Nasri II ibni Ahmadi Somoni (914—943) Balami boz Rudakiro ba darbor jalb namoyad. Bayti Rudaki:

Piri fartut gashta budam bas,

Boz gashtam  ba ruzi barnoyi.

andeshai moro bar on mebarad, ki muvaqqatan az darbor dur karda shudani u zaminai siyosi va mafkuravi doshta, shoir onro chun zarbai jonkoh pazirufta, ruhan gam mekhurd va ba maydoni muboriza az nav jalb shudanashro bo shodmoni qabul menamud.

Hamin tariq, Rudaki, ki shohidu anbozi bisyor vaqoei chahor amir, galabai Ismoili Somoni bar Amr ibni Laysi Saffori (900), oshubu isyonhoi bisyor hokimonu sarlashkaroni sarkash, qiyomhoi khalq va gayra bud, albatta bo anjumanhoi adabi va mahofili ilmii darbori Nasri I ibni Ahmadi Somoni (865—892), Ismoili Somoni (892—907), Ahmad ibni Ismoil (907—913) bealoqa nabudaast. Vale dar darbori Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni, yane Nasri II (914—943), ba martabai azime sohib meshavad. Binobar hamin, khudi Rudaki siposguzorona meguyad:

Kiro buzurgivu nimat zi inu on budi,

Varo buzurgivu nimat zi Oli Somon bud!

Nasri I Somoni dustdor va tabliggari adabiyoti dari bud. Hudash ham sher meguft. Nasri II Rudakiro bo tashviqi Balami nadim, yane az nazdikoni khud, megardonad. Rudaki bo vujudi kalonsoli, dar aglabi musofirathoi Nasr bo u hamrohi karda, Nishopur, Marv, Sarakhs, Hirot va bisyor shahrhoi digarro didaast.

Nufuzi Rudaki dar darbor nihoyat kalon bud. Dar nazdi shakhsiyati u amiru vazironash sari tazim furud meovardand. Nasri II ibni Ahmadi Somoni va sarlashkaronu hokimoni qalamravi u ba shoir baroi qasida va dostonhoyash joyizahoi kalon medodand. In mani dar qasidai «SHikoyat az piri» niz sabt shudaast:

Bidod miri Huroson-sh chil hazor,

Dar u fuzuni yak panji miri Mokon bud.

Zi avliyosh parokanda niz hasht hazor

Ba man rasid bad-on vaqt, holi khub on bud.

Unsuri niz khabar medihad:        ‘

CHihil hazor diram Rudaki zi mihtari khesh

Ato girift ba nazmi «Kalila» dar kishvar.

Badi ba musibati sakhte giriftor shudan va az darbor khorij gardidan Rudaki takid menamoyad, ki dar vaqtash maqomi u az mavqei amiru malik volotar bud:

Baso, ki mast dar in khona budamu shodon,

CHunon ki johi man fuzun bud az amiru muluk.

Kunun hamonamu khona hamonu shahr hamon,

Maro naguy, k-az chi shudast shodi suk!

Tibqi rivoyati muboligaomez, dar on davra dusad gulomu jahorsad shutur dar zeri bunai u meraftaast va shuhrati Rudaki dar sukhanvari ba darajae meafzoyad, ki Abulfazli Balami, ki az sarparastoni Rudaki bud, guftaast: «Dar Arabu Ajam misli Rudaki shoire nest».101

Hushbakhtona, sohibi «CHahor maqola» tasviri yake az safarhoi amiri Hurosonu muqarrabonashro mohirona ba tasvir ovardaast, ki behtarinu mutamadtarin shohidu guvohi buzurgii maqomi shoirivu insonii Rudaki dar on zamon meboshad: «CHunin ovardaand, ki Nasr ibni Ahmad, ki vositai iqdi Oli Somon budu avji davlati on khonadon ayyomi malikii uvu asbobi tamattuu ilali taraffu dar goyati sokhtagi bud; khazoyini orostavu lashkari jarroru bandagoni farmonbardor zimiston ba dorulmulki Bukhoro maqom kardivu tobiston ba Samarqand rafti yo ba shahre az shahrhoi Huroson, magar yak sol navbati Hari bud. Ba fasli bahor ba Bodgis bud, ki Bodgis khurramtarini chorvokhurhoi Hurosonu Arroq ast. Qarib hazor novhost purobu alaf, ki har yake lashkarero tamom boshad. CHun suturon bahor neku bikhurdand va ba tanu tushi khesh boz rasidand va shoyistai maydonu harb shudand, Nasr binni Ahmad ruy ba Harivu ba dari shahr—ba Murgi Safed furud omad va lashkargoh bizadu bahorgoh bud. SHamol vazon shudu mevahoi Molanu Karukh darrasid, ki amsoli on dar bisyor joyho ba dast nashavadu agar shavad, bad-on arzoni naboshad. On jo lashkar barosudu havo khushk budu bod sardu non farokhu mevaho bisyoru mashmumot farovon va lashklre az bahoru tobiston barkhurdorii tamom yoftand az umri khesh. Va chun Mehrgon daromadu asir darrasid, shohisfaramu hamohimu aqshugon dar dam shud, insof az nayimi javoni bisitodand va dodi unfuvoni shubob bidodand. Mehrgon der darkashidu sarmo quvvat nakardu angur dar goyati shirini rasidu dar savodi Hari sadu bist lavn angur yofta shavad. Har yak az digare latiftaru laziztaru az on du nav ast, to ki dar hech nohiyati rubi maskun yoft nashavad: yake parniyon va digare qulunjarii tunukpusti khurdakaki bisyorob, gui, to ki dar u ajzoi arzi nest. Az qulunjari khushae panj man va dar har donae panj diram sang biyoyad siyoh

chun qiru shirin chun shakar. Va azash bisyor bitavon khurd ba sababi moiyate, ki dar ust. Va anvoi mevahoi digar hama khiyor. CHun Amir Nasr ibni Ahmad Mehrgonu saratoni u bidid, azimash khush omad. Nargis rasidan girift. Kishmish biyafgandand dar Molanu munaqqi

bargiriftandu ovang bibastandu ganjinaho pur kardand. Amir bad-on du pora deha faromad, ki uro Guravu Darvoza khonand. Sarohoe didand har yake chun bihishti alo va har yakero bogevu bustone dar pesh bar mahabbi shamol nihoda. Zimiston on jo maqom kardandu az jonibi Sijiston norinj ovardan giriftandu az jonibi Mozandaron turunj rasidan girift. Zimiston guzoshtand dar goyati khushi. CHun bahor omad, aspon ba Bodgis firistodandu lashkargoh ba Molan – miyoni du juy burdand. Va chun tobiston daromadu mevaho darrasid, Amir Nasr ibni Ahmad guft: «Tobiston kujo ravem, ki az in khushtar maqomgoh naboshad?! Mehrgon biravem». Va Mehrgon daromad. Guft: «Mehrgoni Hari bikhuremu biravem». Va hamchunin fasle ba fasle hameandokht, to chahor sol bar in baromad, zero ki samimi Davlati Somoniyon budu jahon obodu mulk bekhasmu lashkar farmonbardoru ruzgor musoidu bakht muvofiq. Bo in hama malul gashtandu orzui khonumon barkhost. Podshohro sokin didand: havasi Hari dar sari uvu ishqi Hari dar dili u. Dar asnoi sukhan Hariro ba bihishti adn monand kardi, balki bar bihisht tarjeh nihodivu az bahori CHin ziyodat ovardi. Donistand, ki sari on dorad, ki in tobiston niz on jo boshad. Pas saroni lashkaru mehtaroni mulk ba nazdiki Ustod Abuabdulloh ar-Rudaki raftandu az nudamoi podshoh hej kas muhtashamtaru maqbululqavltar az u nabud. Guftand: «Panj hazor dinor turo khidmat kunem, agar sanate bikuni, ki podshoh az in khok harakat kunad, ki dilhoi om orzui farzand hamebaradu joni mo az ishtiyoqi Bukhoro hamebaroyad». Rudaki qabul kard, ki nabzi Amir bigrifta budu mizoji u bishnokhta. Donist, ki ba nasr bo u darnagirad, ruy ba nazm ovardu qasidae guftu ba vaqte ki Amir sabuhi karda bud, daromadu ba joyi khesh binshastu chun mutribon furu doshtand, u chang bargiriftu dar pardai «Ushshoq» in qasida ogoz kard:

Buyi Juyi Muliyon oyad hame,

YOdi yori mehrubon oyad hame…

Pas furutar shudu guft:

Regi Omuvu durushtihoi u

Zeri po chun parniyon oyad hame.

Obi Jayhun, bo hama pahnovari,

Hingi moro to miyon oyad hame!

Ay Bukhoro, shod boshu der zi,

SHoh nazdat mehmon oyad hame!

SHoh moh astu Bukhoro osmon,

Moh suyi osmon oyad hame!

SHoh sarv astu Bukhoro buston,

Sarv suyi buston oyad hame». 102

Ohangi mahramonai bayti avval, ki zodgohu ayyomi farogati kudakii amirro ba yodash ovarda bud, tazodhoi barjastai baythoi   duvumu savum, ki   ba tarzi ehsosshavanda va ba chashm namoyon na tanho    obu khoki vatani malufi Nasrro peshi nazar jilvagar menamudand, balki az haroratu taloshi amiru lashkari   u darak medodand, navidi mutantani bayti chahorum, tashbehhoi olii baythoi panjumu shashum, samimiyati guftor, qofiya va radifi shinam va ohangnokii sher va dar havoi guvoroi «Ushshoq» suruda shudani on kori khudro mekunand. Muvofiqi naqli Nizomii Aruzi, «chun Rudaki bad-in bayt (yane bayti shashum) rasid, Amir chunon munfail gasht, ki az takht furud omadu be muza poy dar rikobi khingi navbati ovardu ruy ba Bukhoro nihod, chunon ki roninu muza to du farsang dar payi amir burdand ba Buruna va on jo dar poy kardu inon to Bukhoro hej boznagirift. Va Rudaki on panj hazor dinor muzoyif (yane, du barobar — A. A.) az lashkar bisitud. Va shunidam, ba Samarqand, ba sanai arbaa va khamsamoiya  (504/1110—1111),  az dehqon   Aburijo, ki hikoyat kard, ki «chun dar in navbat Rudaki ba Samarqand rasid, chahorsad shutur dar zeri bunai u bud». Va, alhaq, on buzurg bad-in tajammul arzoni bud, ki hanuz in qasidaro kas javob nagufta, ki majoli on nadidaam, ki az in mazoyik ozod tavonand berun omad».

Nizomii Aruzi badi zikri bayti «Ofarinu madh sud oyad hame, — Gar ba ganj – andar ziyon oyad hame» menavisad: «Andar in bayt mahosini haft sanat ast: avval – mutobiq, duvum – mutazzod, savum – muraddaf, chahorum – bayoni musovot, panjum – uzubbat, shashum – fasohat, haftum -jazolat va har ustodero, ki uro dar ilmi sher tabahhurest, chun andak tafakkur kunad, donad, ki man dar in musibam, vassalom».103

In jo zikri nuktae vojib ast, ki chand nafar az ulamoi Eroni muosir ba haqiqat doshtani in rivoyat shak ovardaand. Az jumla, Badeuzzamoni Furuzonfar menavisad: «Amir Nasr dar musofirathoe, ki ba Huroson namuda, bino ba naqli Muiniddini Isfizori dar «Ravzot-ul-jannot», tanho yak ruz iqomat kardaast. Badeuzzamoni Furuzonfar hodisai solhoi 317—320 h. rukhdodaro ba khotir ovarda qayd menamoyad, ki «in hamon vaqte bud, ki barodarzodagoni Nasr bar alayhi u isyon bardoshta budand. Qasidai mazkurro Rudaki mumkin ast dar yake az shahrhoi Huroson suruda boshad. Ammo in ki Rudaki onro dar Hirot sokhta, musallam nest».104

Abdulgani Mirzoev ba guftai mazkuri Furuzonfar durust erod megirad, ki «in muallif, chi nave ki dida meshavad, dar asosi akhboroti Isfizori malumoti sohibi «CHahor maqola»-ro dar borai mahalli suruda shudani in qasida ba kulli rad mekunad… Malumoti Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi dar borai ba Hirot musofirat kardani Amir Nasr SHeru shoirii Rudaki, Majallai Donishkadai adabiyot, Tehron, 1338, sah. 74-78.

 binni Ahmad ba vaqthoi oromii saltanati u taalluq dorad, na ba vaqthoi nooromi. Sukhani Isfizori boshad, baraks, ba vaqthoi nooromi — lashkarkashi va zadukhurdhoi dokhilii zamoni hukmronii u aloqamand ast. Bino bar hamin, akhboroti yak sarchashma malumoti digarero rad karda nametavonad».105

Dar muddati si soli hukmroniash Nasr binni Ahmad shoyad chandin bor ba Hirot safar karda boshadu na har dafa bar ziddi balvogaron va, chunon ki Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi menigorad, on safari u ba Hirot baroi istirohatu tafreh budaast. Muallifi digare, ki roje ba qasidai «Buyi Juyi Muliyon oyad hame» fikr rondaast, Muhammad Muin meboshad. U menavisad: «CHunon ki az fahvii tavorikh istinbot meshavad, amiri sayyid Nasr binni Ahmad dar solhoi zayl ba Huroson omad: nakhust – dar soli 314 h., ki ba davati Halifa al-Muqtadir ba suyi Ray shitoft… duvum – dar 318 h„ ki ba Hirot omadu yak ruz dar on jo iqomat kard… Bori digar – dar soli 320 h., ki ba Huroson omad, vale ba Hirot naraft. Binobar in, dostoni mazkur majul ba nazar merasad».106

Qasidai Rudaki, dar voqe, ba sherhoi zamoni jang, ba lashkarkashi monand nest. On nametavonad mahsuli chunin safarhoi Amir Nasr binni Ahmad boshad. Bar zammi in, tarikhnigoron ahvoli darboru lashkarkashiho va kornomahoi jangii amironu hokimonro bo rangubor pardokhta, ba zindagii gayrirazmii onho, khususan tafarruju istirohatashon biduni shikor, kamtar tavajjuh zohir mekardand.

Qasidai purrai holiyai «SHikoyat az piri» va porahoi qasoidi falsafi va akhloqii boqimondai Ustod Rudaki nishon medihand, ki dar in joda niz shoir muqaddamu rohnamoi hampeshagonash budaast.

Boz, dar miyoni ashori dastrasi Rudaki porahoi qasoidi bahoriya, tagazzulhoi oshiqona, fakhriyaho, khazoniyaho va gayra mavjudand, ki az dunyoi mulavvanu rangorangi qasidahoi ustodi buzurgi sukhan shahodat medihand.

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