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RUDAKI  VA QARMATIHO

Voqeahoi avokhiri umri Ustod Rudaki, mahrumiyathoi zindagi va kur karda shudani u marbut ba tabligoti qarmatiyon ast, ki dar tarikh bo nomhoi gunogun khonda meshavand va hamai on guruhho ba firqai ismoiliya vorid megardand. Aslan, «ismoiliya nomi umumii firqahoest, ki  bad  az  hazrati  Imom  Jafari  Sodiq  (a)  ba  imomati   farzandi mihtari   u   Ismoil   yo   navasaash  (naberaash — A. A.)  Muhammad   ibni Ismoil etiqod dorandu goh dar bilodi mukhtalif ba nomhoi gunogun, monandi  botiniya,  talimiya,  sabiya,  hashishiya,  mulohada  va qaromata khonda shudaand».107 Dar adabiyoti ilmii tojik az in istilohot beshtar istilohhoi qaramati va ismoili va gohe talimi niz ba kor rafta, dar mavridi vobasta ba Rudaki asosan qarmati va botini istifoda meshavad. Muhammadi SHahristoni (vaf. 547/1152) dar asari khud «Milalu nihal» menavisad, ki «dar Iroq botiniya va mazdakiya va qaromata va dar Huroson talimiya va mulohada khonda meshavandu khud guyand «mo ismoili hastem».108

Ibtidoi nahzati mazkur dar Huziston sar shuda, dar on shakhse bo nomi Maymuni Qaddoh, ki ba shugli quhholi va tabobati chashm mashgul bud, va pisarash Abdulloh, ki az sababi chande iqomat dar Makka bo laqabi Makki mashhur gardida bud, az doiyon (davvatkunandagon, muballigin)-i avvalin budand. Husayni Ahvozi dar Kufa mardumro ba in oyin mekhond. Bo faoliyati Hamdon ibni Ashas targibi in aqida base avj girift. Soli 277/891 dar Iroq va soli 294/906 dar Dimishq va bilokhara dar Huziston, Iroq, Bahrayn, Suriya va YAman khurujhoi qaromata avj girifta, hukumathoi qarmati barqaror karda shudand, ki «usulan hukumati qarmatiyon yak jumhurii ishtiroki bud».109 Ammo mukholifoni qarmatiho-khulafoi abbosi va ulamoi ahli sunnatu jamoat in firqaro dahrivu zindiqa gufta, mardumro bar allyhi onho meshurondand. Davlathoi qarmatii YAman (268/883) va Baynannahrayn bo markazi Al-Aqso (283/896), Suriya (288/901) khele baquvvat budand. Bo tasiri in davlatho talimoti qarmati goh dar yak gushai khilofat, zamone dar yak kishvar ba vositai muballigin paydo meshud.

Hanuz dar okhirhoi ahdi Ismoili Somoni (279—295/ 892—907) dar qalamravi Somoniyon nakhustin junbishhoi qarmatiyon dar viloyathoi Hirot, Gur va Gurjiston rukh doda budand, ki dar onho qarib 10 hazor nafar chuponhovu kishovarzho bo sardorii Abubiloli Horiji shirkat varzidand. Vale soli 907 isyongaronro lashkari davlati ba muhosira girifta, hamaro ba qatl rasond. Azbaski Movarounnahru Huroson az gushahoi durdasti khilofat buda, aholii mahalliashon dar sarkashi namudan az markazi khilofat va muborizahoi siyosii ozodikhohi khele shuhrat paydo karda budand, hamchunin, payravoni mazhabhoi ziddiislomi dar amaliyoti khud beshtar dar hamin sarzamin ba khud panohgoh meyoftand, diqqati fotimiyonro ba tarafi khud jalb nakarda nametavonistand. Ba tarafi davlati fotimiyon bargardonida shudani maylu ragbati aholii qalamravi somoni va saroni in davlat dar masalai sust gardidani qudrati Abbosiyon az muvaffaqiyathoi khurd hisob nameshud».110

Tabligoti qarmatiho dar Toliqonu Maymana ham vusat paydo kard, lekin dar Movarounnahr ba muvaffaqiyat noil nagardid. Rohbari muballigin Husayn ibni Alii Marvazi soli 930 melodi dastgir shuda, dar zindon halok gasht. Digar sarvarii muballigini qarmati ba dushi Muhammad ibni Ahmadi Nakhshabi aftod. Nakhshabi olime varzida buda, tashviqotu targiboti khudro dar Hurosonu Movarounnahr gustarish doda, nazdikoni Nasri II-ro, ki dar bayni onho hojibi buzurg, dabiri khos va monandi onho niz budand, ba tarafi khud mekashad. Qarmatiho avval ba Basra, sipas ba Kufa ba qofilahoi hojiyon hujum va onhoro gorat kardand. Lekin mohi yanvari soli 930 qarmatihoi Baynannahrayn bo sardorii Abutohiri Junyobii Qarmati bo lashkare iborat az 600 savoru 900 piyoda ba korvoni hojiyoni Makka hujum ovarda, az hojiyon 30 hazor kasro, ba qavli digar, 20000 nafarro, ba qatl rasond, ki dar khoki Somoniyon qahru gazabi mardumro ba jush ovard. Goratgaron sangi siyohi Makka —hajarulasvad, osori digari muqaddasro az khonai Kaba kanda, dunim karda, bo khud ba Bahrayn burdand. 20 sol hajarulasvad on jo mond.

In hodisa muqobiliyati sunnimazhaboni Hurosonu Movarounnahrro bar alayhi muballigoni fotimi avj girond, asari targiboti qarmatiro sust namud. Bar zammi in, qarmatiho bar ziddi Nasri II suiqasd tayyor mekunand. Ammo pisarash Nuh ibni Nasr az on khabar yofta, ba ziyofate, ki baroi ijroi suiqasd orosta budand, tashrif ovarda, bo hilae sipahsolorro, ki sarvari suiqasdchiyon bud, ba qatl rasond. Nasri II dar on majlis (943) rushod az takht dast kashida, saltanatro ba pisarash Nuh ibni Nasr (943—: 954) supurd. Qablan, soli 936—937, Abulfazli Balami az maqomi vazorat mazul gardida, 10 mohi safari 329/noyabri 940 ba tarzi asrorangeze vafot kard. Inchunin, solhoi 326—331/937—942 Abutayyibi Musabi, Abuali Muhammadi Jayhoni niz asrorangez vafot kardand, ki gumon meravad kori qarmatihost.

Bino bar shahodati tarikhnigoron, «Abulfazli Balami mardi donishmande bud, ki dar kudakivu javoni dar rohi donish ranji bisyore burdavu az ustodoni buzurge kasbi donish kardavu ba maqomi balande rasidaast, chunon ki dar hadisu fiqhi shofei az mardoni nomii zamoni khud budavu az buzurgoni shofeiyon medonistaand va guftai uro sanad meshumurdaand va dar kitobhoi hadisi shofei az zaboni u sukhanon ovardaand. Pesh az in guzasht, ki, — menavisad Said Nafisi, — Samoni guftaast az Muhammad ibni Jobir dar Marv va Muhammad ibni Hotam Ibn-al-Muzaffar va Abulmujid Muhammad ibni Amr va Soleh ibni Mukhammadi Zarir va Ismoil ibni Ahmad va digaron hadis omukhtaast va niz nazdi Abuabdulloh Muhammad ibni Nasri Faqeh dars khondaast».111 Tojiddin Abunasr Abdulvahhob ibni Taqiuddini Sabki dar kitobi «Tabaqot- ush-shofiiyat-il-kubro» menavisad, ki Balami az ashobi Imom Muhammad ibni Nasri Marvazi va az mashoyikhi ruzgori khud buda, dar Marvu Bukhorovu Nishopuru Samarqandu Sarakhs hadis shunida bud».112 Vay avval payravi mazhabi hadis bud, bad ba mazhabi shofei garavid. Kitobhoi «Talqeh-ul-baloga» va «Kitob-ul-maqolot» az talifoti ust. Asli Balami az khonadoni tojiktabori Marv bud. In mardi buzurg, adibparvar, donishdust, pushtiboni Rudaki, Abulhasani Bayhaqi, Husayn ibni Alii Marvazi, Matroni, Abuahmad YAmomii Bushanji va kulli adibonu ulamo va mutribonu romishgaroni digari asri khud bud. Albatta, ba in guna shakhs lashkariyoni turku ulamon mutaassib dushmani mevarzidand. Maylu ragbati Balami ba tabligoti qarmatiyon in adovatro afzud. Az in ru, uro dushmanonash az darbor dur kardand. Ba qavle, Balami bo suporishi sohibjaysh Humortegin ba qatl rasonda shudaast.

Margi Musabi ham bo amri Nasri II ba amal omad. Haq ba jonibi alloma Bobojon Gafurov ast, ki navishta bud: «Dar avokhiri saltanati Nasri Duvum harakati qarmatiya khele neru girift. SHakhsan Nasri Duvum niz tarafdori talimoti qarmatiya gardid va muvofiqi khohishi Nakhshabi rizoyat dod, ki ba ivazi kushta shudani Husayn ibni Alii Marvazi dar zindoni Bukhoro, ki ijrokunandai suporishhoi makhfii fotimiyon bud, baroi khalifai Misr 119 hazor dinor tovon (khunbaho) bipardozad. Hamai inho boisi norizoyii jiddii ruhoniyoni sunnimazhab gardidand. Ruhoniyon hamroh bo namoyandagoni gordi turki darbor mekhostand, ki ba muqobili Nasri Duvum dast ba suiqasd bizanand, to Nasrro ba qatl rasonand va hamai payravoni qarmatihoro bikushand».113

Ba gufti Nizomulmulk, Nuh ibni Nasr band khost, to bar poyi padar nihodandu darhol ba kuhandiz burdandu mahbus kardand. Badi majlisi ziyofat Nuh ibni Nasr ba ahli on guft: «Agar sipahsolor dar haqqi mo andeshai bad kard, jazoi khesh yoft va agar padarash az rohi sunnat biyaftad, sazoi khesh mebinad. Ittifoqi shumo chunon buvad, ki non bikhuredu ba gazo, ba jonibi Balosogun, ba jangi kofir shaved! Moro khud gazoi kofir bar dari khona ast, hamin ba gazo mashgul shavem, har chi dar Movarounnahru Huroson mulhid kushtandu in mazhab giriftand, ki padaram girift, hamaro bikushed va khostani nemati eshon shumorost va in ki dar majlis bud az oni padaram, hama shumoro dodam, koloi botiniyon juz goratro nashoyad! CHun az in muhim forig shavem, ruy ba kofiri turk nihemu ham aknun Muhammadi Nakhshabiro biyovared va hamnishinonu hammazhaboni u va padaramro!» Pas Hasan va Bubakr va Mansuri  CHagoni  va  Ashasro,  chandon  amir,  ki  botini  shuda  budand, chandon bizadand va dar shahrho aftodand va har kiro az eshon meyoftand, mekushtand. Va ham dar on ruz amirero bo lashkar bifiristodand, to az Jayhun bigzarad ba Marvrud va pisari Savodaro bigirandu bikushand.

Pas tamomi lashkar shamsher darnihand va az raiyatu lashkari har kiro dar on mazhab rafta boshand, bikushand va zinhor, ki ba galat bar musulmonon khatar narasonand. Pas haft shabonaruz  dar  Bukhorovu  nihoyati   on   mekushtandu  mekushtandu  gorat mekardand, to chunon shud, ki dar MovarounnahruHuroson yake az eshon namondand va on ki mond, dar oshkoro nayorist omad va in mazhab pushida bimond».114 Hamin tariq, Nuh ba qatli omi qarmatiho dar sarosari khoki khud pardokht. Dar in jarayoni gohe bardurug bo bahonai qarmati odamoni aslan bealoqa, ravshanfikron va ashkhosi baroi sinfi hokim nomatlub goratu nest karda meshudand. Albatta, aqida va tarafdoroni mazhabi botini bo in bitamom nest nashudandu to imruz boqi hastand.

Musallam ast, ki Rudaki bo jarayoni botini-qarmatiyon, aqoidi onho, makhsusan dar tarbiyai akhloq, masalahoi jahonfahmi va falsafi, targibi ulumi aqli, etirofi maqomi donish va dilbastagi ba hikmati Aflotunu Arastu barin donoyoni YUnoni Qadim irtiboti qavi dosht. Abdulgani Mirzoev menavisad: «Hulosa, dar masalai ba qarmatiho va talimoti onho moyil budani Rudaki shubhae boqi namemonad, vale dar

ayni hol, mo uro ba kulli yak shoiri qarmati hisob karda nametavonem, zero dar merosi adabii u in tarafi masala tasdiq nameyobad. Dar darajai imruzai omukhta shudani shoir faqat hamin kadar gufta metavonem, ki Rudaki dar yak davrai muayyani zindagii khud ba fotimiho va talimoti qarmati mayl doshtaast»,115 ki in durust astu rost! Vale to soli 327/938 Ustod Rudaki dar hayoti darbori Somoniyon faolona shirkat mevarzidaast, ki ba in dar on sol qasidai «Modari may»-ro bo suporishi Nasri II dar sitoishi Amir Abujafar navishta va ham dar anjomi on az notavoni va pirii khud shikva namudanash guvohi medihad.

Roje ba piri va notavonii khud Rudaki dar yake az masnavihoyash niz khabar medihad:

Javoni guzashtu chirazaboni,

Tab niz girift garoni.

In bayt niz ba hamin dalolat mekunad:

SHudam pir bad-in son, tu ham khud na javoni,

Maro sina puranjukhu tu chun chafta kamoni.

Hamin tariq, dar sherhoi boqimondai Ustod Rudaki, ki to soli 327 h. /938m. intishor gardidaand, az pirii u sukhan meravad, ammo doir ba kur karda shudanash ishorae nest.

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