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RUBOIHOI RUDAKI

Holo dar hududi 40—42 ruboi ba qalami Ustod Rudaki mansub donista meshavad. Xoliq Mirzozoda bo nomi «Rudaki va takomuloti shakli nazmi ruboi» maqolai khose nigoshta,153 dar risolaash «Abuabdullohi Rudaki — asosguzori adabiyoti klassikii tojik» fikri khudro dar in mavzu khele tavsia dodaast.154 Ammo Said Nafisi roje ba ruboihoi Ustod Rudaki alohida tavaqquf nakarda, dar okhir 43 ruboiro, az on jumla 7 ruboii nopurraro, ba nomi Rudaki gird ovarda, dar povaraq ishora mekunad: «Beshtari in ruboiho dar safinahovu kitobhoi mutaakhkhirin omadaast va ba hamin jihat dar intikhobi onho ba Rudaki shak doram, chunon ki dar porae az onho kalamotu tarkibotu maonie hast, ki ba sukhani Rudaki namemonad, ammo chun rohi tahqiq bastaast, nametavon hukmi qati kard».155
Sarfi nazar az on, ki asli ruboihoe, ki ba nomi Ustod Rudaki jam ovarda shudaand, masalahoi gunoguni zindagi, ishqu javoni, husnu zeboi, vaslu hijron, lazzati notakrori chunin hissiyot, vasfi bahoru sharob va targibi odamgari, himmat, talqini khushguzaronii ruzgor va sitoishi buzurgii insonro bo alfozi ibratomuz, lahni guvoro va tobishi zebo tajassum megardonand:

Ay az guli surkh rang birburdavu bu,
Rang az payi rukh rabuda, bu az payi mu!
Gulrang shavad, chu ruy shuyi, hama ju,
Mushkin gardad, chu mu fishoni, hama ku!

Sukhandoni farzona faqat az istimoi nomi mahbubai khesh chunon ba vajd meoyad, ki yak kurta gusht megirad, digar suhbat dar har bobat boisi maloli khotiri u meshavad:

Nomat shunavam, dil zi farah zinda shavad,
Holi man az iqboli tu farkhunda shavad!
V-az gayri tu har jo sukhan oyad ba miyon,
Hotir ba hazor gam parokanda shavad!

Ba fikri SHamsi Qaysi Rozi, Rudaki nakhustin ikhtirokunandai vazni ruboi budaast, ki menavisad: «Va yake az mutaqaddimini shuaroi Ajam, pindoram, Rudaki… az navi ahram va akhrabi in bahr (yane bahri hazaj —A. A.) vazne takhrij kardaast, ki onro vazni ruboi khonand».156 Muzofiqi hamin rivoyat, Rudaki dar Gaznin bachagonero mebinad, ki chormagzbozi mekardand. CHoloktarinu nishongirtarini onho bo nidoi «galton-galton hameravad to buni gavz» hamaro meburd. SHoirro vazni jumlai mazkur maqbul omad. Onro vazni ruboi qaror dod.
Ammo nakhustin ikhtirokori ruboi dar sheri forsii tojiki budani Rudaki ba haqiqati tarikhi rost nameoyad, zero ruboi pesh az Rudaki, hatto dar adabiyoti qadimi forsizabonon, vujud dosht. Vale Ustod Rudaki dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojiku fors guyandai ruboihoi ustodonaest, ki dar chahor misra yak jahon mani, khususan manihoi hakimona va oshiqonaro joy medihad. Ruboihoi Rudaki dar zeboi, hayotdusti, khalqiyat, samimiyat va mahkamii khud hamto nadorand:

Be ruyi tu khurshedi jahonsuz mabod,
Ham be tu charogi olamafruz mabod!

Bo vasli tu kas chu man badomuz mabod,
Ruze, ki turo nabinam, on ruz mabod!

Ruboii zerinro shoir biduni istifodai fele sokhtaast, vale dar on ba vositai yagon-yagon paydo shudani ashyoi tasvirshavanda va tashbehi onho ba chizhoi digar harakati munazzam his karda meshavad:

Ruyat-daryoi husnu lalat-marjon,
Zulfat-anbar, sadaf-dahan, dur-dandon!
Abru-kishtiyu chini peshoni-mavj,
Girdobi balo -gabgabu chashmat-tufon!

Barjastagii mani, harakati guvoro va mazmuni purrai sher dar ruboii poyon ba vositai savolu javob chun lahzai dramavi dar shakli dilpisand va baso dinamiki ifoda gardidaast:

Omad bari man. Ki? YOr. Kay? Vaqti sahar!
Tarsanda. Zi ki? Zi khasm. Hasmash ki? Padar!
Dodam-sh du busa. Bar kujo? Bar labi tar!
Lab bud? Na! CHi bud? Aqiq! CHun bud? CHu shakar!

Namunai ruboihoi hakimonai Ustod in ast:

Gar bar sari nafsi khud amiri, mardi!
Bar kuru kar ar nukta nagiri, mardi!
Mardi nabuvad fitodaro poy zadan,
Gar dasti fitodae bigiri, mardi!

Abadiyati hasti, falsafai nekbinonai hayot va pandu andarz mundarijai goyavii yak bakhshi muhimmi ruboihoi Ustod Rudakiro tashkil mekunad. Vale shoir hej goh zudguzar budani ayyomi farahu ayshro az khotir namebarorad:

Norafta ba shohrohi vaslat gome,
Noyofta az husni jamolat kome,
Nogoh shunidam zi falak paygome,
K-az khumi firoq nush bodat jome!

Andeshahoi Ustod Rudaki dar ruboihoyash ba vasilai tabirhoi mardumi, bozihoi khalqi va mafhumhoi roij inikos megardad. Masalan. dar ruboii zayl ba vositai bozii kacha (kachabozi) az bemuruvvatihoi falaki kajraftor lab ba shikva kushodani shoir ba mushohida merasad:

CHarkhi kajaboz to nihon sokht kacha,
Bo neku badi doira darbokht kacha.

Hangomai shab guzashtu shud qissa tamom,
Toli ba kafam yake nayandokht kacha!

Azbaski atrofiyoni shoir nisbat ba taqdiri u beparvo, charkh dagobozu muhit nosolim ast, qahramoni lirikii shoir ba vartai gamu anduh aftoda, gussa mekhurad, noiloj ba sarnavishti yasovari khesh tan medihad va joni kheshtanro giriftori hasrat mebinad:

CHasham zi gamat ba har aqiqe, ki bisuft,
Bar chehra hazor gul zi rozam bishukuft.
Roze, ki dilam zi jon hamedosht nuhuft,
Ashkam ba zaboni hol bo khalq biguft!

U etirof mekunad, ki dar ishqi jonona sabru aqlu dilashro bokhtaast, ammo az gami oshiq, ki misli kuhi Qof garon ast, dili ba sangi khoro monandi mashuqa zarrae ham tashvish namekashad:

Dar ishqi tuam na sabr paydost, na dil,
Be rui tuam na aql barjost, na dil!
In gam, ki marost, kuhi Kof ast, na gam!
In dil, ki turost, sangi khorost, na dil!

Oshiqi shefta, bo in ki jafovu berahmii mashuqaro tahammul mekunad, shod az on ast, ki hatto hijroni yor uro shodibakhshu farahfazost, agar visole uro nasib gardad, chun boshad? Vay inro dar tasavvuri khud gunjonda ham nametavonad. Binobar hamin, nido darmedihad:

Dar rahguzari bod charoge, ki turost,
Tarsam, ki bimirad az faroge, ki turost!
Buyi jigari sukhta olam bigirift,
Gar nashnidi, zihi dimoge, ki turost!

Gami hajru firoqu shodmonii visol toru pudi ruboihoi Ustod Rudakiro tashkil mekunad. Ba andeshai shoir, gami mahbuba az shodivu vasli u jonbakhshtar buda, khudi ishq hissiyoti najibest, ki gamu firoqi on ham ba kasi oshiq lazzat mebakhshad:

Bo on ki dilam az gami hijrat khun ast,
SHodi ba gami tuam zi gam afzun ast!
Andesha kunam har shabu guyam: — YO rab,
Hijron-sh chunin ast, visolash chun ast?!

Bale, Ustod Rudaki durust mefarmoyad, ki sitami olamro oshiqi bechora mekashad:

Dar manzili gam fitoda mafrash moem
V-az ob du chashm dil purotash moem!
Olam chu sitam kunad, sitamkash moem,
Dasti khushi ruzgori nokh(v)ash moem!

Bo vujudi javru jafoi hameshagii dilbar, oshiq az gayri uro dust doshtan kori digare nadorad:

Dil ser nagardadat zi bedodgari,
CHashm ob nagardadat, chu dar man nigari.
In turfa, ki dusttar zi jonat doram,
Bo on ki zi sad hazor dushman batari!

Pandu hikmat va andarz, masoili akhloqivu falsafi mazmuni digar ruboiyoti Ustod Rudakiro tashkil mekunand:

Bo doda qanoat kunu bo dod bizi,
Dar bandi takalluf mashav, ozod bizi!
Dar beh zi khudi nazar makun, gussa makhur,
Dar kam zi khudi nazar kunu shod bizi!

Mulohizai chand ruboi moro bar on medorad, ki Rudakiro az ustodon va sunnatguzoroni ruboi dar nazmi forsu tojik shumorem.
SHeri Rudaki ba etibori mazmun, goya, ohangnoki, samimiyat, shaklu uslub, zabon va vositahoi badei ba adabiyoti lafzii khalq qarobat dorad. SHoir az in ganj, dar hakiqat, farovon istifoda mebarad. U «Kalilayu Dimna» va «Sindbodnoma» barin asarhoi khalqiro ba rishtai nazm kashidaast. Guftorashro bo iborayu tabirhoi khalqi, maqolu zarbulmasalho zeb medihad. Bisyor hikmathoi u hukmi zarublmasalu maqolro girifta, ba khazinai ejodiyoti khalq vorid shudaand. Rudaki tarikhu asotiri khalqi moro khub medonad. Hamai inro baroi obrazofarini va tasiri ruhonii sheri khud chun vosita kor mefarmoyad.
Haminro niz guftan lozim ast, ki chiston navi adabii sof folklorist. Rudaki avvalin namunahoi khubi kitobii onro dodaast. Masalan, dar chistoni zayl bo mazohu tashbehho alomathoi nazarrasi qalamro chunon bayon mekunad, ki kas onro zud yofta metavonad:

Langi ravanda-st, gush neyu sukhanyob,
Gungi faseh ast, chashm neyu chahonbin!
Tezii shamsher doradu ravishi mor,
Kolbadi oshiqonu gunai gamgin!

Hulosa, az abyoti parokandai boqimondai Rudaki rangin budani ejodiyotu volo budani mahorati shoirii u huvaydo megardad.

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