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RIVOJI MUSIQII AHD

 Asrhoi IX—X dar sohai musiqi  niz dastovardahoi muhimmero sohib budand. YAk silsila komyobihoi in asrho dar nazariya va amaliyai musiqi baroi davom yoftani on dar asrhoi badina chun zaminai khube khizmat kardand. Avvalan, romishgari, sozandagi, navozandagi va shirinkori dar doirahoi gunoguni jamiyati on zamon rivoj dosht. Surudhoi bazmiyu razmi, marosimi va kuchabogi khele pahn shuda budand. Dar hamin davr poyai mustahkami «Duvozdahmaqom» guzoshta shud. Musiqii amali bo rohi talimi ustod ba shogird omuzonda meshud. Abulabbosi Bakhtiyor, ki Rudakiro niz musiqi yod doda bud, shogirdoni ziyode dosht. Dar darbori Somoniyon dastahoi musiqi hunarnamoyi mekardand. Asbobi musiqie, ki ziyod kor farmuda meshudand, barbatu ud, changu rud, rubobu tanbur, surnayu karnay, nayanbon, shaypuru buq, dafu tablak va gayraho budand. SHohrudro Abuhafsi Sugdi dar hamon zamon ikhtiro karda budaast. Dar jomiai Somoniyon hatto asbobi musiqii yunoni lur (lira) va argunun (organ) nihoyat mamulu malum budaast.

YAk khususiyati muhimmi musiqii ahd on ast, ki dar savtu nagmaho va navoyu maqomho omezish (sintez)-i musiqiyu taronahoi khalqi, savthoi merosi, ohanghoi razmi va navohoi khalqhoi hamsoya husni onhoro afzun megardond. Hususiyati duvumi ba nazar namoyoni musiqii davr qarobatu vobastagii nazdiki  on bo sher budaast. Bisyor shoiron, misli Rudakiyu Daqiqi, dar musiqi niz komil budaand. Ohanghoi «Husravoni», «Navruzi», «Ushshoq», «Sipohon», fahlaviyot (taronahoi mardumi) khele mashhur budaand.

Nazarnyai musiqi chun juzi matematika omuzonda meshud, zero balandiyu pastii ovozho (zeru bami navoho), sadoi pardaho va muvofiqati onho bo chenakhoi mate­matiki ba hisob girifta meshavand. Doir ba nazariyai musiqi bisyor kason asar navishtaand, ki bihtarini onho ba qalami Forobi va Abualii Sino taalluq dorad. Azbaski soli 742 zabonu khatti arabi baroi korguzoroni idorahoi mamurii Hurosonu Movarounnahr hatmi elon shud, zaboni idorahoi davlati va ilmii kishvar arabi gardid.

 

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