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RIBOSOMAHO

Ribosomaho shaklan nimdoirai andozaashon 15,0- 35,0 nm buda, az du hissa iboratand (rasmi 5.8). Dar ribosomaho taqriban miqdori safeda va KRN barobar ast. Onho ham dar hujayrai prokariotho va ham dar hujayrai eukariotho mavjudand.

KRN ribosomavi (KRN-r) dar yadro az malekulai KDN dar mavzei yadrocha sintez meshavad. Va dar hamin joy ribosomaho tashakkul yofta, badan az yadro berun megardand. Dar sitoplazma ribosomaho dar shakli ozod va dar qismi boloi membranai turi endoplazmavi payvast meshavand. Vobasta ba navi sintezi safedaho ribosomaho metavonand alohida faoliyat namoyand yo dastajamona kompleksi poliribosomaro tashkil dihand. Dar chunin kompleksi ribosomaho tanho ba yak molekulai KRN-a payvast meboshand.

ribosoma

Agar ba mekhanizmi biologii sintezi safeda nigared, malum megardad, ki zinai translyatsiyai ribosomaho ahamiyati kalon dorad. Dar in jo tasiri mutaqobilai antikodoni KRN-n (naqliyoti) bo kodoni KRN-a ba amal meoyad.

Ribosomaho dar molekulai KRN-a harakat karda, az yak triplet (segona) ba tripleti digar meguzarand.

Hamin tavr, vazifai asosii ribosomaho az on iborat ast, ki kodonhoi KRN-a-ro nigoh doshta, ba osoni bo antiko-donhoi KRN-n payvast shavad. Dar natijai on, paydarhamii nukleotidhoi KRN-a ba paydarhamii aminokislotahoi zanjiri polipeptidi muvofiqat mekunand.

Majmai Golji

Sokhtori asosii majmai Golji membranai hamvorest, ki qabat ba qabat zich shuda, vakuolahoi kalon va hubobchahoi khurd dorad (rasmi 5.9). Safedaho polisakharidho va charbhoe, ki dar membranai turi endoplazmavi sintez meshavand, ba kompleksi Golji vorid shuda, andaruni sokhtori on kondensatsiya meshavand va baroi khorij shudan yo istifodai khudi hujayra omoda megardand.

Ba iborai digar, in moddaho (safedaho, polisakharidho, charbho) dar majmai Golji rohkhat girifta, muvofiqi on amal mekunand va ba joi lozim rasonda meshavand.

Dar majmai Golji lizosomaho tashakkul meyoband, ki dar hazmi moddahoi dokhilihujayravi faoliyat dorand. Majmai Golji dar hujayrahoi gadudi usorai dokhili vomekhurand. Dar on jo gormonho hosil shuda, ba jarayoni khun hamroh megardand va ba tamomi hujayrahoi badan ravona meshavand.

Mitokhondriya

Mitokhondriya dar hamai hujayrahoi organizmhoi eukariotii yakhujayra va serhujayra dida meshavad. In daleli on ast, ki mitokhondriya dar hujayra ahamiyati bagoyat kalon dorad.

Mitokhondriya darozruya, lunda va rishtamonand meshavad (rasmi 5.10). Diametri onho az 0,2 to 1 mkm buda, daroziashon to 7 mkm, darozii shaklhoi rishtamonand to 15-20 mkm ast.

Miqdori mitokhondriya dar boftaho yakkhela nabuda, ba faoliyati hujayra vobasta ast: dar on uzve, ki ravandhoi sintez baland ast, miqdori onho ziyod meboshad (jigar), masalan, dar mushakhoi qafasi sinai parrandagon. Mitokhondriya bo rohi taqsimshavi ziyod meshavad, ki ba khosiyati molekulai KDN vobastagi dorad.

Naqshai sokhti mitokhondriya:

A – burishi darozruya,

B – sokhti modeli,

1 – membranai beruni,

2 – membranai daruni,

3 – ribosoma, 4 – KDN,

5 – hissachaho.

Devorai mitokhondriya az du qabat – membranai beruni va daruni iborat ast. Devorai beruni hamvor, daruni boshad, bo qabatchaho chudo shudaast, ki onhoro krist (az lotini crista – shona) menomand. Dar membranai devorai kristho fermenthoi bisyor joy doshta, onho dar mubodilai energetiki ishtirok mekunand.

Miqdori lonachahoi krist, ki masohati membraniro muayyan karda, dar onho fermentho choygirand, ba amali hujayra vobasta ast. Dar mitokhondriyai mushakho lonachahoi kristi bisyor buda, tamomi masohati daruni organoidro ishgol kardaand; dar hujayrai janin boshad, kristho kamand.

Vazifai asosii mitokhondriya sintezi energiyai zakhiravi universali, yane ATF meboshad.

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