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REVOLYUTSIYAI BURJUAZI-DEMOKRATII

Jangi yakumi jahoni, ki oqibat va ifodai buhroni umumii kapitalizm ba shumor meraft, in buhronro tezutund gardonda imperializmi jahoniro sust namud. Korgaron va soldatho 27 fevrali (12 marti) soli 1917 dar Petrograd shurish bardoshta, podshohro az takht sarnagun karda, Sovethoi deputathoi korgaron va soldathoro tashkil dodand. «Ba korgaroni rus,– navishta bud V.I. Lenin,– chunin sharaf va iqbole nasib shud, ki yakumin shuda revolyutsiyaro, yane jangi buzurg, yagona jangi qonuni va haqqonii mazlumonro bar ziddi zolimon sar kunand».[1]

Ba sharofati rohbarii partiyai bolsheviki, ba sharofati gegemoniyai proletariat revolyutsiyai burjuazi-demokratii fevral dar tamomi sarzamini vasei Rossiya galaba kard.

Dar natijai khoinii eserho va menshevikone, ki ba rohbariyati Sovetho daromada girifta budand, ba sababi zudbovarii az had ziyodi ommahoi vasei korgaron va soldatho, ki az avvalin komyobihoi revolyutsiya sarmast shuda budand, hokimiyati davlatiro burjuaziya ba dasti khud megirad. hokimiyati navi davlati dar shakhsi hukumati Muvaqqati az namoyandagoni burjuaziya va pomeshikoni burjuaziyashuda iborat bud.

Ba yak tarzi makhsus ba ham payvastani du diktatura: diktaturai burjuaziya dar shakhsi hukumati Muvaqqati va diktaturai proletariat va dehqonon dar shakhsi Soveti deputathoi korgaron va soldatho vaziyati ba vujudomada, rafti vusati voqeahoi revolyutsioniro chi dar tamomi mamlakat va chi dar Osiyoi Miyona ham muayyan kard. [2]

Revolyutsiyai fevral ommai vasei khalqi Osiyoi Miyonaro sakht ba junbish ovard. Dar ruzhoi avvalini revolyutsiya avval dar Toshkand, bad dar digar shahrhoi kishvar, az jumla dar shahrhoi aksariyati aholiash tojik dar Samarqand, Hujand, Uroteppa, Bukhoroi Nav (Kogon) Sovethoi deputathoi korgaron va soldatho ba vujud omadand. Dar barobari Sovetho tashkilothoi ittifoqhoi kasabai korgaron, kosibon, hunarmandon va digar tabaqahoi ahli mehnat tasis meyoftand. Dar Samarqand Ittifoqi musulmononi mehnatkash («Ittifoq») roli kalon mebozid, ki bisyor faoloni on siyosati bolshevikonro subotkorona va bo jiddiyat dastgiri mekardand. Dar Hujand, ki dar bayni aholii on rohi ohanchiyon khele ziyod budand, «Komiteti rohi ohanii korgaron va dehqononi stansiyai Hujand» tasis karda shud.[3]

31 mart dar majlisi muttahidai Soveti deputathoi korgaron va soldathoi Toshkand, Komiteti ijroiya, inchunin namoyandagoni Soveti deputathoi musulmonon va Soveti dehqonon dar borai barham dodani general-gubernatori yakdilona qaror qabul karda shud. In galabai kaloni revolyutsiya ba hisob meraft.

YAk qismi khalqi tojik, ki dar kishvari Turkiston zindagoni mekard, ba muborizai revolyutsionii khalqhoi Rossiya hamroh shud. Dar zeri tasiri proletariati Rossiya va bo yorii vay dar yak qator shahrho ittifoqhoi musulmononi mehnatkash va Sovethoi deputathoi korgaroni musulmon tashkil meyoband, ki dar onho mehnatkashoni millati mahalli bo qismi bolshevikii Sovethoi deputathoi korgaron va soldatho hamkori karda, talimi muborizai revolyutsioni megirand.

Duhokimiyati dar Turkiston dar hamin zohir meshud, ki dar barobari Sovetho komiteti turkistonii hukumati Muvaqqati hamchun organi olii hokimiyat dar kishvar tashkil doda shuda bud, dar mahalho (viloyat va uezdho) komissaroni hukumati Muvaqqati guzoshta shuda budand, inho organhoi hokimiyati burjuazi ba hisob meraftand, ki siyosati hukumati Muvaqqatiro jori mekardand, siyosatero, ki az jumla, baroi dar Turkiston nigoh doshta shudani mashinai kuhnai davlati ravona karda shuda bud.

hukumati Muvaqqatii burjuazi tamomi chorahoro medid, ki rejimi mustamlikaviro dar Osiyoi Miyona nigoh dorad. Jallodi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona -general Kuropatkinro hukumati Muvaqqati dar vazifai peshtaraash monond. Vaziri harbii hukumati Muvaqqati kapitalist Tuchkov dar telegrammai khud izhori bovari mekard, ki general Kuropatkin baroi nigoh doshtani tartibot dar Turkiston «tajribai khudro istifoda khohad burd». Bo maqsadi nigoh doshtani in «tartibot» gubernatoroni viloyati, sardoroni uezd va tamomi dastgohi politsiya dar joyhoi khud mononda shudand.

hamai mahdudiyathoi millie, ki dar zamoni podshohi vujud doshtand, bekor karda nashudand, mehnatkashon misli peshtara az huquq mahrum budand. Sardori komiteti kadethoi Turkiston SHepkin ba dehqononi mehnatkash tahdid mekard, ki baroi zaminhoi mulkdoroni kalon va boyhoro khudsarona zer karda giriftanashon jazoi sakht khohad dod. Korgarone, ki ruzi kori 8-soata talab mekardand, duchori taqibot meshudand. Ba tavri digar guem, burjuaziyai ba sari hokimiyat omada baroi az miyon burdani na zulmi ijtimoi va na milli hatto kushish ham nakard. Vay baze zuhuroti durushti siyosati milli-mustamlikavii hukumati podshohiro (faqat zohiran) az bayn burda, onhoro bo siyosati nozuktar va az in ru boz ham khavfnoktar ivaz namud.

Burjuaziyai milli, unsurhoi feodali-boi kushish mekardand, ki boloravii kayfiyati millii ozodikhohii ommai khalqro zeri rohbarii khud girifta va onro ba manfiati mahdudi sinfiashon nstifoda barand.

Ba andozai dar Rossiya rivoj yoftani hodisahoi revolyutsioni mohiyati ziddikhalqii jadidizm toraft oshkortar meshud. Tabadduloti mohi fevrali soli 1917-ro jadidho bo vajdu shodii tamom istiqbol giriftand. Habari revolyutsiya rasidan zamono mohi marti soli 1917 dar Toshkand «SHuroi islomiya» nom tashkiloti burjuazii millatchigi tasis yoft, ki ba on sobiq deputati Dumai II davlati Mulloabduvohid Qoriev va hamon Munavvarqori Abdurashidov sarvari mekardand. Onho bo M. CHukaev va I. Sayfulmulukov barin peshvoyoni panturkiya ba SHuroi muttahidai kishvarii islomii Turkis-ton rohbari mekardand va «Turk eli» («Halqi turk») nom yak gazetacha ham mebarovardand.

Mohi apreli soli 1917 millatchiyoni burjuazii Osiyoi Miyona dar Toshkand sezdi musulmononi Turkistonro davat kardand. Ishtirokchiyoni sezd elon kardand, ki baroi intishori nufuzi burjuaziyai milli dar bayni aholii Osiyoi Miyona goyahoi panislomiya va panturkizmro hattalimkon vase istifoda burdan darkor. Dar sezd yagon masalae muhokima nashud, ki baroi behtar shudani ahvoli dehqonon yo kosibon lozim boshad. Jadidon va payravoni onho «sohibikhtiyori va khudidorakuni»-i Turkistonro talab kardand, to ki faqat khudashon mehnatkashonro tolonu toroj kunand. Onho kushish mekardand, ki sokhti kuhnai nimfeodaliro barqaror nigoh dorand, tasiri dini islomu khodimoni on, tasiri burjuaziyai milliro ba khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona mustahkamtar kunand.

Peshvoyoni jadidho – M. Behbudi, Munavvarqori Abdurashidov, Abdurauf Fitrat ba targibu tashviqi goyahoi panturkizm ahamiyati makhsus doda, «boyu kambagal»-ro davat mekardand, ki «dar rohi yak maqsad» khizmat kunand va bo hamin bayni mehnatkashoni mahalli va kambagaloni rus nizo meandokhtand. Dar in kor «Turon» nom guruhi burjuazii milli, ki sonitar ba «Tashkiloti federalistoni turk» («Turk adam markaziyat») tabdil yoft, maqomi namoyon dosht.

Tashkiloti mahallii burjuazii «SHuroi islomiya» va tashkiloti feodalii dinii «Ulamo» tasis yoftand, ki maydoni amaliyotashon khele vase bud. Onho shiorhoi kontrrevolyutsioni, shiorhoi panislomiya va panturkizmro peshbari karda, mekhostand, ki ommai mahallii mehnatkashro az qafoi khud girifta barand, ommaero, ki bedor shuda budu ammo az qaydi jaholat va aziyati asrina raho nayofta bud.

Rohbaroni in tashkilotho khudro homiyoni dini islom va manfiathoi umumimilli ba qalam doda, tabaqahoi boqimondai noogohi aholii mahalliro ba muqobili bolshevikon igvo medodand. Masalan, dar Hujand tashkiloti «SHuroi islomiya» chunin ovoza pahn karda bud, ki guyo bolshevikon molu mulki mardumro kashida girifta, jamiyati kardan mekhostaand, guyo bolshevikon rasmu oini diniro man karda, dini musulmoniro nest kardani budaand. «SHuroi islomiya» va makhsusan «Ulamo» aholii mahalliro na in ki faqat baroi ba bolshevikon payravi kardan, balki baroi ishtirok kardan ba har yak tashkiloti mehnatkashon taqib menamudand.

Organi Soveti deputathoi korgaron va soldathoi Toshkand «Nasha gazeta» mohiyati ziddikhalqii amaliyoti «mustamlikadoroni navbaromad»-i hayati hukumati Muvaqqati va khiyonatkorihoi millatchiyoni burjuaziro bo dalelu isbotho fosh karda ba mehnatkashon (alalkhusus, ba mehnatkashoni mahalli) mohiyati haqiqii mutaassibonro nishon medod. «Inak boz yak kasofati digar shud –baloi sevum omad, ki nomash «Ulamo» budaast –- navishta bud «Nasha gazeta» – In balo az qahtiyu vabo ham badtar. In yak selai badamoloni shahri kuhna ast, ki az ofati jang millionho sum duzdidaand, az hisobi kulfati mardum davlatmand shudaand».[4]

Dar mohhoi avvali Revolyutsiyai fevral ba millatchiyoni burjuazi muyassar shud, ki qisme az aholiro garang karda az pasi khud barand. Onho mekushidand, ki dar Osiyoi Miyona ziddi bolshevikho fronti yagona tashkil dihand, zero tasiri bolshevikon ba khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona ruz ba ruz meafzud. Jadidon, panislomchiho, panturkchiho ba targibotu tashviqoti bolshevikon shiori khud «millati yagonai musulmon»[5]-ro muqobil guzoshtani meshudand, sinfhoi gunogunro ba ittihod davat mekardand. Dar in bobat yak khitobai Fitrat khele jolibi diqqat ast:

«Musulmononi Turkiston!– navishta bud vay dar khitobaash,– biyoed, az baroi paygambar, az baroi din, az baroi ilm muttahid shavem; ba nizoi baynikhudi va tafriqai sinfi chashm pushem, khudro bo rishtahoi dustiyu ittihod barbandem, ki nakhustpandi islom ast, biyoed, dast ba hamdigar dihem»[6].

Vale vazifae, ki onho nazdi khud guzoshta budand, ba hej vajh ijro nameshud. Programmai leninii partiyai bolsheviki dar masalai milli halli hamon masalahoi umdaero dar nazar dosht, ki millionho mehnatkashoni tamomi millatho ba umedi halli on masalaho budand va hamin niyati partiyai bolshevikon ba dili hamai mehnatkashon roh meyoft va ba tufayli hamin mardumi gushavu kanorhoi Rossiya ham, az jumla khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona faolona bolshevikonro dastgiri mekardand.

Hudi hayot ba jarayoni az ham judoshavii sinfii aholii mahalli yori rasond. Mehnatkashoni tojiku uzbek va turkmanu qirgiz toraft beshtar bovari hosil mekardand, ki boyhoi mahalli mardumro ba yagonagii milli davat karda, dar amal az hisobi barodaroni «hamkhun»-i khud – dehqonon va kambagaloni qashshoqu gurusnai shahr, davlatmand meshavand. CHunin voqeai jolibi diqqatro misol meovarem, ki onro matbuoti bolsheviki khabar doda bud: «Masalai ozuqavori dar Uroteppa bisyor mushkil ast. Mardum az gurusnagi az vulushoi dar girdu atrof budai Basmanda, SHahriston va digar mahalho, ba sui Daryo megurezand. CHunki dar Daryo ba har hol arzan hast. Voqean, bo in arzan korhoi behayona mekunand, boyhoi Uroteppa dar stansiyai Krivoshenno har pud arzanro 28 sumi kharida, onro rusti bo poezdi passajiri va molkashon yo bo aroba ba Uroteppa mekashonandu dar havlihoshon ord karda, ba mardumi gurusna har pudashro 50 sumi mefurushand»[7].

Ommai mehnatkash toraft beshtar ba hamin mani sarfahm meraftagi meshavad, ki bayni kambagaloni az gurusnagi murdaistoda va sababgoroni in gurusnagi– boyhoi savdogar, ki ba tashkiloti «SHuroi islomiya» sardori mekunand, hej guna manfiathoi «umumimilli» shuda nametavonad.

Faoliyati sobiq mardikoron, yane onone, ki baroi kori aqibgoh ba Rossiya safarbar shuda budand, ba inkishofi shuuri sinfii proletarhovu kosibonu dehqononi mahalli khele musoidat kard. Onho ba Rossiya rafta, zud ba maydoni muborizai shadidi siyosi medaromadand, dar rohi muborizai faolonai ziddi zolimon darsi muhim megiriftand va bisyor vaqt dar hamon joyho ba partiyai bolshevikon azo meshudand. Albatta, hamai korkunoni aqibgohro yakkhela gufta hisob kardan nodurust mebud. Qismi bolonishini onho, ki az amaldoroni khurdi podshohi va namoyandagoni ruhoniyon iborat budand, hamai chorahoro medidand, ki korkunoni aqibgoh bo korgaroni rus va ukrain aloqador nashavand. Aksar vaqt az rui malumoti onho korkunoni aqibgohro habs va mahkum mekardand.

Ammo hamai chorahoe, ki hukumati podshohi va dertar hukumati Muvaqqati, burjuaziyai milli va ruhoniyoni musulmon baroi mardikoroni aqibgohro, inchunin mehnatkashoni millathoi mahalliro, az tasiri ideyahoi bolsheviki nigoh doshtan medidand, natijai durust nabakhshid.

Mana, yak misoli jolibi diqqat. Dar solhoi mardikorgiri dar qatori digaron hukumatdoroni podshohi Jura Zokirov va Abduqodir Rahimboevro ham ba kori aqibgoh ba Rossiya girifta raftand. Jura Zokirov ba zavodi shahri Berdyansk (hozir shahri Osipenko) aftod. Dar in jo na faqat bo goyahoi leninii sotsial-demokrati shinos shud, balki ba durustii onho imoni komil paydo kard. Pas dar bayni digar mardikoroni osiyoimiyonagi faolona tashviqotu targibot burd. Uro hatto ba deputatii soveti shahri Berdyansk nomzad ham kardand.

Faoliyati Abduqodir Rahimboev ham chunin bud. Vay ba shahri Harkov ba zavodi «SHirkati umumii elektriki» aftod. Badho Abduqodir Rahimboev ba yod meovard, ki chi guna ba majlishoi korgaroni rusu ukrain meraft, chi guna onhoro bo hayoti khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona shinos mekard va khudash ham chi guna az voqeiyati Rossiya va Ukraina voqif megardid: «Man hamon vaqtho savodi durust nadoshtam, khususan savodi avrupoi nadoshtam; ammo zaboni avrupoiro nadonam ham harakat mekardam, ki hamai gaphoi dar majlisho meshudagiro fahmida giram va khudam baroi digar dustoni turkis-toniam tarjumoni ham mekardam». Korgaroni rusu ukrain ba vay gazeta khonda voqeavu hodisahoi zamonaro fahmonda medodand, khudi Rahimboev bo tashkiloti bolshevikon aloqai mustahkam dosht va bo hidoyati yacheykai partiyavii zavod dar namoishu mitingho ishtirok mekard.[8]

Malum ki vaqte Zokirov, Rahimboev va dustoni onho, ki dar kurai hodisahoi revolyutsionii qismi evropoii Rossiya obutob yofta budand, ba shahru dehotu avulhoi khud bargashtand, darshoi oid ba hamkoriyu hamfikrii sinfii dar on joyho giriftai khudro zud ba kor burdand. 25 mayi soli 1917 dar Hujand ba munosibati bozgashti mardikoron miting shud va ishtirokchiyoni on Soveti deputathoi mardikoroni korgarro intikhob kardand. Jura Zokirov, Abduqodir Rahimboev, ki dar faoliyati tashkilothoi revolyutsioni maqomi namoyon doshtand, azoi Prezidiumi in Sovet shudand.

Asosan ba sharofati gayratu khizmati mardikoroni ba Rossiya rafta omadagi mohi iyuni soli 1917 dar Hujand Soveti internatsionalii mehnatkashon tasis yoft va chor deputati on ba hayati Soveti deputathoi korgaron va soldathoi shahr hamchun vakil firistoda shudand.[9] In guna hodisaho ba bisyor digar mahalhoi Turkiston ham khos budand.

Tashkilothoi bolsheviki, ki dar shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona paydo shuda budand, ba ittifoqhoi mehnatkashoni mahalli, «Ittifoq» va Soveti deputathoi musulmonon beshtar tasir meguzarondand. Proletarho, dehqonon va hunarmandoni mehnatkash az millathoi mahalli toraft bisyortar ba safi partiyai bolsheviki medaromadand. Dar in bobat bahoi komitethoi partiyavi ba avvalin bolshevikoni millathoi mahalli base jolibi diqqat ast: «Proletarhoi asil, ki faqat bo mehnati khud zindagi mekunand, onho bo shavqu ragbati bagoyat kalon, bo yorii tarjimonho, ideyahoi sotsial-demokratiyaro gush karda, fahmida megirand; bo quvvai farosati proletari… nuktahoi asosii harakati korgariro az khud mekunand. Onho ba safi partiya dokhil shuda, azoyoni bogayrat meshavand, vazifahoi khudro bo mayli tamom ijro mekunand»[10].

Sezdi II kishvarii tashkilothoi RSDRP-i Turkiston, ki mohi iyuli soli 1917 dar Toshkand kushoda shudu ba kori bayni musulmonon makhsus diqqat dod, dar in bobat ahamiyati kalon dosht. Dar rezolyutsiyahoi sezd zarurati «az bandi goyahoi klerikaliyu burjuazi raho dodani musulmonon, hamchunin ravshan kardani khudshinosii proletariati musulmon» qayd shuda bud.

Na faqat dar shahrho, balki dar dehoti Osiyoi Miyona ham avj giriftani muborizai shadidi sinfi, dar mahalhoi gunogun tasis yoftani Sovethoi revolyutsioniyu demokratii musulmononi mehnatkash, ki bo Sovethoi deputathoi korgaron va soldatho muttahid meshudand yo amaliyoti khudro bo on mutobiq menamudand, shioru programmai RSDRP-ro komilan tarafdori mekardand – hamai in padidaho garavi muhim va burhoni qotei hamin budand, ki tabaqahoi vasei aholii Turkiston bo millatchiyoni burjuazi, jadidho, panturkchiho ne, balki ba himoyatgaroni sodiqi kori khalq – bolshevikon payravi mekunand. Agar dar davrai revolyutsiyai soli 1905 dar bayni millathoi mahalli tanho yagon-yagon kas bevosita kori revolyutsioni meburda boshad, holo sadho tojikon, uzbekon, qazoqon, turkmanho, qirgizho va namoyandagoni digar khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona ba safi partiyai bolsheviki dokhil meshudand. Dar zeri rohbarii partiyai bolsheviki ittifoqi proletariati rus bo mehnatkashoni millathoi mazlum tashkil meyoft.

Dar arafai revolyutsiyai fevralii burjuazi-demokrati partiyai mo doir ba masalai milli nazariyai az tarafi V.I.Lenin chuqur asosnok kardashudae dosht, ki in dar kori bomuvaffaqiyat tashkil yoftani ittifoqi proletariati rus bo mehnatkashoni millathoi mazlum bisyor kumak rasond. Tashkilothoi partiyavi dar kori khud, ki bayni mehnatkashoni millathoi mahallii gushavu kanori mamlakat, az jumla, bayni mehnatkashoni Osiyoi Miyona meburdand, chunin asarhoi V.I.Leninro, monandi «Mulohizahoi tanqidi oid ba masalai milli», «Dar borai huquqi khudmuayyankunii millatho», «Revolyutsiyai sotsialisti va huquqi khudmuayyankunii millatho», «Jambasti mubohisa dar borai khudmuayyankuni», ki dar solhoi 1913–1916 navishta shuda budand, ba rohbari megiriftand.

Qismi ziyodi khalqi tojik, ki dar amorati Bukhoro sukunat dosht, az nuqtai nazari ba revolyutsiya hamrohshavi dar sharoiti na chandon musoid bud. Agarchande ki amir Olimkhon dar telegrammai khud ba nomi general-gubernatori Turkiston Kuropatkin ba munosibati khushi ba khushi va ba tariqi tamoman osoishta ba sokhti nav guzashtani tamomi Turkiston mamnuniyati samimona izhor karda bud, yo khud agarchande ki Agentii siyosii imperatori dar Bukhoro bo qarori hukumati Muvaqqati Rezidentii Rossiya nomida shuda bud, dar amorati Bukhoro aslan yagon digargunie ba amal naomad. Dar in mobayn dar amorat dar mahalhoi rusnishin vaziyat yakbora tezutund shud. hanuz 8 marti soli 1917 vaqte khabari suquti podshoh ba in joyho rasid, korgaroni rohi ohani stantsiyai Kogon mitingi kalon orostand, ki dar on shash hazor odam ishtirok kard. Dar in miting bolshevik P.G.Poltoratskiy nutqi otashin erod namud. Pas az in dere naguzashta mehnatkashoni mahalli yaroqu aslihai politsayhoro kashida giriftand va mahbusoni siyosiro ozod kardand. Dar telegrammai badvohimai Gumoshtai siyosii Rossiya dar Bukhoro Miller, ki ba Toshkand, ba general-gubernator Kuropatkin firistoda bud, gufta meshud: «Korgaroni sershumori rus, ki dar zavodhoi pakhtavu ravgani Bukhoro kor mekunand va korkunoni rohi ohani Osiyoi Miyona va Bukhoro ba tasisi muassisote shuru kardand, ki az rui guftai onho boyad joi muassisahoi politsiya va az afti kor, joi digar muassisahoi davlatii moro girand».[11]

hukumati Muvaqqati mekushid inoni vaziyatro ba dast girad. Mohi mayi soli 1917 dar Kogon, CHorjuy, Tirmiz, Karki komitethoi ijroiya tashkil shudand, ki boyad ba mahalhoi rusnishin rohbari mekardand. Dar avvalhoi mohi may dar Bukhoro sezdi viloyatii in komitetho Komiteti viloyati tasis kard, ki ba Komiteti turkistonii hukumati Muvaqqati tobe bud.

Dar barobari in organhoi hokimiyati khalqi – Sovethoi deputathoi korgaron va soldatho tashkil meshudand. Ba qavli prokurori sudi okrugii Samarqand, sovetho na faqat bo masalahoi siyosati khorijiyu dokhili, balki bo masalahoi hayoti ruzmarra, alalkhusus, masalai ozuqa ham «mashgul» meboshand. «Sovethoi deputathoi korgaron va soldatho dar peshi mardum etibori baland dorand, onhoro muassisahoi davlati va ashkhosi rasmi ham etirof mekunand. Etibori komitethoi ijroiya (yane organhoi hukumati Muvaqqati – B.G.) kamtar ast. In komitetho dar qatori Sovethoi deputathoi korgaron va soldatho amal kunand ham, hej obru nadorand. Sabab boyad hamin boshad, ki in komitetho misli Sovethoi korgaron va soldatho on qudrati realie nadorand, ki baroi dar hayot jori namudani qarorhoi khud istifoda barand»[12]. CHi tavre mebinem, prokurori Samarqand didai bino doshtaast. Organhoi hokimiyati khalq bar tashkilothoi sunii burjuaziyu eseru mensheviki afzaliyati kalon paydo mekardand.

Tashkil yoftani Soveti deputathoi korgaron va soldatho, boloravii kayfiyati revolyutsioni dar shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona ba ommai khalqi tojik dar amorati Bukhoro ruhi revolyutsioni mebakhshidand. Ammo ba gushayu kanori durdasti davlati khoni dar on vaqt khabarhoi haqqoni dar borai revolyutsiyai fevral hanuz rafta namerasidand.

Tabaqai proletarii aholii mahalli hanuz kamshumor bud. Dehqonon ba mulloho bovar mekardand, onho az jihati siyosi nihoyatdaraja qafomonda budand. Unsurhoi irtijoi qismi ziyodi aholii mahalliro dar tasiri khud nigoh medoshtand. Bo vujudi in, dar hamon vaziyate ki amorati Bukhororo faro girifta bud, tasiri zuri revolyutsiya mushohida karda meshud, dar bayni mehnatkashon khashmu gazab az behuquqi dar amorat va bedodgarihoi amiru muqarrabonash toraft meafzud.

Jadidoni Bukhoro ham ba junbish daromada budand, ammo onho baroi guzaronidani yagon khel islohoti asosi, ki ba manfiati khalq ravona shuda boshad, hargiz namekushidand. Jadidon ba amir talaboti qati peshnihod nakardand va bo yak ehtiyotkorii kalon «azhadguzarihoro» dar sistemai hukumatdorii amir mahkum mekardandu bas. Onho hargiz niyati sarnagun kardani amirro nadoshtand. Onho kushish mekardand, ki bo yorii hukumati Muvaqqati dar sistemai hukumatdori baze islohoti nochiz darovarda dar korhoi davlati khudhoshon ham ishtirok namoyand.

Amiri Bukhoro baroi orom kardani khalq va mustahkam kardani poyai davlati khud 7 apreli soli 1917 dar borai «islohot» manifest barovard. Dar in manifest ba gayr az vadahoi khushku kholii umumi chize naboshad ham, jadidoni Bukhoro ba vajd omadandu bo shiori «Zinda bod amiri ozodidust» ba namoish baromada, izhori minnatdorii tamalluqkoronai khudro ba amir ifoda kardand. Ammo azbaski hukumatdoroni amir hatto jadidoni khushomadguyro ham «revolyutsioneron»-i khatarnoktarin hisob mekardand, badi namoish onhoro ba taqibkuni daromadand. Makhsusan mardumi mehnatkash va khodimoni haqiqatan taraqqiparvari amorati Bukhoro ba taqiboti sakht duchor gardidand.

Dar in ruzho hamai zindonho az bandiyon pur budand. Jallodoni amiri Bukhoro dar kuchaho hatto odamonero ham medoshtand, ki saru libosashon nazar ba aqidai onho «ba ruhi musulmoni» munosib nabudaast. Guruh-guruh odamoni begunoh har ruz ba margi purazob giriftor meshudand. Sadho odamonro bo andak shubha chub zada jazo medodand. Bo farmoni amir S. Ayniro dastgir karda 75 chub mezanand va ba zindon mepartoyand. Uro soldathoi revolyutsionii rus, ki az Bukhoro guzashta ba khonahoshon meraftand, az marg khalos mekunand. hukumati Muvaqqati baroi mahdud kardani qatlu kushtori vahshiyonai amiri Bukhoro chorae namedid. Rezidentii Rossiya, ham, ki namoyandagii dip-lomatii hukumati Muvaqqati dar nazdi amir hisob meyoft, nisbat ba bedodgarii jallodi khunkhor — amir Olimkhon beparvo bud.

Irtijo dar Bukhoro muvaqqatan tantana kard. Ammo ruhi revolyutsionii ommai mehnatkash ruz ba ruz bolotar meshud.

* * *

V.I.Lenin dar «Tezishoi aprelii» mashhuri khud chunin vazifai nav meguzorad: «…Az marhilai yakumi revolyutsiya, ki dar natijai ba qadri kifoya shuurnok va mutashakkil nabudani proletariat hokimiyatro ba burjuaziya dodaast, ba marhilai duvumi vay guzashtan ast, ki in marhila boyad hokimiyatro ba dasti proletariat va kambagaltarin tabaqahoi dehqonon dihad».[13]

Rossiya dar arafai revolyutsiyai nav, revolyutsiyai sotsialisti meistod. Partiyai bolshevikon sinfi korgar va dehqononi kambagaltarini hamai khalqhoi Rossiya, az jumla khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyonaro baroi ba amal barovardani in revolyutsiya tayyor mekard.

[1] Lenin V.I., Asarho, j. 23, s. 385.

[2] Iskandarov B.I., 1970, s. 28–35.

[3] «Ocherki istorii Kommunisticheskoy partii Turkestana», vip II, 1959, s. 32.

[4] Aminov A., Bobokhujaev A., 1966, s. 121.

[5] Jadidizm umuman manfi boshad ham, ba on muvarratan odamoni pokvijdoni juyanda ham hamroh meshudandu programmai ziddikhalrii millatchiyoni burjuaziro etirof namekardand va ba andozai fosh shudani mohiyati irtijoii jadidizm az on dur meshudand.

[6] Gaz. «{urriyat», 25 iyuni s. 1917.

[7] «Nasha gazeta», № 121, Toshkand, s. 1917 (Daryo – mahallai Sir-Daryo ba nazar doshta shudaast).

[8] «Ocherki istorii Kommunisticheskoy partii Turkestana», vip. II, 1959 s. 35,

[9] Dar hamon jo, s. 38–39.

[10] «Pobeda Velikoy Oktyabrskoy sosialisticheskoy revolyusii v Turkestane». Sb. dokumentov. 1947, s. 41.

[11] SGA Uzb. SSR, I. 3, op. 2, d. 514, l. 100.

[12] «Podgotovka i provedenie Velikoy Oktyabrskoy sosialisticheskoy revolyusii», Sb. dokumentov, 1947, s. 117.

[13] Lenin V.I., Asarho, j. 31, s. 4.

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