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RELEFI QARI UQYONUSI OLAM

Qari uqyonus monandi sathi Zamin relefi gunogun dorad. SHakli asosii redefi kari uqyonusro hamvoriho, teppaho va kuhho tashkil medihand. Hamvori va teppahoi qari uqyonus dar chuqurihoi 3000-6000 metr vase pahn gardidaand. Onho 40 foizi masohati Uqyonusi Olamro ishgol menamoyand. Balandii teppaho 50-500 metrro tashkil medihad. CHunin teplaho khususan dar kari Uqyonusi Orom ziyodand. Dar in jo ziyoda az 1,5-3 mln. teppa dida meshavad.

Kuhho, hamvoriyu teppaho pay dar ham yakdigarro ivaz mekunand. Gayr az in, dar qari uqyonusho novahoi chuqur ham mavchudand. Miqdori onho  ziyod nest. Holo 7-toi onho malum ast. Novahoi az hama chuqur dar Uqyonusi Orom ba mushohida merasand. Onho  qad-kadi jazirakhoi Aleut, Kuril, YAponiya, Fnlippin va gayra tul kashidaand. Az hama chuqurtarini onho  novai Mariana (11 022 metr) meboshad.

Omukhtani qari Uqyonusi Olam. Odamon az davrahoi qadim baroi omukhtani uqyonus va chuqurii on maroq zohir mekardand. Ba in maqsad onho tanobi pulodii dar nugash saqqoi vaznini ohany payvastaro istifoda meburdand. Ammo bo in asbob faqat joyhoi tunukobai uqyonusro chen mekardand. On baroi chen kardani chuqurihoi 5-10 kilometr istifoda burda nameshavad. Baroi on ki jarayoni ob saqqoi ohaniro bo khud burda, baroi aniq muayyan namudann chuquri imkoniyat namedod. Bazan darozii tanobi pulody az chuqurii chenshavanda du marotiba ziyod boshad ham, ba qari uqyonus rafta namerasid. Bad asbobi digarro ikhtiro kardand, ki onro umqsanji Bruk menomand.

On az naychai ohanii ba on sakoi chuyani guzaronda iborat ast. Vaqte ki naycha ba qari uqyonus merasad, ba tavri avtomati saqqo az on judo shuda, naycha bo takhshini bo khud girifta ba osoni ba ob mebaroyad. Az rui tahshini daruni naycha «fahmidand, ki vay ba qari uqyonus rasidaast. Gayr az in, dar naycha haroratsanj ham meguzoshtand. Barobari chen kardani har yak chuquri harorati ob va tarkibi tahshini Kari uqyonusro niz mefahmidand. Vale chen kardani chuquri in umqsanj vaqti ziyodro talab mekard. Dertar baroi chen

rasida, aks meshavad. Aksi sadoro umqsanji sadoi dark menamoyad. Sado kardani chuquri umqsanji sadoiro istifoda meburdagi shudand. On dar tagi kishti shinonda meshavad.

Az on ba qari uqyonus sado mefiristand. Sado ba qari uqyonus  dar ob dar yak soniya bo surati 1 500 metr harakat mekunad. Agar sadoi ba qari uqyonus firistod; badi 8 soniya bargardad, malum meshavad, ki vay ba qari uqsnus dar 4soniya rasidaast. Malum meshavad, ki chuqurii uqyonus dar on jo chand metr budaast.

Hodo asbobhoero istifoda mebarand, ki dar rafti harakati kishti tagtiyiroti chuquriro khud muayyan namuda menavisad. Baro omukhtani qari uqyonus inchunin az asbobhoi aksbardor televizor va miyai fuluzy istifoda mebarand. Dar asosi malumoti onho kharitai relefi kari uqyonusro tartib medihand.

Kuhhoi kari Uqyonusi Olam. Dar kari uqyonus kuhhoi gunogun voqe gardidaand. Onho bo tarzi joygirshavi daroz balandy va vasegii (bar) khud az yakdigar farq mekunand. Odata kuhhoi kari uqyonusro ba se gurukh judo menamoyand: kuhho! toqa, qatorkuhhoi alohida va silsilakuhhoi bayniuqyonusi.

Kuhhoi toqa har jo-har jo joygir shuda, tamomi qai uqyonusro faro giriftaand. Darozy, bar va balandii onho  onqadar ziyod nest. Onho dar kari Uqyonusi Orom ba shakl, kuhhoi alohidai vulqoni vomekhurand. Qullai onho  khamvor meboshad. Kuhhoi kari uqyonus dar chuqurii 200-2500 m voke gardidaand.

Qatorkuhhoi alohida nisbat ba kuhhoi toqa ba masofa ziyod tul kashidaand. Bari onho  vase va qullahoyashon baland meboshad. Qatorkuhhoi zeriobii Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli  soli 1948 tadqiqotchiyoni shuravi kashf namudaand, az qabili chunin qatorkuhho meboshand. Az jumlai onho  yake qatorkuhi Lomonosov, digare qatorkuhi Mendeleev ast. Qatorkuhi Lomonosov 1800 metr darozi va to 200 metr pahnoy dorad. Balandii on nisbat ba majroi uqyonus 3,5 kilometrro tashkil medihad.

Tadkiqot va chenkunihoi dahsolahoi okhir silsilakuhhoi mobayni uqyonusro muayyan namud. Onho sistemai yagonaro tashknl karda, tamomi uqyonushoro dar bar megirand (Az kharitai tabii onhoro yobed). Darozii in silsilakuhho 70 hazor kilometr buda, 1702 kilometr pahnoi va 3-4 hazor metr balandy dorand. Qismi az hama balandi onho  az sathi bahr baland buda, har jo – har jo chazirahoro tashkil namudaand. Masalan, Jazirai Islandiya, jazirahoi Azor, Seyshel va gayra, ki az jinshoi magmatiky va vulqony tashkil yoftaand.

Az jihati buzurgi silsilakuhhoi bayniuqyonusy az bisyor qatorkuhhoi sathi khushki afzaliyat dorand. YAke az on silsilakuhho qatorkuhhoi mobayni Atlantika meboshad. On az sistemai qatorkuhhoi Kordileru And yakchand marotiba kalon ast. In silsilakuhho az shimol ba samti janubi sharq tul kashida, hamvorii kari uqyonusro ba du khamii buzurg judo mekuiand. In silsilakukhdo serharakag buda, relefi murakkab dorand. Dar in jo vodihoi chuqur va tangi baynikukhi, havzahoi kuhy (pahnii onho 20-30 kilometr), tarqishho vulqonho  va chashmahol garm dida meshavand. In vodiho az 100 to khazorho kilometr darozi dorand. Harakati magma va zaminjunbi dar in jo hodisai muqarrary meboshad.

Dar mobayni Uqyonusi Hind qatorkuhi Hind az shimol ba Janub tul kashida, ba du shokha judo meshavad. YAke az onho  ba samti janubi garb, digare ba janubi sharq tul kashidaast. Qatorkuhhoi bayniuqyonusi dar kanori sharqii Uqyonusi Orom ham vujud dorand. Onho az qatorkuhhoi bayniuqyonusii Atlantika bo mavjud nabudani vodihoi chuquri baynikuhi va Relefi nachandon murakkab farq mekunand. Silsilakuhhoi bayniuqyonusi asosan az bazalt tashakkul yoftaand. Sathi onkhoro tahshinho andake pushondaand yo tamoman napushondaand. Barobari az qullai katorkuhho ba poyon harakat kardan gafsii tahshinho meafzoyad.

Savol va suporish

  1. Dar kari uqyonus kadom shaklhon relef vase pahn gardidaand?
  2. Ba tavassuti kadom asbobho va vositaho chuquri va relefi qari uqyonusro meomuzand?
  3. Dar kari uqyonus kuhho bo kadom jihatho az yakdigar farq mekunand?
  4. Az jihati joygirshavy kuhho ba chand guruh judo meshavand?
  5. Silsilakukhhoi bayniuqenusiro nombar karda, az kharita nishon dihed.
  6. Qullai silsilakuhoi mobayni uqyonus az sathi ob bolo baroyad, onro chi meguyand?
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