Home / Biologiya / Paydoishi rastanihoi mazrui

Paydoishi rastanihoi mazrui

Rastanihoi mazrui asosan az rastanihoi khudruy paydo shudaand. In rohi duru darozi inkishofi rastaniho meboshad, ki bo dakholatu faoliyati hayotii insoni sohibkhirad zich aloqamandi dorad.

Dar davrahoi qadimi dur avvalin odamon talaboti ba khurok (gizo) doshtai khudro ba tufayli shikori hayvonothoi gunogun qone megardonidand. Dar barobari shikori hayvonot, odamon, inchunin, ba jamovarii meva va tukhmi rastanihoi gunoguni khudruy mashgul budand. Dar natijai tez-tez tagyiryobii iqlim, nomusoidii obu havo, kam shudani miqdori hayvonoti shikorshavanda odamon majbur shudand, ki beshtar ba gizoi rastanigi ruy ovarand. SHoyad bori avval ba kishtukori rastaniho dast zadani avvalin odamon natijai chunin ruydodho boshad.

Paydoishi rastanihoi mazrui

Saravval onho ba jamovarii tukhmi rastanihoi galladonagi mashgul shuda, onro ba sifati khurokvori istifoda meburdand va zakhira mekardand. Tukhm yo doni in rastaniho tasodufan dar atrofi boshishgohhoi odamoni qadim aftoda, nashunamo karda, hosil medod. Ii holat boisi on shud, ki odamon dar justujui tukhmu mevahoi khuroki dur narafta, rastanihoro dar nazdi makoni zistashon parvarish namoyand. Hamin tavr, ziroatchigi paydo shud.

Dar asosi malumothoi tarikhiyu arkheologi metavon qayd kard, ki dar bisyor mintaqahoi jahon, bakhusus, dar qismi sharqii Bahri Miyonazamin, bori avval dastparvar kunonidani rastaniho va khonagi gardonidani hayvonot takhminan 11 hazor sol qabl surat giriftaast.

Avvalin rastanikhoi mazrui jav va gandum budaand. Sipas, nask va mushung mazrui karda shudaand. Dar qatori rastanihoi mazruishuda, metavon nakhud, munj, darakhti nakhl, anor, angurro nombar kard. Dar barobari parvarishi darakhti nakhl, inchunin kishti rastanihoi ravgandihanda, khususan, zagir, niz khele barvaqt sar shudaast. Ziroathoi nombarshuda manbai asosii angishtob, safeda va ravgan buda, odamonro bo khuroki mufidi sergizo tamin mekardand.

Bo paydo shudani rastanihoi mazrui, bo guzashti vaqt az tarafi odamon 10 hazor sol muqaddam olothoi korkardi zamin va tarzhoi gunuchini hosil inkishof yofta, mukammal gardidand. Onho tayyor kardani zarfhoi gilin va dar on zakhira kardanu nigoh doshtani galladonaro yod giriftand.

Dar barobari ziroati kunonidani rastaniho, dar SHarqi Nazdik inchunin, khonagi kunonidani hayvonoti gunogun (sag, buz, gusfand, chorvoi kaloni shokhdor va gayraho) rivoj yoft. In hayvonoti alafkhurro inson baroi shir, gusht, pust va pashm parvarish mekard.

Avvalin rastanikhoi ziroati kardashudai Amerikai SHimoli va Janubi juvorimakka, lubiyoi muqarrari, chormagzi zamini budand. Dar Meksika boshad, rastanihoi muhimi kishovarzi — pakhta, qalamfur, pomidor, tamoku, kakao, ananas, kadu va gayraho ba hisob meravand.

Tajribai parvarishi rastaniho dar bayni odamon az nasl ba nasl meguzasht va onho muntazam rastanihoi mufidi khudruy va mazruiro intikhob mekardand. Olimoni sohai kishovarzi onhoro khamatarafa omukhta, behtarinashonro intikhob karda, rohhoi parvarishi oqilonaro daryob mekunand.

Rastanihoi mazrui az rastanihoi khudruy ba kulli farq mekunand. Barobari gun shudani donishhoi kishovarzi, dar davomi solhoi tuloni, tasiri inson ba rastaniho khele purzur gardid. In ba paydoshavii navhoi navu gunoguni rastapihon mazrui, sabab gardid.

Nav guruhi ba ham monandi rastanihost, ki doroi alomat, sifat va khosiyathoi yakkhelaand. Hususan, khosiyati nav hangomi az tukhmash afzoish dodani on (rastanihoi sabzavoti, galladonagi va gayraho) bakulli nigoh doshta meshavad.

Seleksiya (az kalimai lotinii “seleksio” — intikhob, sara kardan, intikhob kardan, barmeoyad) yak sohai muhimi istehsoloti kishovarzi ba hisob rafta, ba ruyondani navkhoi navu sermahsuli rastanihoi mazrui va behtar kardani zoti hayvonot sarukor dorad. Navhoi bavujudovardashuda boyad ba garmi, sarmo, kasaliho va zararrasonandagoni ziroatho tobovarii ziyod doshta boshand. Bisyor navhoi qadimii seleksiyai khalqi, az qabili ziroathoi galladonagi, polizi, angur, darakhtoni mevagi (khususan, zardolui navkhoi boboi, qandak, mirsanjali, khurmoi va gayra) dar ayni zamon qadru etibori khudro gum nakardaand va shukhrati umumijahoni dorand.

Ba tufayli mehnatu zahmati bisyor seleksioneron (navofaron) khosilnokii bisyor rastanihoi kishta afzud. Masalan, navhoi gandumi ruyonidai I. T. Sukhobrus va digaron (Surkhak 5588, Surkhak 262, Irodii 1006, Surkhaki jashni), P. P. Lukyanenko (Besuki — 1, Avrora, Kavkaz), V. N. Remeslo (Mironovii 808, Mironovii jashni, Ilichevka) va digarho dar mamlakatamon va berun az hududi on koshta shuda, az har gektar 50-70 sentneri hosil medihand.

Seleksioneri sermahsul I. G. Sukhobrus yake az avvalin olimone meboshad, ki jihati ruyonidanu dar istehsolot jori kardani bisyor ziroathoi galladonagi, ravgandikhanda va rastanihoi lubiyogi dar Tojikiston korhoi ziyodero ba anjom rasonidaast.

Solhoi okhir seleksioneroni tojik dar ruyonidani navhoi navi serkhosili pakhta, ki ba kasalihoi gunogun tobovarand, mehnati ziyod kardaand. Onho navhoi navi pakhtai mahinnakhi 8386 — V (B. Sangi- nov), SHaraf — 80 (M. J. Jumaev), Leninobod – 7 (N. I. Mansu- rov)-ro ba vujud ovardaand. Olimoni seleksioner ba monandi YA. D. Nagibin, V. P. Krasichkov, B. Sanginov, II. I. Mansurov, T. SH. Burnashev va digarho ba ruyonidani navhoi pakhtai miyonanakh mashgul shuda, navhoi Regar — I, Dushanbe — I, Regar — 34, Tojikiston – 4, Guliston va gayrahoro ba vujud ovardaand, ki dar aksari nohiyahoi pakhtakorii jumhuriamon koshta meshavand.

Olimoni Pajuhishgohi toku bogparvari va sabzavotkorii Tojikiston (olimon V. I. Sulay, D. D. Savchenko va digaron) navhoi navi zardolu, angur, aflesun, limu, tarbuz, kharbuza, bodiring, qalamfur, sirpiyoz, anori muloimdona va gayrahoro ruyonidaand, ki dar mintaqahoi gunoguni jumhurii oftobiamon parvarish va kisht karda meshavand.

Har sol seleksioneron navhoi ziyodi rastanihoro ba vujud meovarand. Navhoero, ki sifati istehsolii khudro gum mekunand, az istehsol khorij yo ba behdoshtash kushish mekunand.

  1. CHaro odamoni qadim ba parvarishi rastanihoi khudruy mashgul shudand?
  2. Kadom sababho boisi paydo shudani rastanihoi mazruy gardidaand?
  3. Kadom rastanihoi kishta yo mazrui az hama qadimaand?
  4. Nav chist?
  5. Seleksiya chist va kadom seleksioneroni vataniro medoned?
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

nargis

Guli Nargis

In rastanii gulkunanda az piyozash meruyad va ranghoi gunoguni gulash hast az jumla Nargisi zard …