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Paydoishi khiyoniyon va haytoliyon

Navisandai suriyonii avvali asri VI YAshu Stilat menavisad, ki: «khiyoniyon, ki khud gunn hastand».[1] Vale in davoro bechunucharo qabul kardan lozim ne. Dar nazari muallifoni onzamonai garb tamomi kuchmanchiyoni Osiyoi Miyona sarfi nazar az nomi aslii  onho, «gunnho» yo «gunnhoi safed» budand.

Baze muhaqqiqoni imruza khiyoniyonro bo «khiyoaona»[2] nom toifae, ki dar «Avesto» zikr shudaast, aloqamand mekunand. Onho dushmani zardushtiyon, dushmani shohi odil Vishto budaand, ki homii Zardusht meboshad. Bar vifoqi matni «Avesto», onho «badrag» va «badkesh» meboshandu az afti kor, az jumlai kuchmanchiyonand. F.Altkhaym, hatto tabiri «Avesto» – tegakhudu tegasipar»-ro, ki dar yak matni mavhume omadaast («YAsht», HIH, 30), bo nomi sakoiyoni tegakhud aloqamand mekunad va dar hamin asos ba khulosae meoyad, ki: «Pas, khiyoaona barobari yake az qabilahoi sakoi bayni Oksus va YAksart padid meoyand».[3] Eronshinosi nomi  Beyli[4] in masalaro mavridi tadqiqi mufassal qaror doda, aqidae izhor mekunad, ki in qabila, dar haqiqat, vujud dosht va besabab ne, ki nomash dar «Avesto» mondaast. Vale, rosti gap, to chi andoza murakkabu pechdarpech budani in masalaro G.Beyli nagz mefahmad. Ba aqidai vay, avvalho («dar davrahoi Vishtosp») in qabila dar nohiyai Oksus makon dosht. Lekin bad onho chi shudand – oyo ba shimolu sharq kuchida raftandu badtar boz ba janub gashta omadand va yo dar joi khud monda, ba hej kujo naraftand va gayravu va hokazo va onho bo «khunnho» chi munosibate doshtand va mabodo dar nomi khudi hamin «khunnho» reshai kalimai qadimii «khiyoaona» namonda boshad va gayra va hokazo – javobi in savolhoro G.Beyli namedonad.[5]

Dar haqiqat, dar saviyai hozirai donish mo na ba in savolho javob yofta metavonemu va na ba yak qarori qatii asosnok omada metavonem, ki «khiyoaona» ba khiyoniyoni tarikhi chi munosibatu chi aloqae doshtand. Gap dar in ki, agar ba tabiri khele daqiqona izhorkardai G.Beyli aniq payravi namoem, mo ham boyad etirof kunem, ki kim-chi khel yak ittihodiyai muqtadiri qabilaho vujud dosht va onho dushmani zardushtiyon budand va dar «YAshtho» zikr gardidaandu bad yakbora az peshi nazari sarchashmahoi tarikhi gayb zadaand. Menchen-Helfen menavisad, ki «dar tamomi in muddat onho dar kujoho pinhon shuda megashtand. Inro kase namedonad», farziyai ba shimolu sharq kuchida raftani onho – «mutlaqo qobili ehtimol nest» va ba qavli Morgensterne, «aslashro gired, onho umuman vujud nadoshtand»[6].

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Inak, du aqidae, ki komilan khilofi yakdigar meboshand. Dar «davrahoi Vishtosp»– dar asri VI pesh az milod qabilahoi «khiyoaona» aslan vujud doshtand yo ne? Markvart dar in bobat andeshahoi boasos izhor mekunad. hanuz dar ibtidoi asri HH vay hamon zarbahoi halokatbori khiyoniyonu haytoliyonro, ki ba Eroni sosoni zada budand, tahlil namuda, navishta bud: «In toifa ba eroniyon chunon zur asar kardaast, ki hatto nomi onho ba «Avesto» roh yofta, az on jo nomi aslii dushmanoni homii Zardusht – Kovai Vishtospro tamoman zududa partoftaast».[7] E.Hercfeld[8] va R.Girshman[9] ham ba in fikr rozi hastand.

Inak, reshai khiyoniyonro dar davrahoi pesh az hakhomanishiho yo dar davrai hakhomanishiho yo dar davrahoi badi hakhomanishiho, yane vobasta ba on, ki sanai «YAsht»-i nuhum chi guna meshavad, justuju kardan harchand kori dilkashu qulay namoyad ham, vale az afti kor, ba ijroi on asos nadorem. Ehtimol, haq ba jonibi hamon olimone meboshad, ki iddao dorand, in nom dar «Avesto» khele sonitar paydo shudaast. Vale dar in surat ham, masala jolibi diqqat ast, yane in nom aknun na daleli barvaqt ba vujud omadani in toifa, balki inikosi avzoi siyosii davrahoi khele sonitar khohad shud. Dar ayni hol, in nom nishon medihad, ki umuman masalai paydoishi khiyoniyon to chi andoza masalai dandonshikani murakkabu pechdarpech meboshad.

Nomi shohi khiyoniyon Grumbat, mumkin guft, az zaboni eroni omadaast va manoi on «Pushtibonash Bahrom»[10] meboshad. Ammian Marsellin menavisad, ki pisari Grumbat «javone bud khele bolotar va zebotar az hamsoloni khud» (Ammian Marsellin, 19, I, 7). Azbaski khudi hamin muallif afti gunnhoro «bezeb» va namudi onhoro «badhaybatu dilnokash» guftaast, mo metavonem payravi on muhaqqiqone boshem, ki in tavr meguyand – in javon az khiyoniyon ast va modome navisandai garb husni uro tarif karda boshad, pas vay ba gunnho qarobate nadoshtaast.[11]

Alalkhusus, tasviri marosimi dafni khiyoniyon  nihoyat muhim ast. Az rui naqli Ammian Marsellin (19, I, 10–11; 19, 2, 1) jasadi shohzodaro, ki dar jang kushta shuda bud, bo saru libosu asbobu aslihai jangi orovu toro doda, dar miyonjoi sufai vasei baland mondand, dar atrofi on dah tobute chidand, ki andaruni har yaki on haykali murdae bud va haykalho chunon mohirona sokhta shuda budand, ki az murdai haqiqi farq nadoshtand. Dar muddati dah ruz mardum dasta ba dasta va khayma ba khayma taqsim shuda, ziyofat mekhurdand, ba murdai shohzoda azo girifta, marsiyahoi makhsus mekhondand. Zanon boshand, lobakunonu navhakashon in orzuvu umedi khalqro ba okhirat gusel mekardand…». Bad murdaro suzondandu ustukhoni onro dar zarfi nuqragine andokhtand, to in ki vasiyati javonro ba ijro rasonda, turbati uro dar vatanash ba khok suporand».

Dar adabiyoti ilmi ishorat hast, ki unsurhoi in tarzi dafn dar Horazm hangomi hafriyoti dimnahoi Kengqala va Kuhnaayoz padid omadaand. Dar in jo sufai balandi vase yoft shud, ki dar boloi on zamone gulkhani kalone afrukhta budaand va dar atrofi gulkhan ustukhoni odami yoft shudaast. Dar pahlui ustukhon porai rui haykali gilii odam ba dast omad, ki rang doda shuda ast (dar Kengqala), gayr az in dar dakhmai Kuhnaayoz porai mujassamai gilii odam yoft shud (aniqtarash dasti haykal, ki bo usuli ba qolibi ohanin pechondani lattai gajolud sokhta shudaast).[12] In bozyoft va digar mushohidaho ba aksari olimoni soveti imkon dodand, takhmin kunand, ki vatani khiyoniyon sohilhoi Aral ast[13] va in takhmin ba haqiqat khele nazdik ast. Vale faromush naboyad kard, ki baze unsurhoi marosimi dafn, ki ba marosimi dafni khiyoniyon shabohat dorad, dar digar joyhoi Osiyoi Miyona ham yoft shudaand. Muvofiqi khabari solnomahoi khitoi dar SHi (nohiyai Toshkand) binoe budaast, ki dar miyonjo sufai baland doshtaast. har sol dar in bino marosimi azo meshudaast: dar sufai baland «… zarfi tilloro meguzorand, ki andaruni on khokistari jasadi volidayni voli hast, bad on zarfro dar girdi takht megardonand va gulu meva meposhand va voliyu ashrofro gushti qurboni medihand».[14]

Dar Fargona, dar nohiyahoi majroi mobayni Sirdaryo va dar sohilhoi Aral hamrohi murda ba gur buthoi khurdi gaji meguzoshtaand.[15]

Hullas, az didi navisandai asri VI Suriya bemalol dast kashidan mumkin boshad ham, vale bar khilofi vay yagon nazariyai mukammali paydoishi khiyoniyonro pesh guzoshtan az imkon berun ast. Faqat haminro aniq guftan mumkin, ki khiyoniyon, pesh az hama, qabilahoi eronizaboni Osiyoi Miyona budand.

Dar borai paydoish va sharoiti etnikii haytoliyon malumoti khele ziyod hast, vale afsus, ki az in sude nest, zero aksari malumotho khilofi yakdigarand. Prokopiy Kesarskiy, ki haytoliyonro «gunnhoi safed» nomidaast, menavisad: «Garchande haytoliyon az toifai gunnhoyand va (chunin) nom dorand, vale bo on gunnhoe, ki mo medonem, hej irtibotu munosibate nadorand, zero kishvari onho hamhududi gunnho nameboshad va onho dar qaribii gunnho sokin nestand… onho misli digar toifai gunnho kuchmanchigi namekunand va az davrahoi qadim dar zaminhoi hosilkhez ba tarzi muqimi sukunat dorand. Dar bayni tamomi gunnho onho yagona toifae meboshand, ki pusti badanashon safed ast va simoi zeboi dilkash dorand va misli digar gunnho kim-chi khel vahshiyona zindagi namekunand va dar itoati yak podshoh meboshand, davlati qonuni dorand va dar munosibati bayni khud va hamsoyagoni khud behtar az rumiyonu forsho adolatro rioya menamoyand».[16]

haytoliyon_eftalitBa hamin tariq, Prokopiy Kesarskiy haytoliyonro az gunnho aniq judo mekunad. Vay na faqat khalqhoi gunogun budani onhoro takid menamoyad, balki gunogun budani onhoro batafsil asosnok ham mekunad. Albatta, ba chunin malumoti mufassal va asosnoki yak sarchashmai mutabar bahoi lozima nadodan nodurust ast. Vale dar ayni hol, guftan lozim, ki az in khabar dar borai paydoishi haytoliyon hej guna malumot girifta nametavonem.

Dar sarchashmahoi khitoi oid ba paydoishi haytoliyon chandin aqida buda, bayni onho muvofiqate nest. Malumoti makhazhoi khitoiro ba namudhoi zerin taqsim kardan mumkin:

a) haytoliyon yake az toifahoi yujiho; b) haytoliyon shokhai qabilahoi gogyuyhoi turk; v) haytoliyon az qabilahoi cheshi (Turfon) barmeoyand; g) haytoliyon avlodi Kanguy. YAke az qadimtarin muallifoni Hitoy dar borai paydoishi haytoliyon navishtaast: «Madrakoti kishvarhoi durodur va khalqhoi ba zaboni khoriji gapzananda, ki roje ba davrahoi benihoyat qadim meboshand, nodurust fahmida shudaand va tahrif gardidaand. Pas, mo namedonem, ki asli voqea chi guna bud. Bo in roh halli masalai paydoishi haytoliyon imkon nadorad».[17] Olimi hozirazamoni YAponiya K.Enoki hamai in aqidahoro mufassal va bo kamoli kordoni tadqiq namuda, majbur shud ba hamon khulosai boloi oyad – yane muallifoni Hitoy paydoishi haqiqii haytoliyonro namedonistand va aqidai onho odatan «kitobi» buda, az havo girifta shudaand.[18]

Olimoni Evropai garbi asosan aqidahoi gunoguni makhazhoi khitoiro dar nazar doshta, dar borai nisbati etnikii haytoliyon nazariyahoi bisyore pesh nihodand. Bazei onho haytoliyonro avlodi yujiho meguyand, ba aqidai bazeho haytoliyon az gunnho paydo shuda budaand, sevumiho meguyand, ki haytoliyon qabilahoi qadimii turk yo mugul meboshand; muvofiqi aqidae haytoliyon az toifai mardumoni eronizabon barmeoyand. Ba qavli baze muhaqqiqon haytoliyon khiyoniyon ne, balki tamoman yak toifai digar, digaron boshand, meguyand, ki haytoliyonu khiyoniyon yak toifaand va khud haytoliyon sinfi hukmroni khiyoniyon meboshand.[19]

Materialhoi mavjudaro az nazar guzaronem. Lingvistho kayho boz mashguli tahlili nomu istilohote meboshand, ki ba haytoliyon aloqamandand.

Dar sarchashmahoi gunogun haytoliyon, gayr az nomi «gunnhoi safed», boz nomhoi bisyore dorand (ki khudi hamin boisi mushkiloti kalon ast). Dar makhazhoi suriyoni nomi onho abdol yo eptalit; dar makhazhoi yunonizabon abdel yo eftalit, dar makhazhoi armani haptal, idal va tetal; dar zaboni miyonai forsi eftol va heftol, dar zaboni arabi haytal va yaftal; dar zaboni tojikiyu forsi hetal va haytal, dar makhazhoi khitoi e-da[20] (talaffuzi qadimiash *iuptât) va e-dien (talaffuzi qadimiash *iuptiun)[21]. Gayr az in boyad guft, ki dar makhazhoi pahlaviyu zardushti onhoro khiyoniyon, dar hindi khuno nomidaandu makhazhoi arabi onhoro bo turkho va makhazhoi armani bo kushoniyon omekhta kardaand.

F.Altkhaym kushish dorad, ki baromadi kalimai haytoliro ba reshai turki aloqamand kunad, ki on ba manoi «kardan»[22] meoyad, vale in zuri behuda astu asose nadorad. Boz yak aqidae hast, ki haytol az kalimai forsii «haft» baromadaast[23].

hanuz dar asri H Balami navishta bud: «haytila jami haital ast va dar Bukhoro zurmardro guyand. Ba zaboni Bukhoro hatail quvvat ast va haital muarrabi on meboshad»[24].

Dar haqiqat, dar zaboni sharqieronii khutanusakoi kalimai ba in monand manoi «jasuru dilovar» dorad[25].

Az khatti rui tangahoi haytoliyon oid ba masalahoi ba mo dakhldor malumoti zerinro giriftan mumkin. haytoliyon khudro khion meguftaand (dar tangaho OIONA ), pas onho yake az shokhahoi khiyoniyon budaand. Az rui khatti tangaho malum shud, ki zaboni rasmii onho dar mulkhoi takhoristonii khud bokhtari budaast. Dar rui tangaho, beshak, unvonhoi bokhtari sabt gardidaand.[26]

Inchunin dar masalai ba du taqsim budani haytoliyon niz tavaqquf kardan lozim. In masalaro dar adabiyoti hozira G.Beyli khele daqiq va mufassal tadqiq namudaast. Mabdai mulohizahoi vay matnhoi pahlavi budand. Dar «Jomospnoma» (96) dar borai muhoribai Eronu «khiyoniyoni safed» rivoyate hast. Bad dar okhir mujdae meoyad, ki «SHomiloni kasofat, Devonu Hiyoniyon, misli on ki sarmo barg az bun kanad, az bekhu bun kanda shudand»[27]. Dar «Bahman-YAsht» boshad, baraks, az shikasti Sosoniyon gap meravad.

«Davlatu hokimiyat nasibi omiyon gardid va onho khiyoni budandu turk, haytoli budandu tabbati, kuhistoni budandu khitoi, sugdi budandu vizanti, khiyonii surkh budandu khiyonii safed, vale eroni nabudand. Omiyon podshohi Eron shudand, podshohi mehani man shudand».[28]

Inak, agar dar matni avval faqat safedkhiyoniyon ba nazar rasad, dar matni duvum ham khiyoni (pesh az turkho), ham surkhkhiyoniyon (qirmizkhiyoniyon) va ham safedkhiyoniyon hastand. Ba aqidai shorehi «Bahman-YAsht», nomi surkhkhiyoniyon az surkh budani kuloh, zirehu javshan va bayraqi onho barmeoyad. Dar makhazhoi hindi ham, ba surkh (yo khud tira) khunoyon va safedkhunoyon ishorat hast (khotirnishon menamoem, ki dar makhazhoi hindi khuno in nomi haytoliyon ast). Nihoyat, dar dostone, ki asri VII ba zaboni khutanusakoi talif shudaast, khalqe nom burda meshavad, ki tarjumai nomi onho surkhkulohon ast. Ba aqidai G. Beyli, in toifa surkhkhiyoniyon meboshand. Ba in munosibat madrakoti makhazhoi garbro niz mavridi istifoda qaror dodan lozim, zero onho ham nomi gunnhoi safedro bisyor ovardaand (nig. masalan, Prokopi Kesarskiy, I, 3). Dar ayni hol, muallifoni vizanti dar borai kim-chi khel karmikhionho sukhan rondaand. Ba fikri G.Beyli, in ham on qirmizkhiyoniyon meboshad, ki dar matnhoi pahlavi nom burda meshavad.[29]

Mo dar borai in du toifai haytoliyon qarib, ki chizero namedonem – namedonem, ki onho du toifa budandu dar yak ittihodi qabila dokhil meshudand, yo khud dar dokhili yak qabilai tom yak nav tabaqae budand, ki az jihati etnoantropologi farq doshtand. Jolibi diqqat ast, ki dar surathoi rui devori Afrosiyob (dar Samarqand), ki ba qaribi kashf shudaand, omadi hayati saforat tasvir shudaastu du safir, pesh az hama, az jihati rangi rui khud farq mekunand: yake «surkhruy», digare «safedruy». Ba aqidai V.A.Livshits mumkin ast in suratro daleli mavjudiyati «surkhkhiyoniyon»-u «safedkhiyoniyon» hisob kunem.[30]

hurufoti haytoliyon idomai bevositai hurufoti kushoni (bokhtari) buda, vale nisbat ba hurufoti kushoniyon andak moiltar navishta meshavad. Mahz dar borai hurufoti haytoliyon Syuan-szan navishtaast: «Zaboni onho az zaboni digar mamlakatho andak farq dorad. SHumorai hurufoti asosii onho bistu panjto va onho in harfhoro tarkib doda, hama guna mafhumotro ifoda mekunand. Az chap ba rost menavisandu mekhonand. Osori adabii onho tadrijan meafzoyad va shumorai in osor az shumorai osori mardumi Su-li (Sugd) ziyod shudaast».[31]

Vale amalan az in «osori adabi» nihoyat kam boqi mondaast. Az jumlai in osor porahoi dastnavise, ki dar Tojikistoni sharqi yoft shudaast, ba khatti haytoli meboshad.[32] Zohiran, bazei onho ba asrhoi VII-VIII nisbat dorand, vale to ba hol yagon matni purrai manodore khonda nashudaast. Baze zabonshinoson zaboni on matnhoro sakoi va bazei digar bokhtari meguyand.

Dar shimolu garbi Pokiston dar vodii daryoi Tochi se katibae yoft shud, ki dar sang kanda shudaast – dar sangi yakum matni arabiyu sanskrit, dar sangi duvum matni bokhtariyu sanskrit va dar sangi sevum, ki az du pora iborat ast, matni bokhtari va du satr khatti arabi hast. Hatti bokhtari bo usuli shikastai moil sabt gardidaast. YAk varianti transliteratsiya va tarjumai on peshnihod shudaast.[33] Tarjumai chopshudai in matn khomaki buda, tanho kushishest dar tarjumai on. Sanai on ham ba davrahoi khele sonitar, az afti kor, ba asri IH milodi nisbat dorad.

Dar Osiyoi Miyona az jumlai osori badastomadai khatti haytoli katibai rui safolporaest, ki dar Zangteppa padid omad va dar on hamagi yak qismi shash satr boqi mondaast,[34] osori digari khatti haytoli katibai grafitii Qaroteppa va inchunin du satri khatti shikastai moili bokhtarii Afrosiyob meboshad, ki muvofiqi dalolati katibai sugdii pahlui on namunai khatti rasmii haytoli budaast[35], boz yak osori khatti haytoli katibai surati devori dimnai Kofirqalai Kolkhozobod meboshad, ki durust mahfuz namondaast.

Usuli khondani katibai tangavu gemmahoi haytoliyon niz az bisyor jihat bahsnok ast. Odatan in katibahoro dar asosi etimologiyai eroni tafsiru tavzeh dodan mumkin va khudi hamin dalolat ba on dorad, ki zaboni haytoliyon sharqieroni bud.[36] Tarafdoroni aqidai gunnuturki budani haytoliyon inro dar nazar doshta, sababi dar zaboni haytoliyon mavjud budani kalimahoi beshak forsiro alhol chunin sharh medihand, ki zaboni haytoliyon aslan turki (yo muguli) budu badi eroniyonro taskhir kardan az zaboni aholii eronii mutegardonidashuda baze kalimaho ba zaboni haytoli dokhil shudaast. Az olimoni hozira in aqidaro, masalan F.Altkhaym va E.Pulleyblenk[37] tarafdori mekunand. Ishorathoi mukhtasare, ki oid ba zaboni haytoliyon dar makhazhoi khitoi hast, inchunin khele gunogun manidod karda meshavand.

Amalan yagon daleli jiddie nest, ki zaboni haytoliyonro turki (yo muguli) guem, in zabon, beshakku shubha, zaboni sharqieroni bud. Vale faqat minbad dastras gardidani osori on, tahqiqu tadqiqi amiqu mufassali zabonshinoson imkon medihad, ki bisyor jihathoi asosii alhol noravshani in masala ravshan karda shavad, tavsifi osori khattii haytoliyon muqarrar va munosibati onho bo khalqiyathoi haytoli muayyan karda shavad.

Dar masalai makoni paydoishi haytoliyon ham tavaqquf kardan lozim. In khalqi purasror, ki dar tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona, Eron, Afgoniston, hinduston va Turkistoni sharqi in qadar maqomi namoyon dosht, az kujo paydo shuda boshad? Dar in masala ham az malumotu madrakoti aniq dida, nazariya beshtar ast. Muhaqqiqon, goh in va goh on malumoti makhazhoi khitoiro ba etibor girifta, makoni paydoishi haytoliyonro, goh dar Oltoy, goh dar Turkistoni sharqi va goh dar yagon mavzei digar joy medihand.

Nazariyai az Badakhshon budani haytoliyon navu toza ast. hanuz soli 1951 A.N.Bernshtam dar borai etnogenez va tashakkuli  davlatdorii haytoliyon muhokima ronda, ba du markazi paydoishi onho ba mavzei miyona va poyoni Sirdaryo, az yak taraf va az tarafi digar, ba boloobi havzai Amudaryo ishorat karda bud.[38]

Solhoi 1955–1959 in aqidai A.N.Bernshtam dar tadqiqoti olimi YAponiya K.Enoki asosnok karda shud. K.Enoki na faqat tamomi materialhoi mavjudaro az didgohi tanqidi tahlil namud, balki az makhazhoi khitoi madrakhoi toza ovard. Hulosahoi K.Enoki chunin ast: a) zodgohi aslii haytoliyon qaribii hududi sharqii Badakhshon ast; b) dar madaniyati onho baze unsurhoi eroni joy dorad.[39] L.I.Gumilev[40] ham aqidai az Badakhshon budani haytoliyonro tarafdori mekunad, vale ba nazariyai K. Enoki yagon dalelu isboti nav zam nakardaast. haminro boyad guft, ki in farziya ham, dar nihoyati kor, ba makhazhoi khitoi takya mekunad, aniqtarash, ba hamon rivoyati Syuan-szan asos yoftaast, ki Gimotolo (shakli sanskritishudai kalimai «haytoli» yo yagon tobishi digari on) nom kishvari badakhshonie vujud doradu podshohi on bisyor kishvarhoro taskhir kardaast.[41] Vale E.E.Nerazik ishorat kardaast, ki in rivoyat ba rivoyati tokhtutozhoi yujiho ham nisbat doshtanash mumkin, modome chunin boshad, in rivoyat dalel shuda nametavonad, ki intishori hukmi haytoliyon az Badakhshon ogoz yofta bud. E.E.Nerazik digar joyhoi susti aqidai K.Enokiro[42] ham nishon dodaast va qaydhoi tanqidii uro qobili qabul guftan mumkin. Vale hamai in ahamiyati asari K.Enokiro past karda nametavonad, alalkhusus, dar sohai makhazshinosi ahamiyati on nihoyat baland ast. Baroi isboti farziyai az Badakhshon budani haytoliyon dalelhoi nav[43] darkor va onho shoyad ba tufayli hafriyothoi arkheologi dastras megardand.[44]

Dar adabiyoti torevolyutsionii rus K.I. Inostransev diqqati muhaqqiqonro ba on jalb karda bud, ki sagonahoi sangin – mugkhonaho ba hamon sagonahoi haytoliyon, ki az rui makhazhoi khatti malumand, khele shabohat dorand.[45] B.A.Litvinskiy mugkhona va digar khelhoi sagona, az jumla, gurhoi khokiero, ki dar onho murda dar tobuthoi chubin guronida meshudand (muvofiqi khabari makhazhoi khitoi in marosim dar bayni haytoliyon ham rasm budaast) va inchunin baze digar malumotu madrakotro omukhta, ba chunin khulosa omad, ki dar tashakkuli qabilahoi haytoli qabilahoi sokini mahalhoi domanakuhii nohiyai Fargona ahamiyati makhsus doshtand, zero in tarzi dafn mahz dar bayni hamin qabilaho mamul bud.

Dar adabiyoti tarikhii soveti oid ba paydoishi haytoliyon boz yak aqida hast. Ba aqidai S.P.Tolstov, onho sokini sohilhoi Aral meboshand. Dar bayoni okhirin varianti in nazariyai khud vay navishta bud: «Gumon meravad, ki dar asrhoi IV–V rezishgohi daryohoi Amu va Sir markazi «davlati barbarii» khiyoniyonu haytoliyon bud, ki dar zaminai qabilahoi qadimii sakoiyu massagetho tashakkul yofta budand va chi tavre dar bolo qayd kardem, dar tarkibi in qabila bisyor unsurhoi gunnu turkhoi sharqi ba nazar merasid».[46] Madrakote, ki dar bolo ovardem, nishon medihand, ki sohilhoi Aral bar khilofi iddaoi S.P. Tolstov hej vaqt markazi davlati khiyoniyon yo haytoliyon nabud. Dar borai az sohili Aral budani haytoliyon ham malumot nihoyat kam ast.

Az nuqtai nazari tanqidi dida baromadani farziyahoi mavjuda moro ba gumone vodor menamoyad, ki imkoniyati dar vaqti hozira, qatiyan on taraf istad, hatto ba andozae ehtimolan muayyan namudani makoni tashakkuli haytoliyon nihoyat kam ast. Masalai nisbati etnikii haytoliyon, guftan mumkin ravshantar ast – yane haytoliyon dar zaminai kadom yak qabilahoi zabonashon sharqieronii Osiyoi Miyona ba vujud omadaandu dar tarkibi onho unsurhoi etnikii turkho mavjud meboshand.

Jamiyati haytoliyon

Prokopiy Kesarskiy dar borai «gunnhoi safed» – haytoliyon gap zada, navishta bud, ki onho «az qadim» muqimi meboshand, «ba yak podshoh itoat mekunand» va «davlati qonuni» dorand. Menandr az nomi hayati saforati turkho rivoyat mekunad, ki haytoliyon «mardumoni shahriand»; ba qavli vay turkho haytoliyonro shikast doda, hokimi shahrhoi onho shudaand (Menandr, porchai 18).[47] Feofani Vizanti (porchai 3) meguyad, ki haytoliyon forshoro maglub sokhta, ba shahru bandarhoi forsho sohib shudand. Vale makhazhoi Hitoy tamoman gapi digar mezanand. Muvofiqi khabari onho, e-da, yane haytoliyon «shahr nadorand va dar joyhoi serobu alaf, dar khonahoi siyoh zindagi mekunand». Son YUn nom sayyoh menavisad, ki e-da, yane haytoliyon qala nadorand va kuchmanchigi mekunand[48]. har dui in rivoyati mukholif dar naqli Syuan-szan oid ba Gimotolo ovarda shudaast. Sokinoni in mahal, yane haytoliyon dar chodarhoi pustaki zindagi doshtandu kuchmanchigi mekardand. Dar ayni hol, khabar doda meshavad, ki dar guzashta onho bisyor mamlakathoro zabt namudaand va dar «bisyor qalavu dizho hukmroni kardaand».[49] Ba hamin tariq, muallifoni garb, ehtimol, baroi hamin haytoliyonro mardumoni shahri meguftaand, ki onho sohibi shahrho budand va dar davrahoi soni ayonu ashrofi haytoliyon dar shahrho maskun meshudand.

haytoliyon_eftalitiJamiyati haytoliyon az jihati molu mulk ravshanu aniq taqsim shuda bud. Masalan, dar in bora mo az tasviri marosimi dafni onho voqif gardidem. Solnomai Lyan-shu[50] khabar medihad, ki murdaro dar tobuthoi oddii chubin meguronidand, dar barobari in dar solnomai Bey-shi (yo Vey-shu) chunin navishta shudaast: «Murdai boyonro dar sagonahoi sangin dafn mekunand, murdai kambagalonro ba chuqurihoi kuhna mepartoyand»[51]. Sarulibosi ayonu ashrof khele bokarru farr bud. Son YUn sarulibosi boyzanhoro tasvir karda menavisad: «Sarulibosi boyhovu kambagalon farqi kalon dorad»[52]. Jazoi duzdi nihoyat sakht bud: «Baroi duzdii chize, ki andozaash malum nest, sar mezadand; tovoni chizi duzdiro dah karat ziyodtar dodan darkor bud»[53]. Az in madrakot malum meshavad, ki jamiyati haytoliyon jamiyati sinfi hisob meshud va az jihati molu mulk aniqu ravshan taqsim shuda bud. Onho sohibi davlat budand. Lashkari haytoliyon khele tavono bud. Aslihai onho gurz bud[54], ba aqidai khitoiyon, onho kamonkashhoi zabardast budaand, ba fikri muallifoni davrahoi soni, aslihai asosii onho shamsher budaast.[55]

Usuli amaliyoti jangie, ki haytoliyon kor mefarmudand, kasro ba aqidae vodor menamoyad, ki lashkari onho asosan az savoragon iborat bud. Dar in masala mo bo F.Altkhaym hamfikr hastem[56] va aqidai L.N. Gumilevro zinhor qabul nadorem.[57]

Dar bayni haytoliyon poliandriya (yane sershavhari) rasm bud: «barodaron yak zani umumi dorand, zani shavharash be barodar, yane zani yakto shavhar doshta kulohi yakgusha mepushad; zani sershavhar kulohe mepushad, ki chand shavhar doshta boshad, hamon qadar gusha dorad; dar libos ham muvofiqi shumorai shavhar pupak dukhta meshavad».[58] Dar borai in urfu odat, ki barobari poligamiya (yane serzani) dar bayni voliyon mamul bud, bisyor makhazhoi khitoi khabar medihand.[59] Poliandriya, ki boqimondai nikohi guruhi meboshad, dar ruzhoi mo dar Tibet va dar girdu atrofi nazdiki on vujud dorad.[60]

Muvofiqi khabari makhazho haytoliyon dini buddoiro ne, balki khudoyoni khudro, masalan, khudoi otashro meparastidaand. har sahar onho az khaymai khud baromada, namoz mekhondaand. Ehtimol, onho oftobro ham parastish mekardand.[61] Vale dar jamiyati haytoliyon dinu oini khalqhoe, ki onhoro mute menamudaand, masalan, dini buddoi, tadrijan resha davondan girift. Madrake hast, ki dar bayni haytoliyon dini nasroni ham mamul budaast.

[1] Marquart J., 1901, 5. 58; Pigulevskaya N. V., 1941, s. 36.

[2] Marquart J., 1901, 5. 50; Hurzfuld E, 1930, r. 19.

[3] Althuim U., 1959, I, s. 52. 53.

[4] Doir ba aridahoi avvalai vay oid ba in masala nig.: Vaileu N. W., 1932, p.946.

[5] Iailuy N. W., 1954, 5. 20–21.

[6] Maunchun-Hulfun O.’., 1959, r. 227–228. Oid ba shakku shubhai Girshman nig.: Ghirshman R., 1948, r. 116.

[7] Marquart J., 1901, s. 50.

[8] Hurzfuld U., 1947, r. 771–774.

[9] Ghirshman R., 1948, r. 116.

[10] In etimologiyai F. Andreas (nig.: Ghirshman R., 1948, r. 117; Maunchun-Hulfun O.J., 1959, r.230). Etimologiyahoi turki robili rabul ne (Althuim U. und Stuihl R., 1954, s.277).

[11] Pigulevskaya N. V, 1941, s. 36.

[12] Rapoport YU. A., 1958, s. 51.

[13] ITN, I, s. 413–414.

[14] Bichurin, II, s. 272–282.

[15] Dar borai onho nig.: Davidovich E.A. va Litvinskiy B.A., 1955, 51–52; Levin L.M., 1968.

[16] Digar muarrikhi vizanti Agafiy gapro khele kutoh kardaast: «{aytoliyon hamon gunnhoyand» (Priski Poni, 91–92, ezohi 116).

[17] Unoki K., 1959, r. 7.

[18] Unoki K., 1959, r. 1-14; 1955, r. 232-235.

[19] Ghirshman R., 1948, r. 10–21, 115; Unoki K., 1959, r. 15–23; ITN, I, s. 415-416.

[20] Althuim F. und Stuihl R., 953, s.276; Althuim F., 1959, I, s. 41-42

[21] Unoki K., 1959, r. 7.

[22] Althuim F., 1959, I, s. 44.

[23] Maunchun-Hulfun O.J., 1959, r. 231.

[24] Balami, r. 128.

[25] Livshis V.A., 1969. s. 67, ezohi 103.

[26] Ghirshman R., 1948; Hunning W.I., 1960, r. 51; Livshis V. A., 1969, s. 67-71.

[27] Iailuy N. W., 1931, r. 585–586.

[28] Iailuy N. W., 1932, r. 945–946.

[29] Iailuy N. W., 1954, r. 13–20. Feofani Vizanti (porchai 2) dar borai «karmikhionho» sukhan ronda, menavisad, ki dar sharrtari Tanais turkhoe hastand, ki dar radim onhoro massaget menomidand, ba zaboni forsho nomi in turkho karmikhionho ast. E. SHavann, ki digar makhazhoi vizantiro ham mufassal tadrir kardaast, takhmin mekunad, ki gap az toifai jojho meravad (Chavannus U., 1903, r. 229–239). Vale in farziya alhol robili rabul nest.

[30] Livshis V. A., 1965 a, s. 6.

[31] Veal S., 1960, I, r. 38; Pulliot R., 1934, r. 50.

[32] Hansun O., 1951; Gurshuvitch S., 1957; Livshis V. A., 1967, s. 163.

[33] Dani A. N., Humiach N., Göil R., 1964, r. 125–135.

[34] Livshis V.A., 1969, s. 73-74.

[35] Livshis V.A., 1967, s.164. Dar Afrosiyob boz yakchand katibahoi haytoli yoft shudaast.

[36] Iailuy H.W., 1937, r. 892–893 (titulaturai khatti rui tangahoi eroni); Unoki K., 1959. r. 39-45; Ghirshman K., 1948, r. 67, 117-118; Maunchun Hulfun O.J., 1959, r. 227-231.

[37] Althuim U., 1959, s. 41-54; Pulluyilank U.G., 1962, r. 259-260.

[38] Bernshtam A.N., 1951, s. 197.

[39] Unoki K., 1955, 1959 a.

[40] Gumilev L.N., 1959.

[41] Unoki K., 1959, r. 35.

[42] ITN, I, s. 553-554.

[43] Muroisa kuned: Gumilev L.I., 1967, b.

[44] SHoev A.J., 1909, s. 16-18.

[45] Inostransev K I., 1909, s. 116-120.

[46] Tolstov S. P., 1962, s. 244.

[47] Tarjumai tamomi porcharo nig.: «Vizantiyskie istoriki», 1860, s.374; Bichurin, II, s.268.

[48] Iual S., 1906, r. HS–HS1; Unoki K., 1959, r. 50.

[49] Unoki K., 1959, r. 35.

[50] Dar hamon jo, r. 49.

[51] Bichurin, II, s. 269.

[52] Vea1 S., 1960, r. HSI.

[53] Bichurin, II, s. 269.

[54] Pigulevskaya N. V., 1941, s. 64; Althuim U., 1960, II, s. 17–18.

[55] ITN, I, s. 419.

[56] Althuim U.1960 II, s.269.

[57] Gumilev L N., 1967. b, s. 94.

[58] Bichurin, II, s. 268.

[59] Millur R.A., 1959, s. 12.

[60] Ghirshman R., 1948, r. 125-128; Unoki K., 1959, r. 51-56.

[61] Makhazho: Unnoki K., r. 45–49; nig.: inchunin Ghirshman R., 1948, r. 120-124.

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