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Pakhta dar Tojikiston

Pakhta yake az muhimtarin va qadimtarin rastanii nakhdoru ravgandihandai tekhniki ba hisob meravad. Vay ba oilai tugmachagulho mansub ast. Dar Hinduston 3 hazor sol pesh az milod pakhtaro kisht karda, az on mato meboftaid. Dar Misr ba kishti pakhta dar asrhoi 1 to milod, dar Hitoy boshad, asrhoi 9-7 sar kardaand. Dar Osiyoi Miyona pakhta az asrhoi 7-6 to milod injonib parvarish karda meshavad.

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Pakhta, agarchande rastanii bisyorsola ast, dar ziroatkori hamchun rastanii yaksola parvarish karda meshavad. Vay khelhoi ziyod dorad. Vale dar yak qator mamlakatho, az on jumla dar jumhurii Tojikiston, asosan du namudi on pakhtai muqarrari va misri kisht karda meshavad. Namudhoi khudrui pakhta dar savannahoi (majmunabototi) Afrika, Arabiston, Amerikai SHimoli va Avstraliya meruyand.

Pakhta reshai boquvvati sershokhronda doshta, ba khok 2,4—2,6 m chuqur meravad. Bakhshi jabbandai (ob va mahluli namakhoi madani) resha asosan dar qabati nisbatan bolotari khok (yane dar chukurii 15-30 sm) joygir ast. Pakhta poyai rosti sershokhu barg doshta, az 70 to 200 sm qad mekashad.

Dar rastanii pakhta du namudi shokhaho, yane shokhahoi sabzishi va mevaovar inkishof meyoband. Az bagalbarghoi poyoni shokhahoi sabzishi (rushdi) va az qismi boloii poya az 15 to 20-to shokhchahoi samarovar (mevadihanda) ba voya merasand. Bargi pakhta tunuki sabz, shaklash 3-7-parrador yo mudavvari parshakl meshavad. Bargho dar poya pay dar ham joy giriftaand. Bargi avvalini haqiqi pas az 7—10 ruzi nesh zada baromadani tukhmi va bargi duyum 4-5 ruz pas az bargi yakum mebaroyad.

Gulhoi kalon-kaloni pakhta dujinsa buda, az 5 gulbargi rangashon zard yo zardcharangi safed iboratand. Gardbarghoyash beshumorand. Guli pakhta khudgardoludshavanda ast. Dar asosi naychai gard- bargchaho shakhddonho joygirand, az in ru guli pakhta metavonad, inchunin ba tufayli hasharotho az gulhoi atrofash gardolud sha- vad. Gardoludshavi va bordorshavii guli pakhta taqriban du shabo- naruz davom mekunad.

Dar sharoiti bagoyat musoid pakhta khele khub inkishof yofta, metavonad to 200 kurak bandad. Punbadonai pakhta bayzashakl yo murudshakl buda, odatan bo nakhhoi darozi safed ihota gardidaast. Darozii har nakhi pakhta az 30—40 mm to 50—60 mm merasad.

Dar Tojikiston pakhtaro dar aksari nohiyaho, ba juz mintaqahoi balandkuh, parvarish mekunand. Muhlati kishti pakhta, vobasta ba sharoithoi iqlimii nohiyaho, az mohi aprel shuru shuda, to avvalhoi mohi may davom mekunad.

Har yak mutakhassisi sohai kishovarzi khub medonad, ki baroi ruyondani hosili farovoni pakhta pesh az hama zaminro boyad hamatarafa ba kisht tayyor kard. Binobar on, tiramoh zaminro az guzapoya toza karda, ba on nurihoi fosfordor andokhta, to chuqurii 30—40 sm shudgor mekunand.

Sipas, dar avvalhoi bahor, barobari ba shudgor muvofiq shudani zamin, ba chuqurii 8-10 sm sikhmola mekunand. Agar khoki zamin nisbatan sakht shuda boshad, onro avval charkhmola va soni sikhmola mekunand. Badi guzaronidani chunin korho ba kyshti punbadona (chigit) shuru mekunand. Baroi az kasalii rishtatosak va gomoz muhofizat kardani rastani chigitro bo moddahoi zahrnoki khimiyavi (formalin) oluda mekunand. Dar vaqti kishti punba harorati khok boyad 14—16°S boshad. Dar chunin harorat, hangomi kifoya budani nami, havo va digar omilhoi zaruri,janini chigit ba sabzish shuru mekunad. Kishti chigiti pakhtaro tavassuti chigitposhakho guzaronida, harakat mekunand, ki tukhmi dar chuqu- rii 3,5 – 4,5 sm dar zeri khok pinhon shavad. Badi dubarga shudani niholho, onro yagona mekunand. Agar yagonakuni dertar ogoz shavad, on goh namnoki past gardida, moddahoi gizoi behuda talaf meshavand, ki in boisi kam shudani hosil megardad.

Baroi ruyonidani hosili farovoni pakhta korkardi bayni qatorhoro sari vaqt dar asosi talaboti agrotekhniki guzaronida, ba pakhtazor dodani nurihoi madanii nitrogendor, fosfordor va kaliydor khele mufid ast.

Dar davrai rushdu numui pakhta chandin marotiba bekh va bayni niholhoro muloim mekunand. Dar natija alafkhoi begona khele kam shuda, baroi inkishofi mutadili niholho sharoiti musoid faroham meoyad. Hususan, badi har obmoni boyad bayni juyakkho narm karda shavad. Badi dar nikholho paydo shudani shokhahoi samarovari mevadeh niholhoi pakhtaro chekanka menamoyand (yane sarnugi rasishkunandaashro dasti kanda mepartoyand). Hosili pukhta rasidai pakhtaro badi shukuftani kurakho dasti yo bo moshinhoi pakhtachini jamovari mekunand.

Ba dast ovardani hosili farovoni pakhta pesh az hama ba mavjudiyati navhoi khubu hamatarafa sanjidashudai pakhta, ki ba sharoithoi gunoguni nohiyahoi kishovarzi muvofiqand, vobastagii kalondorad.

Dar tuli chandin dahsolaho dar Tojikiston asosan navhoi pakhtai miyonnakhi 108-F, 153-D, Toshkent-1, Toshkent-6, 133, 149-F, Regar-1, Guliston va pakhtai mahinnakhi navkhoi N 23, 504-V, 2326-V, 8809-V, 5010-V, 5904-I, 5595-V va gayraho koshta meshavand.

CHi tavr ki malum ast, pakhta doroi ahamiyati kalon ast. Zero nakhi pakhta baroi tayyor kardani matohoi gunogun istifoda meshavad. Az yak kg nakhi pakhta ba hisobi miyona 5 m las, 20 m son (suf), 40—140 adad rishtagaltak istyohsol menamoyand. Az yak kg punbadonai pakhta boshad, 270 g ravgan, 400 g kunjora, 300 g shelukha, 30 g lint girifta meshavad. Bar zammi in linti pakhtaro baroi istehsoli linoleum, lak va digar masolehho istifoda mebarand. Ravgani pakhta mavodi khurokii purbaho buda, on az vitaminho va digar moddahoi organikii foidanok boy meboshad.

Inchunin, pustparda (shelukha) va kunjora, ki partovi korkhonahoi ravganbarori ba hisob meravad, khuroki sergizo va purqimati chorvo meboshad. Dar natijai korkardi pustparda spirt, kislotahoi (chavharhoi) organiki ba dast ovarda meshavad. Az bargi pakhta javhari sebu limu istehsol mekunand. Guzapoya va partovkhoi zavodi pakhtatozakuni dar natijai korkardi makhsus ba khuroki sergizoi chorvo tabdil doda meshavand. Hamin tavr, pakhta ziroati purarzish buda, boigarii khalqi mo ba hisob meravad.

  1. Az rui kadom alomathoyash pakhtaro ba oilai tugmachagulho dokhil mekunand?
  2. Dar Tojikiston kadom namud va navhoi pakhta kisht karda meshavand?
  3. Dar borai tarikhi paydoish va pahnshavii pakhta chi gufta metavoned?
  4. Dar niholi pakhta chi guna shokhchaho farq karda meshavand?
  5. Guli pakhta chi tavr gardolud meshavad?
  6. Baroi ba kisht omoda kardani zamin chi guna chorabinihoro anjom dodan lozim ast?
  7. Baroi nashunamoi pakhta kadom sharoitho zarurand?
  8. “Pakhta boigarii mo ast”, inro chi tavr sharh medihed?
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