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Pahnshavii meva va tukhm

Dar aksari holatho meva va tukhmi rastaniho ba joyhoi khele dur pahn meshavand. Sabab on ast, ki meva va tukhmi yak guruhi muayyani rastaniho baroi bo shamol pahn shudan mutobiqat paydo kardaand. Guruhi digari onho boshad, mahz tavassuti odam, hayvonot va ob pahn megardad. Mevai pukhtai baze rastaniho, masalan, aqoqiyoi zard va hanzal tukhmashonro ba berun posh medihand.

SHamol tukhmhoi safedorro, ki bo pati safed pushidaast, ba ma-sofahoi dur parronda mebarad. Tukhmi qoqu va bedro, ki “parashyutchaho” dorand, shamol ba har jonib mebarad.

meva-tuxm

Mevai fark, ki az du pallai bolmonand iborat ast, hangomi az shokhi darakht aftidanash bolhoi on dar havo bosurat charkh mezanad va az in ru vay duru daroztar dar havo nigoh doshta shuda, shamol onhoro az darakht khele dur burdanash mumkin ast.

Bo pukhtani mevaashon baze rastanihoi dashtu biyobon khushk meshavand. Az in ru, shamol poyai shokhu mevadori onhoro shikasta rurui zamin gelonida ba har taraf mebarad va bo in vosita tukhmi onho ba zamin merezad. Hamin tavr, rastanihoi bo shamol pahnshavanda bisyor khususiyathoi mutobiqati dorand.

Bo yorii ob ham mevayu tukhmi rastanihoi obi va baze rastanihoi ruizamini pahn meshavand. Ob mevai aftodai darakhti rozdor yo khashnak (olkha)-ro, ki beshtar dar sohili daryoho mesabzad, ba joyhoi khele dur mebarad. Mevai darakhti norgil (norjil)-ro obi bahr mumkin ast az yak jazira ba jazirai digar barad.

Tukhm va mevai bisyor rastanihoro odatan odamon va hayvonot beikhtier pahn mekunand. Masalan, “sabadak”-i mushkhor bo mevahoi pukhtaash ba pashmi hayvonot yo libosi odamon chaspida, az rastani khele dur burda meshavad.

Dar labi nahr, nazdikii havzu daryoho alafi begonai khori sagak (garmalaf) meruyad. Mevaashro, ki donakchai khordor ast, dandonahol changakshakl pushidaand. Agar az anbuhi khori sagak yagon hayvon yo odam guzarad, mevahoi maydai serkhori on ba pashm yo libos chunon sakht mechaspand, ki majbur meshaved, onhoro bo dast chida partoed.

Tukhmi mevahoi sershirai gubayro, anguri sagak, marjonbutta, khulang, murdi jangali, mahlabi rusi, guli livondarro hayvonot, khususan parrandaho pahn mekunand. Parrandaho in mevahoro khurda, az yak jo ba joi digar meparrand va tukhmi osebnadidai onhoro bo sargin (pekhol) ikhroj mekunand.

Mevayu gukhmhoi baze rastaniho tasodufan bo rohi gayrioddi pahn megardand. Onho ba qanoru toyhoi bor chaspida andarmon meshavand va tavassuti rohhoi obiyu havoi ba joyhoi tamoman dur burda shuda, mahalli navi zist paydo mekunand. Masalan, bargi zulfro, ki dar payrohavu rohho giyohi muqarrarist, yak zamone az Avrupo ba Amriko hamin tavr burda budand. Sokinoni aslii Amriko — hinduho bargi zulfro “izi safedpuston” meguyand.

Dar bisyor rastaniho metavon poshkhurii tukhmro mushohida kard. Masalan, tobiston, dar ruzhoi oftobi agar az nazdi buttai aqoqiyoi zard guzar kuned, sadoi qirs-qirs ba gush merasad. In kafidani mevahoi pukhta va posh khurdani tukhmi onhost.

Kusaki nakhud va lubiyo ham badi pukhtan tukhmashonro posh medihand. Binobar on, hosili in ziroathoro pesh az purra khushkidanashon megundorand. Vagarna onho kushoda shuda, tukhmashon merezad va hosil talaf megardad.

  1. Mevahoe, ki bo tufayli shamol pahn meshavand, chi guna alomathoi mutobiqati dorand?
  2. Tukhmi kadom rastanihoro odam, hayvon va parrandaho pahn mekunand?
  3. Tukhmi kadom rastaniho khud az khud posh mekhurad?
  4. Mevayu tukhmi kadom rastaniho tavassuti ob pahn meshavand?
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