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PRINSIPI FON NEYMAN

Orzuhoi Bebbix taqriban pas az guzashtani 100 sol dar hayot amali gashtand. Soli 1937 professori universiteti Ayovai IMA – buluor Xon Atanasov ba sokhtani moshini hisobbarorie sar kard, ki on baroi halli masalahoi fizikai matematiki peshbini shuda bud.

Taqriban dar hamon sol loihai moshini relegiro kormandi donishgohi Garvardi IMA Govard Aytken peshnihod namud. In moshin Mark-1 nomida shud va soli 1944 az tarafi firmai IBM sokhta shud. Vale on niz moshini elektroni nabuda, balki elektromekhaniki bud. Tanho soli 1946 dar IMA avvalin MEH bo nomi ENIAC sokhta shud, ki mualli foni on kormandoni donishgohi Pensilvaniya Presper Ekkert va Xon Mochli budand.

Qadami navbatii khele muhimro dar peshrafti MEH matematiki barxastai amrikoi Xon fon Neyman guzoshtaast.

E soli 1945 avvalin shuda peshnihod namud, ki dar barobari malumoti adadii dodashuda, programmai korkardi in malumot niz ba khotirai moshin dokhil karda shavad. Aknun imkoniyat paydo shud, ki ba programma niz hamchun ba obekt tasir rasonida shavad.

Fon Neyman goyai khudro dar shakli maqola ba olimoni jahon pahn namud. Dar maqola u ba tavri khele sodda va fahmo prinsiphoi kori tajhizoti universalii hisobbaroriro manidod namud, ki onho bo nomi prinsipi fon Neyman mashhur gashtaand.

Az jumla, fon Neyman dar maqola ovardaast, ki kompyuter boyad az qismhoi zerin iborat boshad:

  1.  qismi arifmetiki-mantiqi. Bo yorii in qism hamai amalhoi arifmetiki va mantiqi ijro karda meshavand;
  2.  qismi idorakuni. Bo yorii in qism digar qismhoi kompyuter idora va ravandi ijroshavii programma nazorat karda meshavad;
  3.  qismi khotira. Bo yorii in qism programma va malumotho zakhira va nigoh doshta meshavand;
  4.  qismhoi beruna. Bo yorii in qismho informatsiya ba kompyuter dokhil va khorij karda meshavand.

Hotirai kompyuter boyad az yakchand yacheykahoi raqamdor iborat boshad, ki dar har kadomi onho yo malumothoi korkardashavanda yo komandahoi programma nigoh doshta meshavand. Hamai yacheykahoi khotira boyad ba tavri oddi va khele sodda dastrasi digar qismhoi kompyuter boshand.

Aloqamandii qismhoi kompyuterro fon Neyman chunin tasvir namudaast:

Dar skhema bo yorii signalhoi idorakuni va bo yorii signalhoi informatsioni ishora karda shudaand. Bo yorii signalhoi idorakuni qismi idorakunii kompyuter

hamai qismhoi digari onro idora menamoyad va bo yorii signalhoi informatsioni boshad, vay ravandi intiqoli informatsiyaro dar bayni qismhoi kompyuter ba tanzim meorad. Tarzi kori kompyuter dar namudi umumi chunin ast.

Avval bo yorii yagon qismi beruna ba khotirai kompyuter programma dokhil karda meshavad. Qismi idorakuni az yacheykai khotira, ki dar on komandai yakumi programma nigoh doshta shudaast, informatsiyaro jeg mezanad va ijroshavii onro tashkil menamoyad. In komanda metavonad yo ijroshavii yagon amali arifmetiki yo amali mantiqi, yo az khotira khondani yagon malumot, yo ba khotira sabt namudani natijaho, yo ba vositai qismi dokhilkuni ba khotira vorid namudani malumotho, yo az khotira ba qismi khorijkuni sodir namudani malumotho va gayraho boshad.

Pas az ijroi yak komanda, qismi idorakuni ba ijroi komandai navbatii programma shuru menamoyad. Hamin tariq, qismi idorakuni pay dar pay komandahoi programmaro ba tavri avtomati, yane be ishtiroki odam, ijro namuda masalai dar nazdash guzoshtashudaro hal menamoyad.

Avvalin kompyuteri dar asosi prinsipi Jon fon Neyman korkunanda, soli 1949 dar Angliya az tarafi Moris Uilks ikhtiro karda shudaast. Bo hamin asri MEH qadamhoi avvalini khudro guzosht. Aksariyati mamlakathoi taraqqikardai xahon ba sokhtani moshinhoi elektronii hisobbaror sar kardand. Az xumla, avvalin moshini anglisi bo nomi EDSAC soli 1949, moshini rusi bo nomi MESM soli 1951 va uayraho sokhta shudand.

Soli 1954 dar tamomi xahon taqriban 100 ME{ bud. Dar solhoi minbada boshad miqdori onho bo surati khele baland ziyod meshud:

  •  soli 1965 – 40 000 adad
  •  soli 1974 – 215 000 adad
  •  soli 1978 – 580 000 adad
  •  soli 1983 – qarib 2 000 000 adad
  •  holo boshad, miqdori onho ba yakchand millionho rasidaast.

Savolho:

  1. Avvalin kompyuter chi nom dosht, kay va dar kujo sokhta shudaast?
  2. Prinsipi fon Neyman az chi iborat ast?
  3. Kompyuterhoi dar asosi prinsipi fon Neyman sokhtashuda az kadom qismho iboratand?
  4. Sokhti khotirai kompyuter chi guna ast?
  5. Ba tavri avtomati ijrokunii komandaho chi mano dorad?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Nomi yakchand kompyuterhoi avvalinro nombar kuned va gued, ki onho dar kujo sokhta shudaand.
  3. Dar sinfkhonai kompyuteri bo qismhoi kompyuter shinos shaved va gued, ki kadom qism baroi ijrokunii kadom vazifa peshbini karda shudaast.
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