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PRAVOSLAVIE (Kalisoi Ortodoksii sharqi)

Aqidahoi asosii pravoslavie dar shurokhoi umumijahoni muhimtarinash Nikey va Konstantinopol meboshand, ba tartib ovarda shudaand. Dar har yake az in shuroho in va yo on qoidai hayoti dini tasdiq gardidand. Kitohoi asosie, ki dar onho talimoti dini pravoslavi zikr yoftaand, “Kitobi muqaddas” va «Rivoyoti muqaddas» meboshand. Ba «Kitobi muqaddas» vahyi ilohi, kitobhoi ba paygambaron va havvoriyon taalluq doshta dokhil meshavand. Ba «Rivoyoti muqaddas» guftori ashkhosi muqaddas, ki ba digaron-naslhoi oyanda ahkomi din, ilohiyotro talim doda, chi guna ijro kardani rasmu oinhoi diniro meomuzand, dokhiland.

pravoslaviyaBaraksi talimoti protestantizm, ki «Kitobi muqaddas»-ro chandon ba etibor namegirad va katolisizm, ki onro nopurra medonad, pravoslavie har du in manbahoro barobar meshumorad. Homiyoni pravoslavi takid mekunand, ki sirri «Karomoti ilohiro» tanho hangomi in du manbaro yak jo istifoda burdan fahmidan mumkin ast va «rivoyoti muqaddas» baroi durust fahmidani «Kitobi muqaddas» ovarda shudaast. Muvofiqi talimoti ruhoniyon ruknho, nuqtahoi asosii har din dar etiqodnoma bayon yoftaand, ki hej guna isbot va burhonro talab namekunand.

Etikodnomai pravoslavi inchunin on nuqtahoe, ki dar shuroi Konstantinopol /soli 381/ qabul karda shudaand, hamchun etiqodnoma istifoda mekunand. Etiqodnoma, ki dar shuroi Konstantinopol qabul karda shudaast, az 12 qism iborat ast va in etiqod ba vujudiyati Hudo-padar, ki kholiki odam ast, sipas etiqod ba farzandi ilohi-Ison Maseh, ki az Maryami muqaddas tavallud yoftaast va dar davrai Pontiy Pilat kushta shud va ruzi seyum az nav zinda shuda ba osmon raftaast, etiqod ba Hudo-ruhi muqaddas (ruhu-l-quds), zaruriyati tamid, chipda gardonidan bad az mironidan va hayoti jovidonii badi marg va gayraro dar bar megirad. Az nazari faqehoni pravoslavi in arkoni din haqiqati ilohi meboshand va hej goh tagyir talaboti khiradi insonro qone mekunand. Dar okhiri asri H dar davrai hukmronii Vladimir Rus dini nasroniro qabul kard, ki nufuzi on qarib 100 sol pesh ogoz yofta bud.

Dini nasroni ba Rus dar sharoite pahn gardid, ki dinhoi qadimai slavyanho digar mavqei ustuvor nadoshtand. Mahz raviyai pravoslavi baroi on dar Rus pahn shuda bud, ki aloqahoi iqtisodi, siyosi madanii davlati Rusi Qadim bo Vizatiya -markazi in Kalisoi SHarqi, nisbat ba digar joyho ustuvor bud.

Seyum on shakl, ki dini nasroni dar Vizantiya dosht, diqqati knyazhoi Kievi Rusro ba jihati mute budani kaliso ba davlat jalb kard. Katolisizm khudro az davlat bolotar meguzosht. Seyum in ki faoliyati tabligotii kalisoi Vizantiya khele barvaqqtar nisbat ba digar raviyahoi dini ogoz yofta, vusati beshtare dosht.

CHorum in ki ibodathoi raviyai pravoslavi ba zaboni modari, na bo lotini misli katolisizm, baoguzor meshud, ki in ham diqqati knyazhoi buzurgi rusro ba khud nakashida nametavonist. Dini nasroni dar Rusi Qadim ba zudi pahn nashud, balki muddati ziyod lozim omad, ki az tarafi ommai mardum qabul shavad. Ibodathoi harruza, idhoi gunoguni dini, marosimho, ruza va gayra ba dindoron talimoti pravoslaviro takid menamoyad, onhoro vodor mesozand, ki doimo Hudo murojiat kunonand va bo kaliso dar irtiboti doimi qaror girand.

Miqdori umumii marosimhoi pravoslaviho ba 467 merasad, dar hududi 200 ruz boyad onho ruza dorand. Makhsusan, idhoi dini khele boshukuh az tarafi kalisohoi pravoslavi va dindoron qayd karda meshavand. Idi qadimi pravoslaviho va tamomi nasroniho idi ehyo meboshad, ki dar in ruz Isoi Maseh ba tavri mujizanok dubora zinda shudaast. Digar idi bisyor muhimi pravoslaviho paskha, ba qavli ahdi kaliso, «idi idho» ast.

Sipas, idhoi duvozdahgona, tavalludi modarkhudo, ba kaliso vorid shudani modar-khudo, tamidi Maseho, ba Baytulmukaddas omadani Hudo /panjoha/, ruzi modarkhudo va gayra.

Dar pravoslavie ruzhoe, ki ruza doshta meshavad va dindoron az khurokhoi gushti khuddori mekunand, niz ba nizom darovarda shudaast.

Ruzaho bisyorruza va yakruza hastand. Az jumlai ruzahoi bisyorruza ruzai akbar yo ruza, chilruza, ruza ba sharafi havvoriyon Petrus va Pavlus, ruza ba sharafi modarkhudo, ki ba taqvimi kuhna az I to 15 avgust davom mekunad. Ba ruzahoi yakruza ruzahoi chorshanbe va juma, ruzhoi azobu shikanja va favti Isoi Masseh va gayra ilova meshavand. Ba gayr az in dar pravoslavie marosimhoe hastand, ki dindoron dar onho marhamati ilohiro mebinand. In guna marosimho muqaddasoti haftgona nomida meshavand va az inho iboratand: 1/tamid, ki manoi vorid shudan ba kalisoro dorad, 2/ tadhin, ki shakhsi nav ba din voridshuda bo ravgan molida meshavad, 3/ ashoi rabboni-khurdani nonu sharobi kaliso, ki dindoronro ba Iso mepayvandad va ba haeti abadi sharik megardonad, 4/ etirof /etirofi gunohhoi kardashuda, 5/ qabuli silsilai muqaddas, ki baroi dar kaliso kor kardan huquq medihad, 6/ nikoh, ki baroi tavalludi kudaki haloli va tarbiyai onho dar ruhi nasoro huquq medihad, 7/ tadhini mayit (taqorub), ki dar holati

bemorii sakht ba niyati shifo niz onro ba kor mebarand.

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