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PESHNIHODI QARZ

Muqararoti umumi

Qarzhoro metavon ba tavri naqdi va gayri naqdi peshnihod kard.

 Ravandi  peshnihodi qarz

Peshnihodi  qarz ba tavri naqdi

Vositahoi qarzi az surathisobi qarzii qarzgiranda debet kunonida shuda ba hisobi pasandozi darkhostshavandai qarzgiranda kredit kunonida meshavand. Bad az hisobi pasandozi darkhostshavandai qarzgiranda tariqi khazina ba tavri naqdi doda meshavad.

qarz-peshnihodVositahoi puli naqd az jonibi kormandi khazina tanho ba dasti qarzgiranda doda meshavad. Pesh az on, ki kormandi khazina pulro dihad, boyad tavassuti muqoisa namudani malumotho va imzoi shinosnomai qarzgiranda, bo malumothoi bastai hujjathoi qarzi va namunai imzoi dar bonk mavjud buda, doir ba shakhsiyati qarzgiranda itminon hosil namoyad.

Eksperti qarzi boyad bovari hosil namoyad, ki vositahoi qarzi tanho bo maqsadi dar shartnoma peshbinishuda istifoda meshavand. Maqsadnok istifoda shudani qarz az jonibi eksperti qarzi metavonad, hangomi tashriforihoi sanjishi ba nazdi qarzgiranda, dar davrai to yak mohi bad az dodani qarz, taftish shavad.

Hamai hujjathoi pardokhti va hisobnoma – fakturaho, boyad dar bastai hujjathoi qarzi nigoh doshta shavand.

Peshnihodi qarz ba tavri gayrinaqdi

 Vositahoi qarzi az surathisobi qarzii qarzgiranda debet kunonida shuda ba hisobi pasandozi darkhostshavandai qarzgiranda kredit kunonida meshavand va az on ba surathisobi tahvildihandai mol bo suporishi qarzgiranda guzaronida meshavand. Qarzgiranda metavonad az chunin usuli hisobbarobarkuni, ba misli etibornoma (akkreditiv), ki hangomi guzaronidani amaliyothoi hisobbarobarkunii qarzgiranda bo tahvildihandai molash nihoyat samaranok ast, istifoda namoyad.

Qarz az ruzi guzaronidani qismi (transh) yakumi mablagi qarz, «dodashuda» hisobida meshavad.

Eksperti qarzii masul boyad favran, bad az one, ki mablagguzaroni surat girift, na dertar az hamon ruzi kori, ba qarzgiranda doir ba guzaronida shudani mablagi qarz khabar dihad.

Eksperti qarzii masul vazifador ast itminon hosil namoyad, ki hamai vositahoi qarzi muvofiqi talabothoi SHartnomai qarzi istfoda shuda istodaand. Boyad bovari hosil namud va hujjati tasdiq kard, ki vositahoi qarzi baroi on maqsadho istifoda meshavand, ki dar SHartnomai qarzi peshbini shudaand. Baroi in mumkin ast hisobnoma – fakturai tahvildihandagoni moli qarzgiranda talab karda shavad va vositahoi qarzi bad az peshnihod shudani chunin hisobnoma – faktura ba surathisobi tahvildihandagoni mol guzaronida shavad. In makhsusan ba qarzhoi kalon va qarzhoi investitsioni dakhl dorad. Eksperti qarzi durustii in surathisobho va muvofiqati onhoro bo sharthoi SHartnomai qarzi taftish namuda, dar asosi on doir ba mablagguzaronii  mazkur, qaror qabul menamoyad. Dar holati ba surathisobhoi tahvildihandagoni mol guzaronidani mablaghoi nisbatan kalon, boyad qarzgiranda bo peshnihod namudani hisobnoma – fakturahoi alohida, mablagguzaronihoi alohidaro tasdiq namoyad. Dilkhoh mablagguzaroniho az surathisobi qarzgiranda, bo suporishi rasmii u surat megirand.

Mablagi qarzi dastgiri yofta, boyad bo tashabbusi qarzgiranda ba surathisobi u dar davrai na dertar az 30 ruzi kori, bad az ba imzo rasidani SHarnoma qarzi guzaronida shavad. In boyad dar SHartnomai qarzi peshbini shuda boshad. Pas az ba okhir rasidani in muhlat, agar vositahoi qarzi tamoman girifta nashudaand (ba surathisobi qarzgiranda guzaronida nashudaand), SHartnomai qarzi metavonad qat karda shavad. Doir ba in masala, eksperti qarzi boyad Kumitai qarziro dar jalasai oyanda ogoh namoyad. Muvofiqi qoidahoi Nizomnomai mazkur, Kumitai qarzi doir ba tadbirhoi andeshidashavandai minbada, qaror qabul menamoyad.

Dar tuli 30 ruz eksperti qarzi boyad bo qarzgiranda ba aloqa baroyad va sharhi ba takhir aftodani dodani qarzro purson shavad. In malumot dar jalasai dakhldori Kumitai qarzi barrasi megardad.

 Dar parvandai qarzi boyad hamai hujjathoi pardokhti, chekhoi tahvildihi va hisobnoma – fakturho nigoh doshta shavand.

Qabl az dodani qarz, az mablagi asosii qarz tarh kardani hama guna mablaghoi khizmatrasoni (haqqi istifodai qarz, khizmatrasoni jihati baqaydgirii davlatii garavi qarz va sugurtai on, khizmatrasonii khazinavi), ki baroi muayyan namudani meyori foiz asos gardidaand, ba tashkilothoi qarzi man ast.

 Marhila ba marhila peshnihodi qarz

Agar qarz marhila ba marhila doda shavad, pas ba gayr az qoidahoi bonkii guzaronidani vositahoi qarzi, boz qoidahoi zerin istifoda meshavand:

a) Pesh az har yak mablagguzaronii nav, eksperti qarzi hangomi safarhoyash ba mahalli tijorat, boyad doir ba durust istifoda gardidani vositahoi qarzii qablan giriftashuda va az jonibi qarzgiranda rioya shudani hamai sozishhoi shartnomavi, itminon hosil namoyad.

b) Qismathoi navi qarz tanho on goh doda meshavand, ki agar qarzgiranda ba tavri doimi va daqiqkorona foizhoero, ki dar davrai imtiyoznok boyad pardokht karda shavand, bipardozad.

Agar rohi digar peshbini nashuda boshad, pas yakbora dodani in guna mablaghoi qarzi chunin surat megirand:

a) Davrai haddi aksari judo namudani marhilahoi minbadai qarz, naboyad az davrai muayyanshudai imtiyozi az rui qarz beshtar boshad.

b) Dar tuli davrai imtiyozi, boyad qarzgiranda foizhoi qarzro az rui marhilai avvala giriftaashro pardokht namoyad.

v) Pas az ba peshnihod shudani mablaghoi karzi az rui marhilaho tibqi tartiboti muayyanshuda Eksperti qarzi boyad naqshai navi pardokhti qarzro az rui baqiya mabagi umumii omoda namuda pardokhti onro nazorat barad.

g) Naqshai pardokht, dar asosi hajmi mablagi qarzi giriftashuda va muhlati ibtidoii tasdiqshuda, tayyor karda meshavad. Muvofiqan voridkuniho az rui qarz niz muayyan karda meshavand.

e) Boyad hamai sharthoi judo namudani qarz, ba qarori Kumitai qarzi mutobiqat kunand.

          Kumitai qarzi metavonad sharthoro oidi ba tavri alohida dodani har yak qismati qarz, tanho pas az jonibi Kumitai qarzi tasdiq gashtani dodani onho, qabul namoyad.

          Qarzhoe, ki muvofiqi shartnomai qarzi va naqshai pardokhti on baroi pardokht tarzi annuitet (yane foizi qarz bo yak qismi qarzi asosi) peshbini nashuda boshad, hududi bayni pardokht va peshnihodi takrorii qarz ba yak qarzgiranda ba muhlati na kam az 3 ruz muqarrar karda meshavad.

Taftishi hujjathoi qarzi

          Dar doirai Nizomnomai mazkur, dilkhoh qarzdihi metavonad tanho on goh amali shavad, ki agar shartnomahoi qarzi va garav, inchunin hujjatho purra va mukammal omoda shuda boshand va hamai talabothoi dar Paynavishti Kumitai qarzi darj gardida rioya shavand.

11.3.1. To peshnihodi qarz boyad sharthoi zerin rioya shavand:

a)  Purragi va mukammalii parvandai qarzi;

b) Muvofiqati hamai hujjathoi shartnomavi bo Paynavishti Kumitai qarzi va tartiboti amalkunanda, bo darnazardoshti digar shartho, agar chunin shartho etirof shuda boshand. Asosan in ba mablagi qarz, meyorhoi foizi, davrai voridkuniho, asor, muhlatho, taminoti garavi va digar shartho taalluq dorad;

v) Az jihati huquqi durust budan va salohiyatdor budani hamai hujjathoi dakhldor (shartnomahoi qarzi, shartnomahoi garav, shartnomai zamonati, maktubhoi kafolati) va ba tavri lozimi, mutobiq ba qonunguzorihoi Jumhurii Tojikiston barasmiyat darovardani hamai taminoti garavi;

g) Ba khazinai vohidi amaliyotii Bonk dodani hamai hujjathoi zaruri va / yo arzishhoe, ki ba taminoti garavi dakhl dorand;

d) Purra dokhil namudani hamai malumothoi dakhldor, ba Nizomi Bonkii Avtomatikunonidashudai Bonk.

Ba uhdadorihoi vazifavii eksperti qarzi ijro namudani hamai talabothoi dar bolo zikr shuda dokhil meshavand.

Pesh az on, ki eksperti qarzi dodani qarzro amali sozad, boyad ba Varaqai sanjishi imzo guzorad va onro dar bastai hujjathoi qarzi guzorad (Zamimai №17). Varaqai sanjishi az jonibi nazoratchi to lahzai dodani qarz taftish karda meshavad. Odatan naqshi nazoratchiro kormandi bek – ofisi vohidi amaliyotii Bonk, ki az rui faoliyati bakhshi korporativi nazorat mebarad, rohbar yo khud jonishini u, ijro menamoyad. To on vaqte, ki nazoratchi parvandai qarziro bo maqsadi muayyan namudani purragivu mukammali va durustii on taftish nakunad va bo rohi imzo guzoshtan ba Varaqai sanjishi javobi musbi nadihad, qarz doda nameshavad. Amali mazkur sanjishi okhirin – asosii pesh az dodani qarz meboshad, ki onro nihoyat muhim va zaruri megardonad.

Peshnihodi qarzhoi mutavozi (paralleli).

Peshnihodi qarzhoi mutavozi (paralleli) ba qarzdorone, ki qarzhoi amalkunanda dorand, tanho dar holati rioyai sharthoi shartnomai qarzii amalkunanda, ijroi sarivaqtii naqshai pardokhti qarz, doshtani iqtidori pardokhtpaziri va tarikhi khubi qarzi, na kam az shash moh istifodabarii mablagi qarzi judoshuda, pardokhti mablagi qarzi giriftashuda dar hajmi na kam az 50 % va peshnihod namudan ba sifati taminoti qarz garavi ustuvor mumkin meboshad.

Ba qarzgirandagone, ki dar nazdi Bonk uhdadorii qarzii amalkunanda dorand, sharthoi  shartnomai qarziro rioya namekunand, peshnihod namudani qarzhoi mutavozi qatiyan man ast.

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