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PARRANDAHO: TARTIBI ASAB, UZVHOI HOZIMA VA NAFASKASHII

Tartibi asabi parrandaho nisbat ba digar hayvonho inkishofyoftatarin buda, maynai sarashon az maynai sari khazanda kalon astu sathi on chuyakho dorad. Maynai parrandaho az qismhoi magzi cap, harommap va az asabhoi shokhronda iborat meboshad. Maynai parrandaho az qismhoi nimkurai peshi cap, maynai miyona, maynacha, maynai darozruya tashkil yoftaast. Maynai darozruya ba takhtapusht az bayni muhrakho meguzarad.

Rasmi 29. Dar rasm nul va panjai parrandagonro az nazar guzaroned. Hikoya kuned, ki in parrandagon chi tavr khurok mekhurand.
Rasmi 29. Dar rasm nul va panjai parrandagonro az nazar guzaroned. Hikoya kuned, ki in parrandagon chi tavr khurok mekhurand.

Raftori parrandaho az khazandaho bo lonasozi, tukhmpakhshkuny, chujakhoyashonri khurondan, mavsimi budan va gayra farq mekunad. Sokhti uzvi shunavoii parrandaho ba uzvi shunavoii khazandagon monand buda, gushi daruniyu mnyona dorand, ki az berun onro parhoi khurd pushidaand.

surat rasmi zog

Uzvi bui dar parrandaho sust inkishof yofta, uzvi binoiashon nagz inkishof yoftaast. Baroi purra dndan sebaki chashm harakatnok meboshad, ki on pesh az hama hangomi parvozashon zarur ast. Masalan, uqobe, ki dar boloi margzor khele baland parvoz karda istodaast, mushi dar alafzor davida istodaro mebinad.

Ba munosibati inkishof sftani nimkurakhoi maynai pesh odathoi sharti dar parrandaho nisbat ba khazandaho osontar ba vujud meoyad. Masalan, dar sahro hangomi zaminroni shurnulho jam meshavand, kishtzori nav, mavjudiyati khurok (kirmaki hasharot, kirmi loykhurak) onhoro vodor mekunad, ki barobari rondani traktor yo jufti gov parida biyoyand.

Arap sohibi parrandahoi khonagi bo dast khurok poshida «tu-tu» guyad, yo ki dastashro kholi afshonda, «tu-tu» guyad ham onho jam meshavand. Ba parrandagone, ki dar qafas nigoh doshta meshavand, az dast khurok khurdanro yod dihed, dar onho refleksi sharti hosil kardan oson ast.

Gayr az in nimkurahoi magzi cap parvozi parrandahoro ba tartib darovarda, kori azohoro idora mekunad. amaliyoti javobii parrandagonro ba tasire, ki az berun meoyad, nazorat va muvofiq megardonad. Misol, dar havly paydo shucho selai kabutarho yo tukhmi parranda, gunjishkho don khurda istodaand, baroi onho khavfi gayrichashmdosht meboshad. Hamai onho sarosema parvoz mekunand, Quvvai shunavoi dar parrandaho hayratangez ast. Parrandaho sadoi az hama pastro, ki az khatar ogoh mekunad. meshunavand. Masalan. ba tudai parrandahoi nishaega sangero havo dihem, sang ba zamin narasida parrandaho rohi gurezre pesh  megirand. Gayr az in parrandahoi tezchangoli shabgard saydro dar toriki bo yorii azoi shunavoi his karda, az payi on meshavand. Parrandahoi javon ba khonishi parrandahoi kalon taqlid karda, ba saroidan cap mekunand, ki baroi on na tanho quvvai shunavoii khub balki mahorati shunidanu farq kardani ovozhoro niz boyad dosht.

Umuman, aksariyati faoliyati parrandaho, ki ba nazari mo ajoib ast, khususnyati odatii (instinktivii) onho meboshad.

Tartibi khurokhazmkunii parrandagon yake az silsilahoi murakkab ba hisob meravad. Parrandagon chi qadar dar parvoz faol boshand, hamon qadar miqdori ziyodi khurokro talab mekunand. Huroki parrandagon boyad sergizo boshad. Azbaski parrandagon dandon nadorand, khurokro bo nulashon girifta yaklukht furu mebarand. Huroki khurdai onho az dahon ba halq, pas ba surkhrudai daroz meravad.

Hurok avval dar jigildon (qismi vasei surkhruda) jam meshavad va bo luhobi khurokhazmkuni omekhta shuda, bad ba qismi peshi meda dokhil meshavad. Devorhoi in qismi meda az galudhon khurokhazmkuni boy ast. Bad az in khurok ba qismi duyum, ki onro sangdon menomand, dokhil meshavad. Huroki sakht dar in jo bayni khud soish khurda, mayda meshavad va tavassuti surokhie ba rudai borik guzashta on jo khurok tamoman hazm meshavad. Pas az rudai borik ba rudan gafs guzashta, boqimondai nolozimash ba maqad rafta, khorij meshavad.

Dar bayni rudai borik va rudai gafs rastaki rudai sarbasta (kurruda) hast, ki in chizro dar muhradoron bori avval mushohida mekunem. Mubodilai moddakho dar parrandaho tez meguzarad. Binobar in jugz yak mushro khurda, dar chor soat hazm mekunad. Faroshturuk ba gurusnagi az yak ruz ziyod toqat nadorad.

Lonai parramdagoni gunogun.
Lonai parramdagoni gunogun.

Azoi nafaskashii parrandaho shush buda, dar kovokii qafasi sina jo giriftaast va zohiran jismi isfanjmonandi gulobirang ast. Sokhtash az sokhti shushi obkhokiho murakkabtar ast va khun oksigenro az shush bisyortar girifta. ba ivazi on gazi karbonatro beshtar khorij mekunad. Havo az berun bo rohi dahonu bini ba khirnoy rafta, ba du bronkhiya (pallahoi shush), ki dar navbati khud, bronkhiya ba bronkhiola va bronkhiola boshad ba alveolaho (pufak yo katakhoi-khaltachakhoi havoin shush) taqsim meshavand, meguzarad. Gayr az in ba shush khaltai havoi payvast ast.

Havoi shushi parrandagon dar rafti nafaskashiyu nafasbarori digar meshavad, yane vaqti nafasbarori havoe, ki dar khaltahoi havoi mavjud ast, avval ba daruni shush daromada, bad ba berun mebaroyad. In hodisa baroi tamini badani parrandaho bo oksigen hangomi parvoz ahamiyati kalon dorad.

Parrandaho dar poyoni halkashon 2-7 bandakhoi ovoz dorand va az jihati ovozbarori ba du guruh chudo meshavand:

  1. Parrandahon kharkhelaovoz (ashulachiho). Misol, gunjishk, bulbul, saba, kabk…
  2. Parrandahon yakkhelaovoz. Misol: zog, akka, jugz va gayraho.

Dili parrandaho ba chor hujra taqsim meshavad. Dar nimai chapi dil medachai chapu dahlezi chap va dar tarafi rost medachai rostu dahlezi rost joygirand, ki dar bayni har yaki onho sarpushakkho hastand. Ba nimai chapi dil khuni arteriali va ba nimai rosti on khuni venagi merezad.

Dar parrandagon ham monandi obkhokiyu khazandaho du doirai gardishi khun hast. Doirai kaloni gardishi khun az medachai chap baromada, ba vositai arteriyakho ba tamomi badan pahn meshavad. Huni venai az gazi karbonat ser ba vositai sharyonho (venaho) ba dahlezi rosti dil rekhta, pas ba medachai rosti dil meguzarad. Dar shush ivazshavin gazho ba amal msoyad. SHaryonhoi shush khuni seroksigenro ba dakhlezi chapi dil mebarand. Hun az in jo ba medachai chap va raghoi doirai kaloni gardishi khun meguzarad.

Hamin tariq, khuni sharyonho bo khuni arteriyaho dar yagon cho omekhta nameshavad. Huni parrandaho nisbat ba khuni khazandaho tozayu seroksigen meboshad. Parrandaho hayvoni garmkhunand. In ast, ki harorati badani parrandaho hatto az harorati badani shirkhurkho balandtar (42-43 to +45) meshavad.

Uzvi ikhroji parrandaho yak juft gurda meboshad, ki dar qismi aqibi tan az du tarafi aqibi sutunmuhra joy giriftaand. Az gurdaho nayi peshobravi ba maqad roh dorad.

Parrandaho judojinsa meboshand. Har parranda yak chuft gadudhoi jinsi dorad. Masalan. dar nasli modina gadudhoi tukhmakkuni hast. Tukhmakhoi tayyorshuda khajman az hamdigar khurd buda, rangi zard dorandu holo jild nadorand. On tukhmakho az gadud judo shuda, bo navbat ba kovokii badan meguzarandu jildi ohaki paydo karda, bo naychai tukhmakbaror ba makad omada, khorij meshavavd. Dar vaqti inkishofi janinii tukhm az naychai tarafi chap puchoqi tukhm khosil meshavad.

Tukhmdon bo yakjoyagii tukhmho dar davrai afzoish ba yak khushai kaloni angur monand ast. Parrandaho sertukhm boshand ham, yaktoy tukhm mezoyand. Lekin tukhmho az ruyn sokht va khajm chunon joygirand, ki tukhmi poyonni imruz khorijshavanda nisbat ba tukhmhoi ruzhoi digar khorijshavanda kalontar ast.

Ravandi on hangomi az tukhmdon baromadani huchayrai tukhm to tukhmguzori dar lona qarib 40 soat davom mekunad.

Tukhmi parrandaho az jihati khachm, rang va shakl farq karda, az jikhati sokhtu tarkib monandii umumi dorand. Hamai onho az berun pustpardai sakhti ohaki, pardai shaffofi bolon safeda, kamerai havoy, moddai safeda (moei shaffof), moddai zardi, dar markaz boshad janini embrion dorand. Pardai ohaki to 7 hazor surokhihoi ba nazar noayon dorad, ki on masoma nom doshta, to embrion meravad. Mavsimi afzoishi parrandaho vobasta ba sharoit gunogun ast. Masalan, parrandahoi khonagi, az chumla murg metavonad, ki tamomi sol tukhm guzorad. Ammo parramdahoi yoboi dar yak muddati muayyan tukhm meguzorand. Misol, shurnulho avvali bahor bad az parida omadan ba tamiri lonai kukhna e ba sokhtani lonai nav shuru mekunand. Onho guruh-guruh shuda, dar boloi shokhahoi zichi darakhtoni baland lona mesozand. Har yak guruh bsshtar az 100 lonai ba hamdigar nazdik mesozad. Beshtar lonaashonro dar nazdikii istiqomatgohho dar har joe, ki khurok bisyor ast mesozand. SHurnul khimchaho va shokhchahoro bo nuli baquvvatash shikasta, lonai sabatchamonand-mesozad. Dar mavsimi lonasozi tamomi ruz shavqun va qar-qari parrandaho shunida meshavad.

Mohi aprel tukhmguzori cap meshavad. Rangi tukhmi shurnul sabztob buda, doghoi surkhi baland dorad, ki in alomati noayonii tukhmho buda, khususiyati muhofizati dorad. SHurnuli molina 4-5 tukhm guzoshta, pakhsh mekunad. Az tasiri garmie, ki az badani parranda mebaroyad, dar tukhm embrion inkishof meyobad. Embrion az hisobi moddakhoi zardiyu safeda inkishof yofta, az hisobi oksigeni havo, az surokhihoi pustlokhi tukhm meguzarad va az hujrai (kamerai) havoii tukhm nafas mekashad. Embrion yakbora ba chuja monand nameshavad. Avval vay ba khazanda monand shuda, dumi daroz, poyhoi peshu aqib va jog dorad, ki in kheshigarii parrandahoro bo khazandaho nishon medihal. Embrioni parrandaho dar davrai avvali inkishof tarkishhoi galsama dorand, ki in nishonai ajdodi guzashtagoni parrandaho va khazandahoro ifoda mekunad.

Bad az 17-18 ruz az tukhmho chuchaho mebaroyand, ki holo parida nametavonand. Padaru modar ba chujaho khurokvori (asosan hasharot va kirminahoi onhoro) ovarda, ba dahoni vase kushodai onho meandozand. Misol, kabutarho dar shahrho muqimiand, zimiston ba joe parida nameravand.

Kabutari narina va modina juft shuda, tamomi umr zindagi mekunand. Bahoron, khatto dar mohi fevral kabutari narina bo ovozi baland gur-gur karda, dar atrofi kabutari modina megardad va parhoi dumashro pakhn karda davr mezanad. Dar avvali mohi mart jufti kabutari narina va modina dar tarqishhoi labi bom, dar tarnovho yo dar bolokhonaho az shokhchahoi khushki borik yakchoya lona mesozand. Kabutari modina khamagi 2 tukhm meguzorad, ki puchokash safedi tunuk ast. Narinayu modina bo navbat tukhmro garm mekunand. Bazan tukhmhoro tagu ru megardonand, to ki barobar garm shavand. Pas az 17 ruzi tukhmpakhshkuni chujaho az tukhm mebaroyand, ki bo muychahoi zard, pilki chashmhoyashon bo pust pushida shudaand. Padaru modar chujahoro dar davomi yak hafta garm mekunand va qarib 25 ruz ba onho az jigildonashon shavlai nimhazm kardaashonro mekhuronand. Kabutarhoi rom kardashuda dar davomi yak sol 3-4 bor tukhm monda, chuja mebarorand.

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